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JANUARY  — DECEMBER,     1901. 

_^C:?C/  .  c?  y^-<. 






ponthlii  louiiital  of  (^hU%^'- 





HENRY  WOODWARD,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.Z.S.,  F.R.M.S., 












AND       OF      THE       MALACOLOGICAL 



ROBERT  ETHERIDGE,  F.R.S.  L.  &  E.,  F.G.S.,  F.C.S.,  &c. 

WILFRID  H.  HUDLESTON,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.C.S. 

GEORGE  J.  HINDE,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  &c. 



NEAV    SERIES.      DECj»lDE    TV.     VOL.    "VIII. 


MESSRS.    DULAU    &    CO.,    37,    SOHO    SQUARE,    W. 






I.     "Wenlock  Limestone  Trilobites 5 

II.     Geological  Views  in  Central  France 60 

III.     Geological  Views  in  Central  France 62 

IV.     Geological  Views  in  Central  France 64 

V.    Portrait  of  Professor  Lapworth,LL.D.,  F.R.S 289 

VI.     Lake  Louise  and  Mirror  Lake 97 

VII.     Ordovician  and  Silurian  Fossils 110 

VIII.     Cirripedes  and  Trilobites 145 

IX.  Diagram  to  illustrate  Periodic  Oscillations  of  Sea-level       .     .     .     .  172 

X.  Pine-board  and  Oak  Eroded  by  Sand-blast  of  the  Shore     ....  193 

XI.     Gasteropoda,  Wenlock  Limestone,  Dudley 249 

XII.    Cretaceous  Crustacea  from  Faxe,  Denmark 501 

XIII.     Portrait  of  Dr.  Gustaf  Lindstrom 333 

XIV.  Portrait  of  the  Rev.  Professor  Bonney,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. ,  etc.  385 

XV.     Silurian  Gasteropoda 355 

XVI.     Siberian  Anthracomyce,  etc 436 

XVII.     Devonian  Fossils,  Lynton 539 

XVIII.     Devonian  Fossils,  Torquay 540' 

10  a 




Impressions  of  Echinoderms  in  Triassic  Sandstones 3 

Photograph  of  the  Bottom  of  a  Flask  containing  Spherulitic  Structure  ...  15 

Belitmras  kiltorhensis 53 

Wing  of  Fouqnca  cmnhrcHsis  from  the  Coal-measures 66 

Bone  Needle  from  Cave  on  the  River  Wye 103 

Skull  of  Ochotona  [Lagomys)  pHsillus  from  Cave  on  the  River  Wye    .     .     .     .  104 

Skull  of  Bicrostonyx  {Myocles)  torquatus  from  Cave  on  the  River  Wye    .     .     .  104 

Upper  Molars  of  Bicrostonyx  [Myodes)  torquatus  from  Cave  on  the  River  Wye  104 

Lower  Molars  of  Bicrostonyx  {Myodes)  torquatus  from  Cave  on  the  River  Wye  104 
Lower  and  Upper  Molars  of  Lemmus  {Myodes)   lemmus  from  Cave  on  the 

River  Wye 104 

Neolithic  Implement  from  Tras,  Pahang,  Malay  Peninsula 134 

FoUicipes polymerus,  G.  B.  Sowerby 147 

■Catophragmns  polymer  us,  Darwin 147 

Brachylepas  cretacea,  H.  Woodw.,  gen.  nov 149 

Black  Shale  with  Biplograptus  from  Carabaya,  Peru 195 

Arms  of  the  Royal  Hammerers 288 

Estheria  anomala,  T.  R.  Jones,  sp.  nov 353 

Diagram  of  Area  of  Earthquake  of  September  22,  1900 360 

Map  of  Lake  District  of  Central  Africa 363 

Map  of  Lake  Tanganyika 366 

Diagram  to  illustrate  lines  of  Volcanic  Action 367 

Diagram- Section  on  the  East  side  of  Ruwenzori 368 

Left  Ramus  of  Mandible  of  Palceomastodon  BeadnelU,  Andrews 401 

Dentition  of  Mosritherium  Zyonsi,  Andrews 404 

Mandible  and  Lower  Teeth  of  Bradytherium  grave,  Andrews 406 

Left  Upper  Cheek-teeth  of  Bradytherium  grave,  Andrews 408 

Fleurotoma  prisca,  Solander,  sp 410 

Diagram- Section  illustrating  Limburgite 413 

Diagram- Section  illustrating  Limburgite 416 

Vertebrae  of  Gigantophis  Garstini,  Andrews 437 

Vertebra  of  Mwriophis  Schweinfurthi,  Andrews 439 

Left  Humerus  of  Psephophorus  eocesnus,  Andrews 441 

SkuU  and  Mandible  of  Stereogenys  Cromeri,  Andrews 443 

Diagram  of  Divisions  of  Carapace  in  a  Brachyuran  Decapod  Crustacean      .     .  491 

Encrusted  Block  in  the  Ecca  Shale,  Ladysmith,  Natal 550 

Relative  Position  of  Travelled  Blocks,  Ladysmith 551 

Sigmoidal  Folding  in  Devonian  Rocks,  Hele  Bay,  Ilfracombe 553 

Strabops  Fletcheri,  Beecher  ;  Cambrian,  Missouri 562 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 
No.   I.— JANUARY,   1901. 

o:EiXG-Ti<rj^Xj    JLT^TIC^LES. 

L — Note  on  the  Structure  of  Sarsens. 

By  rrofessor  J.  W.  Judd,  C.B.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  V.r.G.S.,  etc. 

[^Introductory  Note. — After  the  publication  of  my  paper  on  the 
Sarsens,  or  Sarsen  Stones,  in  the  Wiltshire  Archifiological  and 
Natural  History  Society's  Magazine,  vol.  xxiii  (188G),  pp.  122-154, 
many  friendly  communications  gave  me  further  information  on  the 
subject,  and  additional  references  to  published  facts  and  opinions. 
From  this  correspondence,  and  my  own  notes  made  in  the  countr}', 
I  propose  to  utilize  much  that  seems  to  be  of  interest.  The  most 
important  of  these  additions  to  our  knowledge  of  the  Sarsens  is  the 
following  memoir  on  their  constitution  and  structure  by  my  fi-iend 
Prof.  Dr.  J.  W.  Judd,  C.B.,  F.R.S.,  etc.,  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Science,  who  most  obligingly  examined  with  care  the  microscopical 
structure  of  manj'  specimens  from  authenticated  localities.  With 
his  kind  pex'mission  this  valuable  communication  (dated  March  9th, 
1888)  is  here  printed. — T.  Eupert  Jones.] 

THE  microscopic  examination  of  a  series  of  thin  sections,  cut 
from  the  Sarsens,  shows  that  their  minute  structure  varies  as 
strikingly  as  does  the  appearance  of  their  fractured  surfaces. 
Microscopically,  the  Sarsens  are  seen  to  be  made  up  of  two  kinds 
of  materials,  clastic  fragments  of  crystalline  minerals  and  a  cement 
(base  or  matrix)  of  a  microcrystalline  or  cryptocrystalline  character. 
The  relative  proportion  of  these  two  constituents  varies  very  widely 
in  different  cases. 

The  Sarsens  with  saccharoid  fracture  stand  at  one  end  of  the 
series.  An  admirable  example  from  Camberley,  North  Surrey,  is 
seen  to  be  almost  wholly  made  up  of  sand  grains,  with  very  little  in 
the  way  of  cement  visible.  Much  of  the  cementing  material  in  this 
rock  is  ferruginous,  and  the  rock  is  more  incoherent  than  is  the  case 
with  most  Sarsens. 

At  the  other  end  of  the  series  stand  the  Sai'sens  exhibiting 
a  fracture  resembling  that  of  some  cherts.  Under  the  microscope 
the  greater  part  of  their  mass  is  seen  to  be  made  up  of  excessively 
minute   and    imperfectly   developed    quartz,   microlites,    and    these 

I)EC.\UE    IV. — VOL.  VIII.— NO.  I.  I 

2  Professor  J.  W.  Judd — Structure  of  Sarsens. 

occasionally  exhibit  a  tendency  to  the  spherulitic  arrangement. 
A  beautiful  example  of  this  kind  of  Sarsen  is  one  from  Poxwell 
Eing,  near  Dorchester.  In  this  case  the  original  sand  grains  seem 
to  have  almost  wholly  disappeared,  and  an  aggregate  of  grains  of 
secondary  quartz  has  been  formed,  which  crystallize  out  freely 
on  the  sides  of  cavities.  In  parts,  the  section  shows  admirable 
spherulitic  structure,  and  the  iron-oxides  have  separated  into  small 
globular  masses.  The  appearances  exhibited,  are  strikingly  like 
those  of  some  flints  with  highly  crystalline  structure. 

All  the  other  sections  examined  show  the  detrital  crystalline 
particles  enveloped  in  more  or  less  of  the  fine-grained  secondary 
matrix.  The  detrital  grains  consist  mainly  of  quartz.  By  far  the 
greater  part  of  these  quartz  grains  exhibit  the  bands  of  liquid 
cavities  so  characteristic  of  the  quartz  of  granites  and  gneisses  ; 
corroded  quartz  grains  with  glass  or  stone  cavities,  evidently  derived 
from  quartz-felsites,  occur,  but  are  much  less  rare,  as  are  also  the 
polysynthetic  grains,  some  of  which  may  have  been  derived  from 
schistose  rocks.  With  the  quartz  grains  are  a  few  unmistakable 
particles  of  flint,  but  these  are  never  numerous.  Felspars  and  other 
minerals  are  usually  rare.  Sometimes  the  grains  appear  to  be  well 
rounded,  and  at  other  times  they  seem  perfectly  angular;  but  it  is 
probable  that  in  all  cases  a  considerable  amount  of  corrosion  of  the 
surfaces  of  the  grains  has  taken  place.  Only  in  one  or  two  doubtful 
cases  have  I  seen  what  could  be  taken  as  a  deposition  of  secondary 
silica  upon,  and  in  optical  continuity  with,  the  detrital  quartz. 

In  a  specimen  from  the  valley  of  the  Kennet  (Enborne  Lodge 
gravel-pit)  we  have  perfectly  angular  quartz  grains  embedded  in 
a  nearly  compact  cement — one  which  can  be  resolved  only  under 
very  high  microscopic  power. 

A  very  remarkable  variety  of  Sarsen  is  one  from  Staple-Fitzpaine, 
about  10  miles  west  of  Taunton.  In  this  rock  the  grains  are  much 
larger  than  in  any  other  Sarsen  that  I  have  examined  ;  they  are 
markedly  angular,  and  though  quartz  grains  form  a  majority  of  the 
whole,  yet  felspars  and  other  minerals  occur  much  more  usually 
than  in  the  other  specimens  examined.  If  this  should  be  found 
to  be  the  rule  with  Sarsens  from  the  most  westerly  localities,  it 
would  indicate  that  the  granitic  and  metamorphic  rocks  which 
yielded  the  materials  of  which  they  are  composed  lay  to  the  west 
of  the  London  Basin. 

[In  a  subsequent  letter  (February  27th,  1S89)  Professor  Judd 
states  that  this  "  specimen  from  Staple-Fitzpaine  has  a  fragment  of 
whitened  flint  in  it.  The  microscopic  characters  of  which  are 
unmistakably  those  of  a  silicified  Chalk-mud  full  of  fragments  of 

The  cement  of  the  flint-conglomerate  of  Hertfordshire  consists  of 
quartz  grains,  with  a  few  grains  of  flint,  embedded  in  a  crypto- 
crystalline  siliceous  groundmass.  There  is  no  very  striking 
resemblance  between  the  cement  of  this  conglomerate  and  that  of 
any  of  the  Sarsens  which  I  have  examined. 

Professor  R.  Burckhanlt — Triassie  Stcaifishes.  3 

IT. — Note  on  certain  Ijipressions  of  Echinoder^is  observed  on 
THE   Sandstone   Slabs  in  which  the  Skeletons  of  HyperO' 

iBy  Prof.  Rudolf  Bukckhaiidt,  rii.D.,  of  the  University  of  Basel,  Switzerland. 

WHEX  searching  for  traces  of  the  dermal  structure  preserved 
in  the  specimen  of  Eyperodapedon  in  the  British  Museum 
(Natural  History)  in  London/  my  attention  was  drawn  to  certain 
spots  where  the  matrix  showed  projections  and  pits  of  a  polygonal 
shape,  whicli  I  detected  when  I  took  the  photographs  of  this  Triassie 
reptile.  Primarily  occupying  myself  with  the  matrix  of  the  principal 
slab,  in  which  the  skeleton  is  enclosed,  I  quite  thought  I  had  only 
to  deal  with  dermal  structures  similar  to  those  discovered  in 

One  of  these  spots,  lying  between  the  ninth  and  tenth  ribs  of  the 
left  side,  particularly  attracted  my  attention.  This  I  was  at  first 
inclined  to  regard  as  a  dermal  ossification,  the  pentagonal  chai'acter 
of  which  was  unquestionable.  On  closer  insj^ection  I  found, 
however,  the  whole  of  the  matrix  densely  covered  with  similar 
structures,  a  circumstance  which  became  still  more  perplexing  in 
proportion  as  I  discovered  their  immense  numbers,  which  were 
equally  abundant  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  body,  and  also 
in  the  matrix  of  the  counterpart  which  had  not  been  touched  by  the 
chisel.  The  matrix  of  the  Ehynchosaurian  fossils  from  Warwickshire 
also  showed  the  same  character ;  indeed,  I  found  some  on  these  slabs 
in  even  better  condition  of  preservation. 

^  ,^ .  -     7     <       '^       ^ 


Prints  of  EdurnHkun^  \n  tlie  Tru^-iL  S  iml-t>me^  dI  Win\itk--hne  and  Elgin. 
From  a  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History),     x  3. 

Actual  petrefactions  they  were  not,  but  simply  the  hollow 
impressions  leaving  a  film  behind,  between  the  coarse  grains  of  the 
sand.  In  size  they  vary  between  3  mm.  and  3  cm.  in  diameter. 
The  matrix  is  crowded  with  these  bodies,  which  are  deposited  over 
each  other,  all  of  them  lying  in  the  same  plane  as  the  skeleton  of 

^  See  "  On  H>/pcrod<'pcdon  Gordoni  "  :  Geol.  Mag.,  1900,  Nov.  and  Doc. 

4  Professor  R.  Burchhardf — Triassic  Starfishes. 

Hyperodtqjedon.  Those  facing  the  observer  with  their  upper  sides- 
have  left  teat-like  i^rojections  in  the  stone ;  others  appear  as  funnel- 
shaped  depressions  made  by  a  massive  bod}'. 

In  shape  they  are  star-like  pentagons,  of  about  the  same  form 
as  the  bodies  of  Euryalidje. 

In  diagonal  opposition  to  the  main  portion  of  the  star-shapecT 
bed  lies  a  small  pentagonal  plate  consisting  of  five  parts,  whicb 
radiate  from  a  central  piece.  I  believe  I  have  also  detected  some 
radiating  stride  on  the  outer  pentagon  in  a  few  exceptionally  well- 
preserved  examples,  as  well  as  some  finer  strife,  skirting  the  margin' 
of  the  extreme  pentagonal  radially,  where  they  arrange  themselves- 
in  regular  order.  Besides  these  pentagons  I  noticed  some  series  of 
smaller  segments  of  about  ^  ram.,  which  to  tlie  number  of  six  unite 
with  each  other,  though  rarely  more,  in  which  latter  case  they  are 
very  difficult  of  detection. 

The  conclusions  I  have  ai'rived  at  as  to  these  structures,  and  ta 
which  I  give  expression  quite  reservedly  to  specialists  engaged  in. 
this  branch  of  geology,  are  as  follows  : — 

These  pentagonal  forms  are  empty  caverns  left  by  Echinoderms- 
of  a  Eurylaid  shape,  having  peripheral  arms,  either  simple  or 
forked.  To  whatever  group  of  Echinoderms  they  may  belong  will 
be  a  matter  of  investigation  by  specialists.  Under  no  circumstances 
are  they  parts  of  ITyperodapedon.  The  two  pentagonal  sets  of  which 
they  are  composed,  together  with  their  projecting  limbs,  are  forms- 
which  do  not  resemble  any  other  type  of  the  classes  of  invertebrates. 
In  favour  also  of  this  inference  is  their  enormous  quantity  and  the 
great  diversity  in  their  sizes.  The  extreme  delicacy  of  these 
impressions  is  probably  the  reason  why  my  examination  of  the 
slabs  did  not  yield  a  better  result,  as  might  have  been  the  case  if  the 
stones  had  been  more  recently  quarried  or  specially  prepared  for  this- 

That  no  remains  of  their  external  skeletons  are  preserved,  is  in> 
no  way  detrimental  to  this  hypothesis,  as  a  corollary  to  this  is  found 
in  the  case  of  those  hollows  left  by  Elgin  reptiles,  which  E.  T. 
Newton  so  admirably  described  from  casts  taken  from  their  natural 
moulds.  No  other  fossils  having  been  found  in  these  localities  except 
reptiles,  is  also  an  argument  in  favour  of  such  an  interpretation  as 
the  above. 

From  a  like  presence  of  these  casts  in  both  localities,  the  Elgin 
sandstones,  which  Smith  Woodward  quotes  as  "  supposed  Trias." 
should  be  of  the  same  age  as  the  sandstones  belonging  to  the  Upper 
Triassic  of  Warwickshire  and  Shropshire. 

Interesting  as  may  be  the  task  of  pursuing  this  highly  attractive 
geological  question,  it  is  a  matter  of  real  regret  that  I  am  compelled 
to  deny  myself  the  pleasure  of  conducting  the  investigation  of  this 
subject  further.  I  must  confine  myself  here  to  the  statement  only, 
that  I  have  good  reason  for  believing  that  I  have  observed  similar 
petrefactions  of  organic  origin  in  some  rather  imperfect  fragments 
from  the  Maleri  deposits  in  India. 


Decade  lVYolMII.Pl.1 




2  A  Vl2 

4  -aZVz 

6   ^2 

G.M.Wbodwa-r3  dele  tilth,  West.Newnianimp. 

Wenlock  Limes  bone  Trilo"bites. 

F.  R.  Cowper  Reed —  Undcscribed  TrUohites.  5 


Species.     II. 

By  F.  11.  CowPER  Reed,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

(PLATE  I.) 

LiCHAS  scuTALis,  Saltei*.     (PI.  I,  Figs.  1-4.) 

1873.     Llchas  smfalis,  Salter  MSS. :    Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Wooclw.  Mm.,  p.  130 
(«  9.54). 

1877.  L'ichas  vcrrHCosus,  Woodward  :  Cat.  Brit.  Foss.  Cnist.,  p.  43. 

1878.  lAchas  sciitalis,  Edu'ell  MSS. :  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Miis.  Tract.  Geo!.,  p.  84. 
1891.     Llchas  vcrrxcosKs,  Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  147. 

rilHERE  are  three  specimens  of  this  species  in  the  Woodwarfliaa 
X  Museum,  viz.  :  (1)  Salter's  fine  original  specimen  (a  954)  from 
"the  Wenlock  Shale  of  Malvern,  belonging  to  the  first  part  of  the 
Fletcher  Collection,  acquired  prior  to  1873;  (2)  a  poor  .specimen 
probably  from  the  same  collection  and  horizon,  locality  unknown  ; 
and  (3)  an  almost  perfect  specimen,  also  from  the  Wenlock  Shale 
of  Malvern,  belonging  to  that  part  of  the  Fletcher  Collection 
recently  presented  by  Mrs.  Fletcher.  Tliis  specimen  will  be 
designated  the  Fletcher  specimen  in  distinction  to  Salter's  original 
specimen.  Both  these  specimens  show  almost  the  whole  trilobite 
preserved  in  excellent  condition,  and  from  them  the  following 
ilescription  has  been  drawn  up. 

Diagnosis. — Head-shield  broadly  parabolic,  nearly  twice  as  broad 
as  long,  and  slightly  produced  backwards  at  genal  angles  ;  strongly 
convex  from  back  to  front  and  from  side  to  side,  slightly  flattened 
between  the  eyes  across  the  middle  portion  of  the  posterior  half; 
anterior  half  of  head-shield  bent  down  very  steeply  to  margin, 
almost  at  a  right  angle  to  posterior  lialf ;  sides  bent  down  as  steeply 
in  front,  but  less  steeply  towards  genal  angles,  where  they  flatten  out. 

Glabella  wide,  occupying  nearly  whole  middle  third  of  head- 
shield  ;  forms  most  elevated  portion  of  head-shield,  but  is  not 
swollen  nor  raised  with  independent  convexity  above  fixed  cheeks. 
Median  lobe  much  expanded  in  front,  its  narrow  laterally-projecting 
tongues  overlapping  anterior  lateral  lobes ;  constricted  strongly  at 
level  of  anterior  lateral  furrow,  behind  which  it  gradually  decreases 
in  width  with  nearly  straight  sides  to  the  base  of  anterior  lateral 
lobes,  where  it  again  expands  a  little.  Behind  this  point  the  median 
lobe  is  only  weakly  marked  off  from  the  two  pairs  of  posterior 
lateral  lobes,  but  is  traceable  in  the  Fletcher  specimen  to  the 
straight  occipital  furrow,  where  it  has  nearly  double  the  width  it 
possessed  between  the  anterior  lateral  lobes. 

Anterior  lateral  lobes  large,  of  broadly  oval  shape,  rather  wider 
in  front  than  behind,  where  the  furrow  which  defines  them  is  very 
faint.  They  extend  about  two-thirds  the  whole  length  of  the 
glabella  with  their  longer  axes  obliquely  directed  inwards,  and 
with  a  gentle  convexity  of  their  own,  bending  down  strongly  in 
front  with  the  median  lobe  and  at  the  sides  with  the  general 
curvature  of  the  head-shield.     In  front  they  are  separated  from  the 

6  F.  R.  Coiqwr  Reed —  Undescribed  Trilohitcs. 

marginal  furrow  of  the  Lead-shield  by  the  lateral  projections  of  the 
median  lobe. 

Middle  lateral  lobes  subquadrate  in  shape,  small  and  indistinctly 
defined,  being  marked  off  in  front  from  the  anterior  lobes  by  a  very 
faint  depression  sweeping  round  the  hinder  end  of  the  latter  lobes 
and  representing  the  middle  lateral  furrows.  They  are  still  more 
indistinctly  marked  oif  posteriorly  from  the  basal  lobes  by  weak 
grooves,  while  their  outer  sides  are  defined  by  the  faint  axal  furrows 
and  their  inner  sides  by  the  continuation  of  the  anterior  lateral 
furrows  to  the  occipital  segment. 

Basal  lobes  likewise  weakly  marked  off  from  the  rest  of  the 
glabella  and  fixed  cheeks,  but  relatively  large,  being  nearly  the  size 
of  the  middle  lobes  ;  subrhomboidal  rather  than  triangular  in  shape. 
owing  to  the  basal  (posterior  lateral)  furrow  starting,  not  from  the 
level  of  the  occipital  furrow  but  a  little  way  in  advance  of  it. 
The  posterior  side  of  the  basal  lobes  is  marked  off  from  the  occipital 
segment  by  the  strong  deep  occipital  furrow. 

Occipital  ring  flattened  and  very  broad  in  the  middle  behind  the 
straight  portion  of  the  occipital  furrow  at  the  base  of  the  median 
lobe  of  the  glabella,  but  with  its  lateral  portions  only  about  half 
the  width,  and  bent  backwards  behind  the  basal  lobes. 

Axal  furrows  strongly  marked  only  along  the  outer  side  of  the 
anterior  end  of  the  anterior  lateral  lobes,  being  posteriorly  very 
weak,  as  above  mentioned.  Behind  the  jDoint  where  they  pass  into 
the  marginal  furrow  which  bounds  the  glabella  in  front  they  arch 
outwards,  curving  round  inwards  posteriorly  as  they  define  the 
anterior  lateral  lobes,  to  the  base  of  which  they  nearly  extend  with 
a  deeply  impressed  course.  Here  the  middle  lateral  furrows  pass 
imperceptibly  into  them.  Behind  this  point  the  axal  furrows 
become  very  weak,  and  curve  outwards  along  the  outer  side  of  the 
middle  and  basal  lobes  to  end  in  the  occipital  furrow. 

Anterior  lateral  furrows  arise  far  forwards,  curving  round  the  broad 
anterior  end  of  the  anterior  lateral  lobes,  and  then  run  with  nearly 
a  straight  course  backwards  along  the  inner  side  of  these  lobes, 
slightly  converging.  At  the  posterior  end  of  the  latter  each  furrow 
bends  a  little  outwards  to  end  in  a  small  pit  from  which  the  middle 
furrow  starts.  About  half-way  along  the  inner  side  of  these  anterior 
lobes  there  is  a  slight  outward  kink  in  these  anterior  furrows,  from 
which  a  faint  groove  runs  outwai'ds  a  little  distance  across  the  lobe, 
such  as  has  been  noticed  in  Lichas  ornatiis  (Angelin),^  Lichas 
anglicus  (Beyr.),  and  other  species.  Behind  the  pits  at  the  base  of 
the  anterior  lobes  the  anterior  lateral  furrows  are  traceable  as  faint 
slightly  divergent  grooves  (especially  clear  in  the  Fletcher  specimen),, 
which  finally  meet  the  occipital  furrow  at  the  inner  posterior  angle 
of  the  basal  lobes. 

Middle  lateral  furrows  weak  and  short,  starting  from  the  pit  on 
the  anterior  furrows  and  curving  round  the  base  of  the  anterior 
lobes  to  merge  imperceptibly  into  the  stronger  axal  furrows. 

1  Schmidt:  Rev.  Ostbalt.  Silur.  Trilob.,  Abth.  ii  (18S5),  p.  109,  t.  vi,  fig.  18^. 

F.  R.  Coiqjcr  Reed —  Undcscrihed  Trilohites.  7 

Basal  farrows  extremely  faint.  As  mentioned  above,  they  are 
not  straight  lateral  prolongations  of  the  median  portion  of  the 
occipital  furrow,  as  is  the  case  in  many  species,  but  they  arise 
a  short  distance  in  front  of  it  on  the  backward  continuation  of  the 
anterior  lateral  furrow,  and  curve  slightly  forwards  to  join  the  axal 
furrow  nearly  at  right  angles. 

In  Salter's  original  specimen  there  is  in  addition  to  the  above 
furrows  a  shallow  transverse  depression  arched  backwards,  extending 
across  the  neck  of  the  median  lobe  at  the  base  of  the  anterior  lateral 
lobes  and  between  the  pits  on  the  anterior  furrows.  A  similar 
transverse  groove  is  seen  in  Lichas  palmatas  (Barr.),  L.  scaber 
(Beyr.),'  and  L.  anglicus  (Beyr.). 

Occipital  furrow  composed  of  a  central  straight  portion,  not 
deeply  impressed,  and  of  lateral  portions  curving  strongly  backwards 
and  strongly  marked  behind  the  basal  lobes. 

Fixed  cheeks  small,  with  an  anterior  wing  forming  a  very  narrow 
strip  between  the  axal  furrow  and  the  facial  suture.  At  the  base 
of  the  anterior  lateral  lobes  of  the  glabella,  where  the  axal  furrow 
bends  in,  the  cheeks  increase  in  width,  expanding  behind  the  eye 
and  entering  into  the  general  convexity  ot  the  head-shield. 

Eye-lobes  of  moderate  size,  prominent,  horizontally-extended 
outwards  on  a  level  with  the  general  convexity  of  the  glabella, 
and  situated  just  in  front  of  the  base  of  the  anterior  lateral  lobes. 
A  short  furruw  separates  them  from  the  fixed  cheeks.  In  front 
of  the  glabella  is  a  flattened  horizontallj^-extended  border  of 
moderate  width,  widening  a  little  laterally  as  it  passes  into  that 
of  the  free  cheeks,  and  marked  off  by  a  shallow  marginal  furrow. 

Free  cheeks  triangular  in  shape,  with  an  inner  strongly  convex 
portion  abruptly  elevated  above  the  flattened  broad  border,  and 
marked  off  behind  by  the  occipital  furrow  and  scarcely  in  front  by 
the  very  weakly-defined  marginal  furrow  which  circumscribes  its 
base  and  joins  the  occipital  furrow  at  nearl}'^  a  right  angle.  This 
inner  convex  portion  of  the  free  cheek  bears  the  eye  at  its  summit, 
but  nearer  the  front  than  the  anterior  border. 

Eye  semicircular  and  prominent,  rising  up  vertically  with  a  high 
visual  surface  beneath  the  overhanging  eye-lobe. 

Border  of  free  cheek  flattened,  rapidly  increasing  in  width  from 
the  front  to  the  genal  angle,  owing  to  the  inward  course  of  the 
marginal  furrow.     Genal  angles  slightly  produced  into  blunt  points. 

Ornamentation. — The  glabella,  occipital  ring,  fixed  cheeks,  and 
the  convex  portion  of  the  free  cheeks  are  ornamented  with  tubercles 
of  moderate  size,  rather  sparinglj'^  distributed.  On  the  flattened 
border  of  the  free  cheeks,  particularly  near  the  genal  angles,  there 
are  also  a  few  similar  tubercles. 

Thorax.— The  thorax  in  the  Fletcher  specimen  is  nearly  perfect 
and  shows  nine  narrow  segments,  but  in  Salter's  original  specimen 
it  is  not  so  well  pi'eserved  and  only  seven  segments  can  be  dis- 
tinguished. In  each  case  the  specimen  has  its  head  and  tail  strongly 
bent  upwards,  and  this  has  caused  the  body  to  break  across  at  the 

1  Barrande  :   Syst.  Silur.  Bohem.,  vol.  i  (18.31),  pi.  xxix,  fig-s.  7  and  24. 

8  F.  R.  Coicper  Reed — Undescrihed  Trilohites. 

junction  of  the  head  and  thorax,  forcing  back  the  head  over  the 
first  few  segments  of  the  body  and  concealing  them.  In  the  Fletcher 
specimen  there  are  indications  of  one  segment  being  thus  covered, 
making  the  actual  number  of  thoracic  rings  to  be  ten. 

Axis  of  thorax  gently  convex,  broad,  tapering  gradually  to  the 
pygidium,  each  ring  consisting  of  a  simple  narrow  band,  apparently 
devoid  of  ornamentation.  The  anterior  rings  of  the  axis  appear  to 
be  wider  than  the  corresponding  pleurae,  but  the  posterior  ones  to  be 
narrower.     Axal  furrows  weak. 

Pleurge  semicylindrical,  horizontally  extended  as  far  as  the 
fulcrum,  but  then  bent  downwards,  flattening  again  towards  their 
extremities,  which  are  separate  and  free.  The  fulcrum  is  distant 
from  the  axal  furrow  about  one-third  of  the  length  of  the  pleura, 
and  is  obtusely  rounded.  Each  pleura  curves  gently  forwards  to 
the  fulcrum,  then  bends  more  strongly  backwards,  and  again  bends 
forward  slightly  towards  its  extremity.  The  surface  of  each  pleura 
is  marked  along  its  inner  portion  by  a  nearly  median  furrow,  which 
runs  straight  outwards  to  the  fulcrum  and  then  curves  backwards 
over  the  outer  portion  to  the  point,  dividing  this  outer  portion  into 
a  flattened  anterior  and  an  elevated  posterior  part,  but  near  the  end 
the  whole  breadth  of  the  pleura  is  flattened.  The  extremity  is 
bluntly  pointed.  There  are  a  few  obscure  traces  of  tubercles  on  the 

Pygidium.- — Broad  and  roughly  pentagonal,  gently  convex  from 
side  to  side,  having  its  lateral  lobes  bent  down,  but  flattened  along 
its  margin.  Its  component  segments  are  closely  fused  together,  and 
only  the  two  anterior  pleuraa  on  each  side  are  marked  out. 

The  pygidium  is  arched  forwards  in  front  ;  posteriorly  it  is 
forked,  and  each  side  is  angulated  by  the  projection  of  the  extremities 
of  the  second  pair  of  pleurte. 

The  posterior  margin  lying  in  the  fork  is  rather  less  than  half  the 
anterior  width  of  the  pygidium.  The  re-entrant  angle  is  about  135°, 
and  the  sides  meet  the  lateral  borders  at  an  angle  of  a  little  over 
90°  at  the  obtusely  rounded  divergent  points  of  the  fork.  (In  the 
Fletcher  specimen  these  points  are  rather  more  acute.) 

Axis  cylindrical,  convex,  and  prominent,  being  strongly  raised 
above  the  lateral  lobes.  Its  posterior  end  is  pointed  and  prolonged 
to  reach  the  posterior  margin  of  the  pygidium  at  the  re-entrant 
angle,  sloping  down  rapidly  to  the  level  of  the  flattened  border. 
The  cylindrical  portion  of  the  axis  measures  only  about  two-thirds 
the  total  length  of  the  pygidium. 

First  axial  ring  only  distinct,  and  marked  oflf  behind  by  a  strong- 
continuous  furrow.  Very  obscure  traces  of  four  or  five  rings  behind 
it.  Axal  furrows  well  marked  on  each  side  of  the  cylindrical  portion, 
but  very  faint  behind  it  and  scarcely  traceable  to  the  margin. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pygidium,  bent  down  on  each  side  of  the  axis  and 
consisting  of  a  convex  inner  portion  and  a  flattened  marginal  portion. 
Each  lateral  lobe  measures  anteriorly  about  1\  times  the  width  of 
the  axis. 

First  pair  of  pleuraj  distinct,  each  pleura  expanding. outwardly  to 

F.  R.  Coiqyer  Reed — Utidescribed  Trilohites.  9 

<1ouble  its  axial  width,  and  with  a  squavely  truncated  extremity, 
not  projecting  beyond  the  margin.  A  straight  diagonal  furrow 
marks  the  surface,  but  does  not  reach  the  extremity,  and  the  outer 
anterior  angle  of  the  truncated  end  is  flattened  as  in  the  pleurte  of 
the  thorax,  as  if  for  roUing-up.  The  groove  separating  the  first  from 
the  second  pleura  runs  obliquely  backwards  and  outwards  at  an 
-single  of  about  oO°  to  the  front  margin  of  the  pygidium,  curving 
gently  forwards  at  its  outer  end. 

Second  pair  of  pleura3  distinct,  each  pleura  increasing  rapidly  to 
<louble  the  width  possessed  by  the  first  pleura  on  the  margin  ;  end 
broad,  truncated,  and  with  posterior  angle  projecting  beyond  the 
margin  as  a  distinct  tooth  ;  posteriorly  marked  oif  by  weak  furrow 
making  an  angle  of  about  -lo^  with  front  margin  of  the  pygidium. 
A  median,  slightly  oblique  furrow  traverses  the  surface  of  the  pleura, 
but  stops  short  of  the  margin. 

The  position  of  the  projecting  ends  of  this  second  pair  of  pleura? 
•  is  about  half-way  along  the  lateral  margins  of  the  pygidium.  Behind 
them  the  margin  takes  a  slight  curve  inwards  to  the  points  of  the 
posterior  foric. 

The  lateral  lobes  behind  the  second  pair  of  pleural  show  no 
-segmentation  or  fun-ows,  but  probably  are  composed  of  two  pairs  of 
pleura?,  one  ending  at  the  lateral  pointed  extremities  of  the  posterior 
margin  and  the  other  at  the  axal  furrows  in  the  re-entrant  angle. 

A  few  scattered  tubercles  are  visible  on  the  flattened  marginal 
portion  of  the  lateral  lobes,  especially  near  the  posterior  angles. 


Leiig'th  of  head -shield 

"Width  ot  head-shield 

Leng'th  of  glabella 

AVidth  of  glabella  at  frout  eud 

Widtli  of  glabella  at  level  of  eyes 

Width  of  glabella  at  iieck-fuirDW 

Width  of  thorax         

Width  of  axis  of  thorax         

Length  of  pygidium    ... 

Width  of  pygidium  at  front  end 

Width  of  pygidium  between  posterinr  angles 

Width  I  if  axis  of  pygidium     ... 

I  =  Salter's  specimen.  II  =  Fletcher's  specimen. 

N.B. — In  the  Fletcher  specimen  the  hypostome  is  also  seen  in  its 
proper  position  on  the  lower  surface  of  the  upturned  head.  It  is 
subjDentagonal  in  shape;  its  length  is  less  than  its  breadth,  which 
is  greatest  across  the  middle.  Tlie  central  portion,  which  is  also  of 
greater  breadth  than  length,  is  marked  off  by  a  continuous  furrow 
from  the  border,  is  gently  convex,  and  occupies  about  two-thirds  of 
the  whole  length  of  the  hypostome  ;  its  anterior  end  is  strongly 
arched  forwards,  and  its  sides  and  posterior  edge  are  nearly  straight 
and  parallel  respectively  to  the  lateral  and  posterior  margins  of  the 
hypostome.  A  pair  of  faint  short  furrows  run  obliquely  inwards 
from  the  lateral  angles.    The  border  is  broad  and  flattened,  extending 













s-2.5       ... 




about  i■l■^) 


..     nncertiiiu     ... 






es           9-() 




10  F.  R.  Coicper  Reed — Viidescrihed  Trilohites. 

down  the  sides  of  the  central  portion  from  the  lateral  angles  and 
round  the  posterior  margin,  where  it  is  broadest  and  slightly 
excavated.     The  posterior  angles  are  obtusely  rounded. 



Length  of  hypostome       ...         7*0 

Width  of  hypostome  across  middle         ...         ...  9-5 

Length  of  central  portion  5-0 

"Width  of  central  portion  ...         ...         ...  7"0 

"Width  of  posterior  border  ...         ...         ...  2'0 

Rebiarks. — To  none  of  the  other  British  species  of  Liclias  from 
the  Weniock  Series  does  L.  scutalis  show  any  close  resemblance. 
L.  verrucosus  (Eichw.)/  with  which  it  has  been  confounded,  belongs- 
to  a  lower  stratigraphical  horizon,  and  differs  in  the  following 
particulars, — the  shape  of  the  median  lobe  of  the  glabella,  the 
form  and  size  of  the  basal  lobes,  the  course  of  the  axal  furrows, 
the  position  of  the  basal  furrows,  the  course  of  the  occipital  furrow,, 
the  absence  of  a  transverse  groove  across  the  median  lobe  of  the 
glabella,  the  position  of  the  eye  and  eye -lobes,  the  shape  of 
the  pygidium  and  the  furrows  on  its  lateral  lobes,  the  shape  of  its 
axis,  etc.,  etc.  In  fact,  Z.  verrucosus  is  so  utterly  different  from 
L.  scutalis  that  it  is  surprising  that  they  were  ever  considered 
identical  or  even  closely  allied.  It  is  needless  to  enter  into  a  minute 
comparison  of  the  two  species,  as  their  specific  separation  is  obvious. 

Schmidt  (loc.  cit.)  remarks  that  Z.  scutalis  is  quite  distinct  from 
Z.  verrucosus  (Eichw.). 

The  species  which  shows  most  points  of  resemblance  is  Barrande's 
L.  ambiguus-  from  Etage  Ee2,  which  is  more  or  less  equivalent 
to  our  Weniock.  This  species  has  a  glabella  with  anterior 
lateral  furrows  continued  down  to  the  neck  -  furrow,  with  weak 
middle  and  basal  furrows,  and  with  axal  furrows  having  the 
same  general  course  and  development  as  Z.  scutalis,  though  less 
curved  inwards  in  the  middle.  The  anterior  lateral  lobes  are 
closely  similar,  even  to  the  indentation  on  the  inner  side,  but  they 
are  less  oblique  ;  the  middle  lobes  are  rather  less  distinct,  and  the 
basal  lobes  are  only  separable  from  them  by  their  more  swollen 
character.  There  is  also  a  somewhat  similar  shallow  depression 
across  the  neck  of  the  median  lobe.  The  smaller  convexity  of  the 
head-shield  and  the  greater  parallelism  of  the  sides  of  the  glabella  are 
points  of  difference.  The  occipital  segment  is  also  narrower,  and  the 
occipital  furrow  has  a  different  course.  The  thorax  of  Z.  ambiginis 
is  unknown.  It  is  in  the  pygidium  that  we  find  the  most  striking 
points  of  resemblance  :  the  shape  of  the  axis  and  its  continuation  to 
the  posterior  margin,  the  presence  of  only  two  pairs  of  pleuras  on 
the  lateral  lobes  with  their  furrows,  the  projection  of  the  extremities 
of  the  second  pair  beyond  the  margin,  the  smooth  unfurrowed 
posterior  portion  of  the   lateral   lobes,   the   flattened   margin,  the- 

1  Eichwald:  Beitr.  z.  Iveuntn.  RussL,  Bd.  viii  (1843),  p.  63,  t.  iii,  fig.  23. 
Schmidt:  Rev.  Ostbalt.  Silur.  Trilob.,  Abth.  ii  (1885),  p.  &2,  t.  ii,  figs.  1-11. 

2  Barrande:   Syst.  Silur.  Bohem.,  vol.  i  (1851),  p.  60b,  pi.  xxviii,  figs.  16-21. 

F.  R.  Cowper  Reed — Undescnbed  Trilohites.  11 

posterior  fork.  The  pygidium  differs  in  being  relatively  narrower, 
in  possessing  a  shorter  axis  with  more  rings,  in  the  extremities  of 
the  first  pleura3  projecting  beyond  the  margin,  and  in  the  posterior 
margin  being  less  deeply  excavated. 

Proetus  Fletcheri,  Salter.     (PI.  I,  Figs.  5  and  G.) 

1873.     Froetus  Fletcheri,   Salter:    Cat.   Camb.   Sil.   Foss.  Woodw.  Mas.,  p.  ISi 

(«  825,  n  828). 
1877.     Froetus  Fletcheri,  Salter:  Woodward,  Cat.  Brit.  Foss.  Crust.,  p.  56. 
1891.     Froetus  Fletcheri,  Salter:  Woods,  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Miis.,  p.  151. 

This  species,  which  is  recorded  by  Salter  (loc.  cit.)  from  the 
Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudleys  is  mentioned  by  him  after 
Pr.  latifrons  (McCoy)  as  "a  broader  species  in  all  parts,  more  like 
Pr.  Byckholti  (Barr.)  than  Pr.  latifrons  (McCoy)." 

There  are  three  specimens  of  Pr.  Fletcheri  in  the  Woodwardian 
Museum,  which  were  labelled  by  Salter  a  825  (2)  and  a  828,  and  are 
thus  entered  in  his  "Catalogue."  But  mounted  on  the  same  tablet 
are  seven  other  unlabelled  specimens  of  Proetus,  of  which  only  one 
belongs  to  this  species,  all  the  others  showing  points  of  difference. 
There  are  four  other  specimens  of  the  true  Pr.  Fletcheri  in  the 
Woodwardian  Museum,  three  of  which  are  from  the  Fletcher 
Collection  and  the  other  from  the  Leckenby. 

The  specimens  from  which  the  following  description  is  drawn  up 
are  those  three  labelled  by  Salter  a  825  (2)  and  a  828. 

Diagnosis. — General  shape  longitudinally  oval,  more  than  twice 
as  long  as  broad. 

Head-shield  broadly  parabolic,  about  twice  as  wide  as  long,  gently 
concave  posteriorly,  moderately  convex  from  side  to  side,  bent  down 
in  front.     Genal  angles  produced  into  spines. 

Glabella  very  broadly  oval,  as  broad  as  long,  more  than  one-third 
the  width  of  the  head-shield  at  base,  narrowing  slightly  towards  the 
obtusely  rounded  anterior  end,  which  reaches  the  anterior  border  of 
the  head-shield  ;  gently  convex  from  side  to  side,  bent  down  steeply 
in  front  of  eyes.^  Surface  marked  by  two  pairs  of  furrows,  but 
anterior  pair  generally  obsolete.  Basal  pair  of  furrows  short,  weak, 
shallow ;  curve  slightly  backwards  ;  situated  at  level  of  middle  of 
eye  and  at  more  than  one-third  the  length  of  glabella  from  neck- 
furrow.  Anterior  pair  of  furrows  when  present  very  weak,  directed 
obliquely  backwards  from  level  of  anterior  end  of  eye. 

In  Salter's  specimen  a  825  (here  figured  PI.  I,  Fig.  5)  there  is  an 
additional  pair  of  small  pit-like  impressions  on  the  glabella,  situatetl 
behind  the  basal  furrows  and  close  to  the  occipital  furrow,  and  about 
half-way  between  the  axal  furrows  and  the  median  line  of  the  glabella. 
I  have  not  noticed  them  preserved  in  the  other  specimens,  but  they 
may  be  compared  with  somewhat  similarlj'  placed  basal  pits  on  tlie 
glabella  of  some  specimens  of  Pr.  boheiuicus  (Corda).'- 

1  Owing  to  this  strong  downward  bend  of  tlie  front  end  of  the  glabella,  the  shape- 
seems  to  be  subeircnlar  in  Fig.  5. 

2  Earrande:   Svst.  Silur.  Eohem.,  vtd.  i  (18.V2;,  p.  452,  pi.  xvi,  figs.  G,  7. 

12  F.  R.  Coicper  Reed — Undcscrlbed  Trilohltcs. 

Axal  furrows  weak  in  front  of  the  eye,  and  passing  into  the 
■marginal  furrow  at  the  front  end  of  the  glabella.  Between  the  eye- 
lobe  and  glabella,  and  posterior  to  the  eye,  they  are  deep  and  strong. 

Occipital  furrow  stronger  than  axal  furrows,  and  arched  forward 
in  the  middle  and  at  each  side  in  front  of  the  lateral  occipital  nodule. 

Occipital  ring  rounded,  considerably  wider  than  a  thoracic  axial 
I'ing,  and  furnished  with  a  small  median  tubercle  and  a  pair  of 
lateral  nodules,  which  are  sharply  circumscribed,  of  oval  shape, 
swollen,  prominent,  and  occupying  nearly  the  whole  width  of  the 
occipital  ring  at  the  base  of  the  axal  furrows. 

In  front  of  the  glabella  is  a  raised  and  rounded  border,  well 
<lefined  by  a  strong  marginal  furrow. 

Fixed  cheeks  with  narrow  anterior  wing  and  large,  semicircular, 
horizontally  -  flattened  eye  -  lobe,  strongly  elevated  to  nearly  the 
height  of  glabella.  Eye-lobes  reach  from  anterior  lateral  furrows 
of  glabella  to  behind  basal  pair,  but  do  not  project  enough  laterally 
to  cover  whole  upper  surface  of  convex  eje.  Posterior  wing  of 
fixed  cheek  small  and  triangular,  owing  to  course  of  facial  suture. 
Occipital  segment  of  cheek  rounded,  raised,  and  narrower  than 
occipital  ring  behind  glabella. 

Facial  sutures  cut  anterior  border  of  head-shield  at  a  distance 
apart  equal  to  basal  width  of  glabella.  From  these  points  of  section 
they  curve  backwards  and  slightly  inwards  to  front  of  eye,  then 
■bend  out  and  circumscribe  eye-lobe,  and  behind  it  curve  sharply 
■outwards  to  cut  neck-ring  obliquely  at  an  angle  of  20°-30°,  reaching 
the  posterior  margin  close  to  the  base  of  the  genal  spine. 

Free  cheeks  triangular,  furnished  with  broad,  rounded,  and  striated 
'border,  continued  backwards  at  the  genal  angle  into  the  genal  spine, 
which  is  broad  at  the  base,  tapers  rather  rapidly  to  its  pointed 
extremity,  and  is  less  than  half  the  length  of  the  head-shield.  It  is 
ornamented  with  longitudinal  striations.  The  marginal  and  occipital 
furrows  meet  each  other  at  the  genal  angle  at  an  angle  of  nearly 
•60°.  The  inner  portion  of  the  free  cheeks  is  strongly  elevated  and 
convex,  with  steep  anterior  but  gentler  lateral  and  posterior  slopes. 
On  the  summit  it  bears  the  large  prominent  eye  which  extends  for 
nearly  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  glabella.  A  shallow  groove 
encircles  base  of  eye,  and  runs  round  it  from  the  level  of  the  occipital 
furrow  to  the  anterior  lateral  furrow  of  the  glabella. 

Thorax  about  equal  in  length  to  head-shield,  consisting  of  ten 
segments,  with  a  broad,  gradually  tapering,  cylindrical  axis,  nearly 
half  as  wide  again  as  the  pleural  portions.  Rings  of  axis  simple, 
regular,  and  devoid  of  ornamentation.  Axal  furrows  distinct,  but 
not  deeply  impressed. 

Pleuras  semicylindrical ;  each  consisting  of  an  inner,  straight,  hori- 
zontally-extended portion  and  an  outer,  longer,  extra-fulcral  portion, 
which  is  bent  gently  downwards  and  backwards  at  an  angle  of  45°. 
Inner  portion  crossed  by  diagonal  furrow,  making  an  angle  of  about 
20°  with  the  straight  anterior  edge.  This  furrow  divides  the  inner 
portion  into  two  unequal  parts,  of  which  the  posterior  is  much 
the  larger.     On  the  extra-fulcral  portion  the  furrow  is  obsolete,  and 

F.  R.  Cou-pcr  llecd — Unde-'^cribed  Trilohitcs.  1 -li- 

the anterior  part  of  the  pleura  is  flattened  into  an  articulating  surface 
which  passes  underneath  the  preceding  pleura.  Fulcrum  well- 
marked  and  angular,  at  the  junction  of  the  inner  and  outer  portions 
of  the  pleura.     Extremities  of  pleuras  truncated  and  rounded. 

Pygidium  semicircular,  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  thorax  ; 
with  simple  entire  margin,  and  distinct  raised  border.  The  anterior 
edge  of  pygidium  resembles  that  of  a  pleural  ring,  the  inner  part 
being  short  and  straight  and  the  outer  part  oblique  with  an 
articulating  surface.  Lateral  and  posterior  margins  incurved  and 
concentrically  striated  below. 

Axis  conical,  strongly  elevated  above  the  flattened  lateral  lobes, 
and  tapering  more  rapidly  than  axis  of  thorax  to  an  obtusely  pointed 
extremity,  reaching  the  marginal  furrow  inside  the  raised  boi'der. 
Seven  to  eight  rings  recognizable  on  axis,  of  which  only  the  three 
first  are  clearly  separated  by  strong  intersegmental  furrows,  the 
posterior  ones  being  more  or  less  indistinct.  Lateral  lobes  gently 
bent  down  on  each  side,  and  marked  with  three  or  four  pleune 
with  inner  horizontal  portion  generally  distinguishable,  but  devoid 
of  fulcrum.  A  weak  longitudinal  furrow  runs  down  the  centre  of 
each  pleura. 

Border  of  pygidium  distinct  and  raised  slightly  above  level  of 
lateral  lobes,  narrower  at  anterior  lateral  angles  and  behind  axis 
than  in  middle  of  sides.  It  is  marked  off  by  a  shallow  marginal 
groove,  and  in  one  specimen  {a  825  of  Salter's  Catalogue)  the 
pleuras  and  their  furrows  are  faintl}'  traceable  across  it,  but  in  some 
individuals  it  is  vei'y  indistinct. 

Ornamentation. — The  whole  surface  of  the  head  and  pj'gidinm  is 
finely  granulated. 

Measure3ients. — Salter's  specimen  a  82o  : — 


Length  of  whole  trilohite           22-(» 

Length  of  head-shiekl  ...         ...         ...         ...  8-0 

Length  of  thorax            8-0 

Length  of  pygiihuni       ...          ...          ...          ...  6*0 

Wkitli  of  head-shiekl  at  hase lo-o 

Width  of  pygidium        ...         ...         ...         ...  lO'o 

Width  of  glahella  at  base          6-0 

Eemarks. — This  species  resembles  Pr.  holiemicus,  Corda,^  in  the 
following  particulars :  (1)  shape,  relative  size,  and  proportions  of 
glabella;  (2)  presence  of  lateral  nodules  and  median  tubercle  on 
occipital  ring  ;  (3)  relative  proportions  of  thoracic  axis  and  pleura- ; 
(4)  characters  of  pleura? ;  (5)  shape  of  pygidium,  pygidial  axis,  and 
border;  (6)  granulated  test. 

Pr.  hoJtemicns  diflfers,  however,  in  having  a  semicircular  rather 
than  parabolic  head-shield,  in  possessing  very  short  genal  spines, 
smaller  eyes  and  eye-lobes,  and  a  relatively  narrower  border  to  the 
head-shield  ;  in  the  presence  of  three  pairs  of  lateral  furrows  on  the 
glabella  ;  in  the  greater  length  of  the  thorax  ;  and  in  the  smaller  size 

1  Coi-da:  I'ri.dr.  Eulun.  Trihib.  (1S47),  p.  73,  ])1.  iv,  fig.  4:'..  Banaude :  Syst. 
Sihir.  Bohem.,  v..l.  i  (1852),  p.  452,  pi.  xvi,  ligs.  l-l--). 

14  Henrij  Basseii,  Jan. — Projja ration  of  Sp/ierulites. 

of  the  pygidial  pleuree.  On  the  other  hand,  Pr.  Byclcliolti  (Barr.),^  to 
which  Salter  saw  a  resemblance,  agrees  in  the  shape  of  its  head- 
shield,  in  the  faintness  of  the  lateral  furrows  of  the  glabella,  in  the 
size  of  the  genal  spines ;  in  the  median  tubercle  on  the  occipital  ring ; 
in  the  relative  size  of  the  eyes ;  and  in  the  general  aspect  of  the 
pygidium.  But  it  differs  in  the  shape  and  proportions  of  the  glabella 
and  of  the  thorax ;  in  the  absence  of  lateral  occipital  nodules ;  in 
the  shape  of  the  pleuree ;  in  the  more  rapidly  tapering  axis  of  the 
pygidium  ;  and  in  the  smooth  test.  Pr.  Fletclieri  shows,  thei'efore, 
a  much  closer  resemblance  to  Pr.  hohemicits  than  to  Pr.  Byckholti. 

'Fig.  1. — L'tchas  scutaUs.     Salter's  origiual  specimen,  a  954  ;   Weulock  Limestone, 

Malvern,      x  IJ. 
Fig.  2. — Lichas  scutalis."  Fletcher   Collection  siiecimeu  ;    Wenlock  Limestone, 

Malvern,      x  1^. 
Fig.  3. — Lichas  scutalis.     Hypostome  of  Fletcher  Collection  specimen,      x  2. 
Fig.  4. — Lichas  scutalis.     Outline  restoration,      x  2k. 
Fig.  5. — Proetus  Flctcheri.     Salter's  specimen,  a  825  ;  "Wenlock  Limestone,  Dudley. 

X  2. 
Fig.  6. — Proetus  Flctcheri.     Side  view  of  same  specimen. 

XoTE. — The  two  figured  specimens  of  Lichas  scutalis  are  bent  up  at  the  head  and 
tail,  causing  some  foreshortening  of  these  parts  in  the  figures,  and  the  ends  of  the 
■pleuTce  to  be  widely  separated. 

IV. — Note  on  the  Preparation  of  Spherulites. 
By  IIexry  Bassett,  Jun. 

LAST  February,  while  working  in  the  Chemical  Laboratory  of 
University  College,  London,  I  had  occasion  to  make  some 
•sulphanilic  acid.  This  was  done  in  the  usual  way  by  heating  a  mixture 
of  100  grammes  of  concentrated  sulphuric  acid  and  30  grammes  of 
aniline  to  180°-190°  C.  in  an  oil  bath  for  four  hours.  The  flask 
containing  the  mixture  was  left  in  the  oil  bath  to  cool,  and  on 
examining  it  the  next  day  I  was  surprised  to  find  that  the  solid  mass 
inside  had  developed  a  beautiful  spherulitic  structure.  As  I  believe 
this  has  never  been  observed  before,  it  may  be  Avorth  a  description. 

In  colour  the  material  is  a  bluish  (or  sometimes  greenish)  grey, 
and  it  is  practically  a  mass  of  spherulites,  some  of  which  are  an 
inch  in  diameter.  They  are  mostly  well  developed,  and  are  slightly- 
lighter  in  tint  than  any  intervening  portions  of  the  mass  in  which 
a  spherulitic  structure  is  only  faintly  visible.  They  consist  of 
concentric  layers,  alternately  nearly  white  and  pale  blue  in  colour, 
with  rather  ragged  edges,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  figure.  Adjacent 
spherulites,  or  sometimes  even  what  are  apparently  simple  ones, 
often  exhibit  sharp  divisional  planes  like  joints,  from  the  one  having 
grown  up  against  another  as  they  were  developing  from  independent 
centres.  Though  these  centres  cannot  in  all  cases  be  seen,  there  is 
■sufficient  evidence  in  others  to  justify  applying  this  explanation  to 
all.  The  mass,  judging  from  the  position  of  the  spherulites,  seems 
to  have  started  crystallizing  from  a  number  of  independent  points, 
both  on  the  surface  of  the  glass  and  on  the  surface  of  the  molten 

1  Barrande  :  Syst.  Silur.  Bohem.,  vol.  i  (1852),  p.  439,  pi.  xv,  figs.  15-19. 


Henry  Basseft,  Jnn. — Prepat-atlon  of  SpJteniUtes. 


As  piire  sulphanilic  acid  is  colourless  the  bluish-grey  colour  must 
be  due  to  the  production  in  the  course  of  the  reaction  of  a  small 
quantity  of  impurity,  which  is  of  the  nature  of  an  aniline  dye. 

When  we  come  to  study  the  spherulites  more  closely  we  find  that, 
not  only  do  they  exhibit  an  alternation  of  colour  in  concentric  shells, 
])ut  also  that  near  the  upper  surface  of  the  mass,  as  incomplete 
«pherulites  developed  downwards  these  were  prolonged  as  a  kind 
of  film  on  the  surface  of  the  glass  above  the  solid  mass,  this  film 
no  doubt  being  originally  caused  by  the  adherence  to  the  glass  of 
a  small  quantity  of  liquid  when  the  vessel  was  shaken.  An 
examination  of  this  thin  section  (as  it  were)  of  a  spherulite  shows 
that  the  pale  bands  in  the  solid  mass  are  continued  on  the  surface 
of  the  glass  as  bands  of  closely  packed  crystals,  while  the  dark 
bands  coincide  with  the  bands  on  the  glass  where  there  are  very 

Photograph  of  the  bottom  nf  a  flask  containing  tlie  spherulitic  structure. 

few  crystals.  It  is  thus  quite  obvious  that  the  alternate  dark  and 
light  rings  of  the  spherulites  have  been  caused  by  a  zoning  out 
of  the  sulphanilic  acid,  the  interstices  having  been  filled  up  by  the 
blue,  very  viscous  magma  (for  only  about  40  per  cent,  of  the  mass 
is  sulphanilic  acid,  the  rest  being  chiefly  sulphuric  acid).  On  this 
supposition  the  rings  would  be  formed  as  follows :  —  A  ring  of 
radiating  crystals  would  first  be  formed  round  some  nucleus,  but  as 
the  surrounding  magma  would  thus  be  deprived  of  most  of  the 
sulphanilic  acid  it  contained  in  solution,  this  ring  would  be  succeeded 
by  a  ring  where  there  were  very  few  crystals,  then  another  ring 
with  a  great  many  crystals  would  follow,  and  so  on.  The  formation 
of  these  spherulites  would  thus  be  very  analogous  to  the  formation 
of  '  Napoleonite '  and  spheroidal  granites,  to  take  extreme  cases^ 

16  Henry  iJa-^aetf,  Jun. — Prcjxn-ation  of  SpJierurttes. 

while  even  spherulites  in  glassy  igneous  rocks  often  show  similar 
colour-banding.  This  zoning  out  of  the  sulphanilic  acid  accounts 
for  the  ragged  edges  of  the  rings,  while  the  existence  of  a  hollow 
at  the  top  of  the  mass  where  the  spherical  surface  of  the  spherulites 
can  be  seen  also  points  to  the  liquid  magma  having  thus  been 
soaked  up. 

I  have  since  several  times  repeated  the  experiment,  and  find  that 
the  spherulitic  structure  is  developed  every  time,  provided  that  the 
liquid  is  allowed  to  cool  slowly,  although  even  when  cooled  quickly 
one  or  two  may  be  formed.  The  size  of  the  spherulites  obtained 
varies  greatly  ;  on  one  occasion  I  prepared  one  which  was  two  inches 
in  diameter,  but,  as  is  so  often  the  case  in  nature,  the  moderate-sized 
ones  are  generally  the  prettiest.  Sometimes,  after  having  left  the 
flask  to  cool,  I  found  next  day  that  the  material  had  not  all  solidified,, 
but  that  there  was  a  floating  crust  with  spherulites  growing 
downwards  and  also  a  solid  layer  at  the  bottom  with  spherulites 
growing  upwards,  thus  confirming  the  opinion  as  to  independent 
development  from  the  two  surfaces  which  I  had  formed  from  the- 
examination  of  the  first  batch  obtained.  I  should  add,  however, 
that  the  spherulitic  structure  is  not  always  developed  on  the  free 
surface  of  the  mass,  nor  have  I  been  able  to  prepare  again  the 
spherulitic  films  (if  I  may  so  call  them)  on  the  sides  of  the  flask. 
The  time  taken  for  the  mass  to  crystallize  completely  varies  from 
one  to  three  days,  depending,  I  imagine,  on  the  amount  of  impurit}' 
present.  When  the  crj^stallization  takes  place  very  slowly  it  is  very 
beautiful  to  watch  the  small  spherulites  gradually  growing  in  a  dark, 
almost  black,  magma,  until  finally  it  is  completely  transformed  into 
spherulites.  In  this  intermediate  state  the  specimen  looks  very 
much  like  spherulitic  obsidian. 

When  the  spherulites  are  formed  very  slowly  the  zones,  which 
are  so  noticeable  in  specimens  which  have  formed  more  quickly, 
are  not  nearly  so  frequent  or  well-marked.  This  perhaps  is  due  to 
the  fact  that,  as  the  crystallization  is  so  slow,  diffusion  is  able  to 
prevent  the  magma  round  the  centres  of  crystallization  becoming 

I  may  add  that  the  sulphuric  acid  present  renders  the  mass  very 
deliquescent,  so  that  in  order  to  preserve  it  the  flask  containing  it 
should  be  sealed  off  in  the  blowpipe  flame. 

After  about  two  months'  keeping  the  mass  begins  to  recrystallize, 
and,  in  course  of  time,  the  original  structure  is  entirely  obliterated 
and  replaced  by  an  immense  number  of  small  spherulites  about 
1  mm.  in  diameter.  This  molecular  change  is  curious,  but  the  fact 
that  not  even  the  external  form  of  the  original  spherulites  is  pre- 
served, is  probably  due  to  the  presence  of  fluid,  which,  Avhen 
recrystallization  took  place,  was  able  to  escape  and  collect  at  the 
bottom  of  the  flask. 

Mj'  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  Coomara-Swamy  for  having  very 
kindly  photographed  the  structure  for  me.  This  figure,  however, 
does  not  represent  the  best  specimen,  for  the  shape  of  the  vessel 
in  which  that  had  been  formed  was  unfortunately  unsuitable  for- 

J,  W.  Stntlter — Sources  of  YorJi-a/iire  Boulders.  17 

V. — The    Sources    and    Distribution    of    the    Far-Travelled 
Boulders  of  East  Yorkshire. 

By  J.  W.  Stather,  F.G.S. 

ABOUT  ten  years  ago,  when  studying  the  drifts  of  East  Yorkshire, 
Mr.  G.  W.  Lamplugh  counted  and  I'oughly  classified  the  larger 
boulders  of  Flamborough  Head  and  other  selected  localities  on  the 
coast.  This  work  has  been  continued  by  members  of  the  Hull 
Geological  Society,  who  have  up  to  the  present  time  recorded  nearly 
four  thousand  boulders,  of  twelve  inches  and  upwards  in  diameter. 
To  avoid  possible  eiTor,  arising  from  the  moving  beach  and  other 
causes,  only  the  boulders  actually  in  place  in  the  clay  were  noted,  or 
such  as  had  obviously  recently  fallen  from  the  cliffs.  The  whole 
of  the  coastline  from  Spurn  to  Flamborough  has  been  surveyed  in 
this  way,  and  also  portions  of  the  coast  north  of  Flamborough  as  far 
as  Saltburn.  The  lists  thus  prepared  have  been  published  from 
time  to  time  by  the  Hull  Geological  Society  and  by  the  Erratic 
Blocks  Committee  of  the  British  Association. 

These  lists  bring  to  light  several  interesting  and  previously 
unnoticed  facts  with  regard  to  the  distribution  of  the  far-travelled 
boulders,  especially  when  the  lists  obtained  at  Dimlington  and 
Eedcliff  in  South  Yorkshire  are  compared  with  the  lists  from 
Upgang  and  Saltburn  in  the  north.  Before,  however,  discussing  the 
statistics  of  the  boulders,  it  will  be  advisable  to  give  a  brief 
description  of  the  localities  where  the  lists  were  compiled. 

(i)  Dimlington  is  situated  on  the  sea-coast  near  the  southern 
extremity  of  Holderness.  The  cliffs  average  about  eighty  feet  in 
height  for  upwards  of  tvvo  miles,  and  are  entirely  composed  of 
glacial  material,  chiefly  boulder-clay.  Here  were  noted  334  boulders 
of  twelve  inches  and  upwards  in  diameter.^ 

(ii)  Eedcliff  is  on  the  north  shore  of  the  Humber,  near  North 
Ferriby,  and  is  twenty-four  miles  west-north-west  of  Dimlington. 
The  cliff  continues  along  the  Humber  side  for  two-thirds  of  a  mile 
with  an  average  height  of  eighteen  feet,  and  together  with  the 
adjacent  beach  is  composed  of  boulder-clay.  The  boulders  recorded 
here  were  373  in  number.- 

(iii)  Upgang  is  one  and  a  half  miles  north  of  Whitby ;  the  cliff 
sections  are  one  hundred  feet  or  more  in  height,  and  consist  largely 
of  boulder-clay.  In  this  neighbourhood  Mr.  Lamplugh  counted  and 
classified  two  hundred  boulders  of  twelve  inches  and  upwards  in 
diameter,  the  majority  of  which  were  of  local  origin  ;  the  percentages 
given  in  the  table  below  are  based  on  his  list.^ 

(iv)  The  cliffs  between  Saltburn  and  Eedcar  present  the  most 
northern  exposure  of  boulder-clay  on  the  Yorkshire  coast.  These 
sections  yielded  133  boulders  of  twelve  inches  and  upwards  in 

•  Trans.  Hull  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iii,  p.  (J. 

^  rroc.  Yorkshire  Geol.  and  Polytech.  Soc,  vol.  xiii,  pt.  2,  p.  211. 
^  Ibid.,  vol.  xi,  i)t.  3,  p.  403. 

*  Trans.  Hull  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iii,  p.  7. 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — NO.  I.  2 


J.  W.  Stather — Sources  of  Torkshire  Boulders. 

After  eliminating  all  the  local  boulders  from  the  lists,  at  the 
above-mentioned  localities,  the  relative  proportion  between  the 
several  groups  of  far-travelled  boulders  is  as  follows  : — 










1.  Carboniferous     limestones 

and  sandstones      

2.  Basalt  (Whin  Sill)    

3.  Magnesian  limestone 

4.  Granite,  gneiss,  etc 

per  cent. 





per  cent. 





per  cent. 




per  cent. 







It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  table  that  among  the  far- 
travelled  boulders  of  the  East  Yorkshire  drift  deposits,  Carboniferous 
rocks  (group  1)  take  numerically  the  leading  position  ;  and  the 
Carboniferous  area  west  and  north  of  the  Tees  is  generally  regarded 
as  their  place  of  origin.  Group  2  consists  of  boulders  of  black 
basalt,  very  plentiful  in  East  Yorkshire  and  very  easy  to  distinguish. 
The  source  of  these  basalts  is  undoubtedly  the  Whin  Sill.  It  is 
clear,  then,  that  groups  1  and  2  have  travelled  into  our  district 
from  practically  the  same  area;  nevertheless,  it  will  be  seen,  on 
referring  to  the  above  table,  that  the  relative  proportions  of  the 
boulders  from  the  two  groups  vary  considerably  from  point  to 
point.  Thus,  while  both  groups  probably  decrease  numericalhj 
southwards,  the  percentages  show  that  the  basaltic  group  increases 
relatively  from  Saltburn  southwards.  The  obvious  explanation  seems 
to  be  that  large  boulders  of  basalt  bear  transjDort  better  than  similar 
masses  from  the  Carboniferous  sedimentary  rocks. 

The  Magnesian  limestone  (group  3)  occurring  in  the  East  York- 
shire boulder-clays  is  matched  by  the  rock  found  in  situ  at  Eoker, 
near  Sunderland.  This  limestone  is  rarely  found  except  as  pebbles 
in  South  Holderness,  but  these  grow  perceptibly  in  numbers  and 
size  northwards.  Large  boulders  begin  to  appear  north  of  Scar- 
borough, and  at  Whitby  and  Saltburn  they  form  from  5  to  7  per  cent, 
of  the  foreign  boulders  present  in  the  clays. 

Besides  the  above-mentioned  rocks,  the  East  Yorkshire  drifts, 
especially  in  the  southern  parts  of  Holderness,  are  rich  in  boulders 
of  igneous  rocks  of  widely  diverse  types,  and  these  are  included  in 
group  4.  Phillips  long  ago  pointed  out  that  in  the  drifts  of  the 
Yorkshire  coast  there  were  rocks  from  the  English  Lake  District ; 
and  it  is  now  certain  also  that  the  Cheviots  and  Scandinavia  are 
well  represented ;  but  the  source  of  by  far  the  greater  number  of 
the  rocks  included  in  this  group  is  not  yet  known.  The  table 
shows  that  the  boulders  of  group  4  diminish  both  numerically  and 

1  This  group  was  not  represented  by  any  boulders  of  the  requisite  size  in  the  cliff 
sections  when  this  table  was  compiled,  but  several  large  boulders  of  Shap  granite 
were  seen  in  the  gardens  and  about  the  town,  which  had  probably  been  derived 
from  the  neighbouring  drifts. 

J,  W.  Stather — Sources  of  Yorkshire  Boulders.  19 

jDvoportionately  novtliwards,  the  figures  being  13  per  cent,  at 
Dimlingtou  and  1  per  cent,  at  Whitby.  This  northward  decrease 
of  the  group  as  a  whole  is  all  the  more  noteworthy  when  we 
renaember  that  the  Shap  granites  and  the  Cheviot  porphyrites,  both 
included  in  group  4,  increase  rapidly  in  the  same  direction.  This 
seeming  anomaly  arises,  I  think,  from  the  influence  of  the  boulders 
from  Scandinavia.  x\mong  the  boulders  of  South  Holderness  occur 
very  commonly  rocks  which  agree  with  certain  well-known  types 
of  Scandinavia ;  of  these  the  best  known  are  the  augite-syenite 
(laurvikite)  and  the  rhomb-porphyry.  These  types,  although  not 
by  any  means  unknown  in  the  drifts  of  North  Yorkshire,  are  much 
rarer  there  than  in  the  south.  For  instance,  at  Dimlington  one 
hundred  specimens  of  the  Scandinavian  rocks  above  named  would 
be  found  to  one  of  Shap  granite,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  at  Robin 
Hood's  Bay  or  Eunswick  Bay  (both  near  Whitby)  the  Shaps  out- 
number the  Norsemen  by  at  least  twenty  to  one.  Seeing,  then,  that 
the  known  Scandinavian  rocks  in  group  -i  are  much  more  common  in 
the  south  of  the  county  than  in  the  north,  and  that  the  distribution 
of  the  unidentified  rock  types  included  in  the  same  group  agrees  in 
this  respect  with  the  Scandinavian  rocks,  I  think  it  may  be  fairly 
inferred,  tliat  these  unidentified  rocks  ai'e  probably  largely  from 
Scandinavia  also. 

Mr.  Harker  arrived  at  a  similar  conclusion  when  examining 
Mr.  Lamplugh's  Flamborough  specimens.^  He  regarded  the  bulk 
of  the  granitic  and  gneissic  specimens  as  having  been  derived 
either  from  Scandinavia  or  from  the  Scottish  Highlands,  and 
remarks :  "  Among  these  are  some  undoubted  Norwegian  rocks, 
while  none  can  be  pointed  out  as  certainly  brought  from  Scotland. 
It  may  be,  then,  that  the  whole  of  the  doubtful  rocks  are  also  of 
Norwegian  origin." 

It  is  worthy  of  note  with  regard  to  the  smaller  boulders  and 
pebbles  of  the  boulder-clay  and  gravels  of  East  Yorkshire  that 
among  these  the  percentage  of  the  far-travelled  rocks  is  much 
higher  than  among  the  larger  boulders.  There  are  certain  types 
also  among  the  smaller  specimens  which  seldom  appear  as  large 
boulders.  Among  these  is  a  fairly  definite  group  of  rocks,  which 
are  known  among  East  Yorkshire  collectors  as  poiyhjrites,  and  are 
referred  with  some  confidence  to  the  Cheviot  Hills.  The  evidence 
in  support  of  this  conclusion  may  be  briefly  stated  as  follows : — 
(1)  The  erratics  seem  to  match  the  descriptions  of  the  Cheviot 
rocks  published  by  Mr.  J.  J.  H.  Teall  and  others.  (2)  Pebbles  of 
these  rocks  increase,  both  in  numbers  and  in  size,  as  we  approach 
the  Cheviot  district,  (o)  During  a  recent  excursion  (July,  1900)  to 
the  Cheviot  Hills,  arranged  by  the  Yorkshire  Geological  and  Poly- 
technic Society,  many  rocks  similar  to  these  East  Yorkshire  erratics 
were  seen  in  place. 

There  is  still  another  note  to  be  made  with  regard  to  the  Cheviot 
boulders,  and  that  refers  to  their  vertical  distribution.  I  think  it 
will  be  found,  that  the  Cheviot  rocks  are  more  plentiful  in  the 
1  Proc.  Yorkshire  Geol.  and  Polytcch.  Soc,  vol.  xi,  pt.  3,  p.  -109. 

20  R.  H.  Tiddeman — Formation  of  Eeef  KnolU. 

upper  clays  along  our  coast  than  in  the  lower  beds.  But  however 
this  may  be,  it  is  quite  certain  that  the  somewhat  scanty  drift  that 
reaches  farthest  up  the  valleys  on  our  coast,  and  climbs  the  eastern 
flank  of  the  Yorkshire  wolds,  and  the  Oolitic  moorlands,  is,  as  far  as 
the  foreign  boulders  are  concerned,  composed  almost  entirely  of 
rocks  from  the  Cheviot  area.  The  Scarborough  district  supplies 
a  good  example  of  this  rule.  The  comparatively  low  ground 
adjacent  to  the  sea  is  covered  with  thick  drift  full  of  boulders  of 
the  usual  types.  On  the  other  hand,  Seamer  Mooi',  which  is  a  mile 
and  a  half  west  of  the  town  and  six  hundred  feet  in  height,  is 
capped  by  drift,  the  foreign  pebbles  of  which  are  largely  porphyrites. 
It  must  not  be  understood  from  this,  however,  that  other  types  are 
entirely  absent  at  high  levels.  Occasional  specimens  from  probably 
all  the  groups  are  found  wherever  the  drifts  extend.  But  the  rule 
is,  that  at  high  levels  and  along  the  western  margin  of  the  drift 
generally,  the  porphyrites  prevail.  And  if  we  follow  that  very 
ill-defined  line  which  separates  the  drift  areas  from  the  driftless, 
it  will  be  generally  found  that  the  outermost  fringe  of  straggling 
pebbles  on  the  fields  is  largely  composed  of  porphyrites. 

All  the  facts  respecting  the  distribution  of  the  boulders  of 
East  Yorkshire,  as  far  as  I  have  seen,  appear  to  agree  vpith  the 
supposition  put  forward  by  Mr.  Lamplugh  in  his  paper  on  the  drifts 
of  Flamborough  Head,^  viz.,  that  the  North  Sea  ice-sheet  attained  its 
maximum  development  and  reached  farthest  inland  before  the  ic& 
flowing  from  the  north-west  had  reached  this  part  of  the  coast,  and 
that  the  North  Sea  ice  dwindled  away  as  the  flow  from  the  Pennine- 
Chain  and  the  Cheviots  gained  strength. 

VI. — On  the  Formation  of  Eeef  Knolls.^ 

By  R.  H.  TiDDEMAx,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

(Communicated  by  permission  of  the  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey.) 

AT  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association  at  Newcastle  in  1889 
I  brought  out  my  interpretation  of  the  probable  origin  of  the 
limestone  knolls  of  Yorkshire.-^ 

It  was  shown  that  the  Lower  Carboniferous  Eocks  in  the  North 
of  England  had  two  distinct  types — that  the  Yoredale  or  Northern 
type  extended  from  the  Craven  Faults  to  the  Tyne,  and  that  the 
Southern  or  Bowland  type  occupied  the  country  from  the  Craven 
Faults  to  near  the  Western  Seaside  plain  and  extended  south  as 
far  as  Derbyshire.  Without  now  recalling  the  two  tables  of  the 
succession  there  given,  I  mentioned  specially  the  curious  construction 
of  certain  mounds  of  limestone  which  I  called  reef-knolls,  gave  my 
reasons  for  supposing  that  they  had  been  gradually  built  up  on 
a  slowly  sinking  sea  bottom  by  the  gradual  accretion  of  animal 
remains  somewhat  in  a  similar  manner  to  coral  reefs.  I  also  showed 
that  from  the  enormously  disproportionate  thickness  of  rocks  in  the 

1  QJ.G.S.,  vol.  xlvii,  p.  428. 

2  Eead  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

3  Eeport  Brit.  Assoc,  1889. 

B.  11.  Tiddeman — Formation  of  Reef  Knolk.  21 

iirea  of  the  downthrow  side  and  from  other  considerations  there  was 
every  reason  to  suppose  that  the  Craven  Faults  were  actually  taking 
place  during  the  formation  of  those  rocks. 

My  friend  Mr.  J.  E.  Marr,  F.E.S.,  has  in  a  most  courteous  way, 
■whilst  taking  my  geological  mapping  as  for  the  most  part  correct, 
found  reasons  for  dissenting  from  all  the  groundwork  on  which  it 
was  founded.'  In  combating  Mr.  Marr's  views  I  offer  no  opinion 
on  knolls  of  other  localities  or  other  ages  which  he  brings  forward 
in  support  of  his  views.  I  speak  only  of  the  Carboniferous  knolls 
of  which  I  have  written,  and  with  which  I  am  well  acquainted. 
Speaking  generally,  1  think  the  differences  between  us  may  be  thus 
summarized : — 

1.  Mr.  Marr  disagrees  with  my  reading  of  the  succession  and 
thickness  of  the  rocks  on  the  south  side  of  the  Craven  Faults,  and, 
whilst  I  consider  that  we  have  two  distinct  successions  of  different 
thickness  caused  by  a  difference  in  the  rate  of  submergence  in  the 
two  districts,  and  by  shallower  and  deeper  seas,  he  regards  the 
Tocks  on  both  sides  as  having  been  one  series  of  like  thickness  in 
orderly  sequence  to  the  north,  but,  so  to  speak,  shuffled  by  earth- 
movements  on  the  south  of  those  faults  and  repeated  several  times 
by  overthrusts. 

la.  In  illustration  let  us  take  a  pack  of  cards,  say  arranged  in 
suits  as  representing  the  regular  country  on  the  north  side,  and 
several  packs  similarly  ai"ranged  to  represent  the  greater  thickness 
on  the  south  side.  Shufifle  these  last  to  represent  the  supposed 
disturbance  and  overthrusting.  Shall  we  always  find  after 
shuffling  the  same  general  succession  ?  Yet  over  a  tract  reaching 
from  Draughton  to  Chipping  and  from  Settle  to  Derbyshire,  we  do 
get  such  a  general  succession,  and  that  does  not  at  all  resemble  the 
succession  on  the  north  side  of  the  faults.  The  overthrusting  to  do 
this  effectually  must  cover  the  whole  of  this  wide  area  comprised  in 
three  or  four  counties,  and  not  confine  its  operations  to  a  narrow 
disturbed  belt  near  the  Craven  Faults.  Is  Mr.  Marr  prepared  to 
3nake  his  orogenic  movements  extend  over  so  large  an  area,  and 
thereby  arrange  the  whole  country,  which  they  bi*eak  up,  into  so 
orderly  a  disposition? 

2.  Mr.  Marr  regards  the  great  difference  between  the  black  and 
white  limestone,  the  form  and  constitution  of  the  reef-knolls,  the 
abundance  in  them  of  perfect  fossil  forms  in  a  well-preserved  state, 
the  conglomerates  and  breccias  which  accompany  them,  as  all  being 
the  result  of  what  he  calls  orogenic  movements  ;  in  other  words,  of 
the  folding  repetition  and  overthrusting  of  the  rocks,  with  here  and 
there  relief  of  pressure.  More  especially  is  the  last  called  in  as 
being  the  reason  for  the  abundant  and  well-preserved  fossils  and  the 
change  of  the  limestones. 

It  is  extremely  difficult  for  me  to  accept  these  views.  If  we  could 
believe  that  a  black,  well  and  thinly  bedded  limestone  can  by  any 
^physical  change  be  converted  into  a  white  crystalline  mass  with 

'  Quart.  Joui-n.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  Iv,  pp.  327-3G1. 

22  R.  H.  Tiddeman — Formation  of  Reef  Knolh. 

little  visible  bedding,  but  with  abundant  fossils  in  a  perfect  state^ 
we  have  still  to  learn  what  has  become  of  the  shales  which  ar© 
almost  always  present  with  the  black  limestone.  If  squeezed  out, 
as  might  be  suggested,  they  would  at  least  leave  partings  behind, 
and  the  rock  would  be  moi'e  bedded  than  it  is; 

Mr.  Marr  contemplates  the  likelihood  of  several  different  lime- 
stones being  shifted  together  to  make  one  reef-knoll,  but  if  so,  are 
we  not  as  likely  to  get  the  thin  sandstones  of  the  Pendleside  Grit 
sandwiched  into  them  as  well?  Yet  sandstones  and  shale-beds  are 
unknown  in  the  reef-knolls. 

Mr.  Marr  makes  a  number  of  statements  about  what  he  calls  the 
Vs  of  the  Middle  Craven  Fault.  His  opinion  is  that  this  is  a  great 
thrust-plane  dipping  gently  north,  and  that  the  Coal-measures  are 
forced  beneath  the  limestone,  and  so  on  along  its  course.  A  bed  of 
coal  in  the  limestone  at  Ingleton  is  regarded  by  him  as  having  been 
forced  up  from  underlying  Coal-measures  by  pressure,  and  not  as- 
originally  interbedded.  Unfortunatelj'  for  these  views,  there  are  no 
proper  Vs  or  dipping  planes  of  faulting  indicated  in  the  map.  The 
sinuous  track  of  the  Craven  Fault  is  not  so  drawn  to  accommodate- 
any  theory,  but  is  merely  put  where  the  exposures  of  rock  show  it 
to  run.  Its  wanderings  are  either  dictated  by  or  stand  in  relation 
to  the  two  principal  lines  of  jointing  in  the  limestone,  which  range 
W.N.W.  and  N.N.W.  Sometimes  one  direction,  sometimes  the 
other,  has  the  mastery.  At  Clapham  the  line  is  absolutely  straight,. 
and  does  not  curve  up-stream  as  suggested  by  Mr.  Marr.  The  coal- 
seam  mentioned  is  well  known  to  me.  On  searching  it  I  found 
several  Producti,  fairly  perfect,  embedded  in  it  and  filled  with  it,  and 
the  conclusion  I  came  to  was  that  it  was  either  a  coal-seam  which 
had  grown  on  a  reef  and  been  submerged,  or  a  deposit  of  seaweed. 
These  Producti  seem  to  disagree  with  the  injection  theory.  Such 
coal-seams  are  found  occasionally  in  the  limestone.  One  near 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  has  been  worked  for  coal. 

Mr.  Marr  has  mentioned  two  places  where  knolls  of  grit  occur. 
I  do  not  admit  that  a  knoll  of  grit  can  have  anything  in  common 
with  the  reef-knolls  of  Craven  unless  it  be  the  external  form  ;  but  if 
such  structures  were  made  by  earth  thrusts  and  abounded,  it  would 
no  doubt  be  a  strong  point  in  favour  of  his  views.  One  of  these 
grit  knolls  is  said  to  be  in  the  canal  at  the  back  of  Shipton  Castle. 
I  think  this  must  be  an  error.  I  know  of  no  sandstone  in  that 
locality,  though  I  know  it  well.  I  have  consulted  others  who  are, 
as  geologists,  conversant  with  Shipton,  competent  to  form  an  opinion,, 
and  they  agree  with  me  that  nothing  but  limestone  and  shales  occur 
in  that  canal  at  that  point.  The  beds  there  are  certainly  contorted, 
but  they  are  not  sandstone,  and  contortions  do  not  necessarily  imply 

I  feel  unable  to  regard  Mr.  Marr's  'model  knoll'  as  in  any  respect 
resembling  what  I  have  called  reef-knolls.  That  is,  according  to  his 
views,  a  broken  plication  of  a  thin  hard  bed  of  limestone  in  a  mass 
of  softer  shale,  the  shale  surrounding  its  broken  fragments.  The 
knolls  to  which  I  allude  are  almost  solid  limestone  from  top  to  base. 


Notices  of  3Iemoirs — H.  J.  L.  Beadnell — Geohgi/  of  Egypt.      23 

They  have  no  alternations  of  hard  and  soft  beds,  and,  so  far  as  I  have 
seen,  no  repetition  of  beds  by  folding.  The  evidences  of  movement 
on  their  flanks,  if  any,  are  not  more  than  one  would  expect  from  the 
vertical  pressure  of  a  more  or  less  plastic  shale  upon  what  is  at  least 
a  less  plastic  limestone. 

I  admit  fully  that  there  are  abundant  evidences  in  the  district  of 
faulting,  of  great  pressure,  and  quite  likely  of  overthrusts ;  but  to 
say  that  these  have  given  to  these  rocks  a  change  of  chai'acter,  or  are 
responsible  for  the  order  of  their  succession,  appears  to  me  to  be 
invoking  an  unnecessarily  powerful  but  yet  inadequate  force.  Sucli 
thrust-planes  as  are  implied  would  meet  the  geologist  in  the  field 
at  every  turn,  and  force  themselves  into  recognition.  They  would 
admit  of  easy  mapping,  and  no  statement  of  their  existence  would 
be  complete  without  some  such  systematic  recognition. 

2^0Ticss   OIF   nycEnycoiiRS- 

I.  —  On  some  Eecent  Geological  Discoveries  in  the  Nile 
Valley  and  Libyan  Desert.'  By  Hugh  J.  L.  Beadnell, 
F.G.S.,  F.R.G.S. 

IN  this  paper  the  author  draws  attention  to  some  interesting 
discoveries  made  by  him  during  the  last  three  or  four  years 
while  attached  to  the  Geological  Survey  of  Egypt.  AVhen  the 
latter  Survey  was  established  in  1896  the  publications  and  maps, 
both  geological  and  geographical,  of  the  Eohlfs  Expedition  of 
1873-74:  still  remained  the  only  source  of  information  on  the  greater 
part  of  Egypt. 

In  his  geological  reports  Zittel,  the  geologist  of  the  Eohlfs 
Expedition,  calls  special  attention  to  the  absence  of  any  uncon- 
formity between  the  Cretaceous  and  Eocene  deposits,  in  fact 
mentioning  this  as  one  of  the  most  important  results  obtained. 
More  extended  researches  have,  however,  enabled  the  author  "  to 
bring  forward  incontestable  evidence  from  at  least  two  areas  in  the 
Libyan  Desert,  namely,  Abu-Eoash,  near  Cairo,  and  Baharia  Oasis, 
that  instead  of  this  perfectly  gradual  petrographical  and  palteonto- 
logical  passage,  undisturbed  by  any  unconformity,  from  the  upper- 
most marine  Chalk  into  the  oldest  Tertiary  beds,  thei'e  is  as  a  matter 
of  fact  a  strongly  marked  unconformity,  representing  a  long  lapse 
of  time  in  the  process  of  sedimentation.  During  this  period  the 
Cretaceous  was  elevated  into  land,  often  witli  intense  folding  and 
faulting,  and  underwent  considerable  denudation  before  subsidence 
led  to  the  entire  or  partial  submergence  of  the  area  below  the  sea,  and 
allowed  the  deposition  of  successive  beds  of  Eocene  in  a  markedly 
overlapping  manner." 

The  accompanying  table  is  compiled  chiefly  from  the  work  of 
Professor  Zittel  and  the  Geological  Survey  of  Egypt. 

1  Abstract  of  a  paper  read  (with  the  permissiou  of  Captaia  11.  G.  Lyons,  R.E., 
F.G.S.,  the  Director-General  of  the  Ej,n'ptiau  Geological  Survey)  before  the  Inter- 
national Geological  Congress  at  Paris,  1900. 







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Notices  of  Memoirs — H.  J.  L.  Beadncll — Gcologi/  of  Egypt.      25 

The  author  then  discusses  separately  several  t^'pical  localities, 
Avhich  may  be  briefly  alluded  to. 

Abu-Eoash. — This  peculiarly  interesting  Cretaceous  complex,  near 
■Cairo,  lias  been  described  by  Walther  and  Schweinfurtli  as  having 
been  brought  into  position  among  the  Eocene  deposits  by  faults 
along  its  four  sides.  This  view,  however,  is  strongly  opposed  by 
the  author,  who  maintains  that  the  fault  theory  is  absolutely 
untenable,  "  as  a  most  casual  examination  of  the  boundary  of  the 
■Cretaceous,  at  almost  any  point  where  its  junction  with  the  Eocene 
was  visible,  instead  of  suggesting  the  existence  of  faults,  yielded 
■indubitable  evidence  of  their  absence,  and  the  presence  instead  of 
a  well-marked  unconformity."  At  some  points  "the  upper  surface 
of  the  white  chalk  of  the  Cretaceous  shows  a  most  irregularly 
eroded  surface,  which  is  covered  by  a  bed  of  rolled  pebbles,  some- 
times a  metre  thick,  the  latter  being  overlaid  by  a  thick  bed  of 
Eocene  shelly  limestone,  followed  b}'  a  series  full  of  characteristic 
Upper  Mokattam  fossils,"  The  author  further  points  out  the 
existence  in  this  area  of  Danian  beds,  the  uppermost  member 
(White  Chalk)  being  apparently  homotaxial  with  the  White  Chalk 
of  Baharia  and  Farafra. 

Baharia  Oasis.  —  Of  the  remarkable  sand  belt  which  occurs 
between  the  Nile  Valley  and  this  oasis,  the  author  says : — "  This 
sand  belt  has  a  total  breadth  of  five  kilometres,  and  runs  slightly 
west  of  north  and  east  of  south  (parallel,  in  fact,  to  the  normal 
direction  of  the  wind).  Its  origin  is  much  further  north,  probably 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  oasis  of  ]\Ioghara,  while  to  the  south 
it  runs,  as  far  as  known  unbroken,  into  the  depression  of  Kharga, 
whence,  after  a  slight  break,  it  continues  southwards.  Its  length 
■is  thus  certainly  over  350  kilometres.  The  dunes  are  composed  of 
light-yellow,  siliceous,  well-rounded  sand-grains.  The  steepest  sides 
■  are  those  facing  west,  which  have  an  angle  of  30^-31°.  It  is 
a  remarkable  sight,  this  narrow  band  of  sand  dunes  extending  across 
the  open  desert  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  maintaining  an  almost 
exactly  straight  course,  an  even  breadth,  and  with  sides  as  well 
defined  as  if  drawn  with  the  edge  of  a  ruler." 

The  author's  work  shows  that,  contrary  to  original  ideas,  there  is 
•in  reality  a  remarkable  development  of  Cretaceous  rocks  in  the 
•oasis  of  Baharia  and  the  surrounding  desert  on  the  west  and  south 

The  lowest  beds,  consisting  of  sandstones,  claj's,  and  marls,  attain 
a  thickness  of  170  metres,  and  are  of  Cenoraanian  age.  Above  theni 
come  limestones  and  variegated  sandstones  (-15  metres),  followed  by 
white  chalk  of  Danian  age,  40  metres  thick.     (See  Table.) 

As  at  Abu-Roash,  the  junction  between  the  Cretaceous  and 
Eocene  is  unconformable,  the  deposits  of  the  latter  overlapping 
•successively  the  different  beds  of  the  former. 

The  author,  in  discussing  the  age  and  origin  of  the  peculiar 
ferruginous  quartzites  which  so  constantly  cap  the  numerous 
isolated  hills  within  the  depression,  brings  forward  evidence  which 
tends  to  show  that  these  "  were  deposited  in  a  lake  which  formed 

26      Notices  of  Memoirs — IT.  J.  L.  Beadnell — Geology  of  Egypt. 

here  when  there  existed  only  a  slight  depression  in  the  Eocene  and 
Cretaceous  rocks,  ages  in  fact  before  erosion  had  carved  out  the 
depression  to  its  present  form.  The  large  amount  of  ferruginous 
material  and  general  character  of  the  beds  point  to  freshwater 
lacustrine  deposition  and  precipitation.  Lithologically  they  are 
often  exactly  similar  to  the  Oligocene  beds  of  the  Fayum  and  Jebel 
Ahmar,  and  to  the  deposits  on  the  road  between  Feshn  and  the 
oasis,  and  it  may  be  that  they  are  of  the  same  age." 

The  author  states  that  the  igneous  rocks  of  Baharia  are  of  Post- 
Cretaceous,  probably  Oligocene,  age,  contemporaneous  with  the 
basalt  sheets  of  the  Fayum,  of  Abu-Eoash  and  the  desert  to  the 
west,  and  of  Abu-Zabel ;  and  that  the  andesites  of  the  Libyan 
desert  at  Bahnessa,  Gara  Soda,  and  Jebel  Gebail  were  likewise 
erupted  at  the  same  time. 

After  describing  the  important  folds  which  occur  in  Baharia  the 
author  continues: — "The  Cretaceous  beds  as  a  whole  evidently 
form  a  large  anticline  ....  which  has  its  axis  more  or  less- 
parallel  to  the  syncline  already  described.  It  is  continued  into  the 
north  end  of  Farafra,  where  the  dip  is  well  marked  .  .  .  - 
Yet  the  Eocene  beds  forming  the  plateau  are  in  general  quite 
horizontal,  even  in  close  proximity  to  inclined  Cretaceous  beds 
.  .  .  .  it  seems  certain  that  the  Cretaceous  beds,  after  the 
deposition  of  the  White  Chalk  of  Danian  age,  underwent  upheaval, 
denudation,  and  finally  depression,  before  the  deposition  of  the 
earliest  Tertiary  beds. 

"In  this  part  of  Egypt  it  appears  that  the  subsiding  Cretaceous- 
land  had  the  form  of  a  long,  flat,  irregular  ridge  of  anticlinal 
structure,  extending  from  Dakhla  oasis  through  Farafra,  Baharia,. 
and  Abu-Roash.  The  northern  end  of  this  ridge  was  the  last  to 
subside  and  receive  Eocene  deposits,  which  accounts  for  the  fact 
that  in  Farafra  the  Cretaceous  is  overlaid,  always  unconformably, 
by  the  Esna  Shales  of  the  Lower  Libyan,  in  Baharia  by  limestones 
of  the  Upper  Libyan,  and  at  Abu-Eoash  by  still  younger  beds  of 
Lower  and  Upper  Mokattam  age." 

The  author  finds  other  evidence  which  "  suggests  the  probability 
that  there  was  another  period  of  possibly  even  more  important 
earth-movements  in  Post-Eocene  times.  In  this  case,  it  seems  not 
unlikely  that  the  folding  was  closely  connected  with  the  important 
series  of  earth-movements  which  took  place  in  North-East  Africa' 
and  South- West  Asia  in  early  Pliocene  times,  and  which  gave  rise  to 
the  formation  of  the  chief  topographical  features  of  the  countr}',  such 
as  the  Nile  and  Jordan  valleys  and  their  attendant  series  of  lakes." 

The  author's  theory  as  to  the  origin  of  these  wonderful  depressions- 
in  the  Libyan  desert  is  interesting,  and  may  be  quoted  in  full.  He 
writes : — "  Baharia  is  a  self-contained  depression  without  drainage- 
outlet,  so  that  the  ordinary  methods  of  removal  of  disintegrated 
material  do  not  here  appl3^  Next,  we  have  a  large,  flat,  anticlinal 
ridge  of  Cretaceous  beds,  with  at  least  one  subsidiar}^  sharp,  parallel, 
synclinal  fold,  overlaid  by  more  or  less  horizontal  beds  of  Eocene 
limestone.     Since  the  elevation  of  this  part  of  North  Africa  into  dry 

Notices  of  Memoirs — H.  J.  L.  Beadnell — Gcologij  of  Egypt.      27 

land  in  late  Tertiary  times,  denudation  must  have  gone  on  con- 
tinuously over  the  whole  surface  of  the  country. 

"  The  most  important  denuding  agent  at  the  present  day  in  the 
Libyan  desert  is  wind-borne  sand,  the  erosive  action  of  which  is 
very  powerful  and  at  once  apparent  to  eveiy  traveller  in  these 
regions ;  but  in  the  past  there  may  have  been,  and  probably  were, 
other  eroding  agencies  as  well  at  work  on  the  surface  of  this  part  of 
North  Africa.  Imagine,  then,  the  general  planing  down  of  the 
country  little  by  little  through  a  long  interval  of  time,  until  the 
anticlinal  ridge  of  Cretaceous  beds  was  reached,  with  its  attendant 
soft  sandstones  and  claj's.  As  soon  as  the  latter  were  exposed  the 
action  of  denudation  would  have  rapidly  quickened,  chiefly  by  the 
breaking  up  of  the  constituents  of  these  beds  by  changes  of  tempera- 
ture, rains  and  frosts,  and  the  removal  of  the  resulting  sand  and 
dust  by  wind.  In  this  way  must  these  wonderful  depressions  have 
been  formed. 

"  Generalizing,  then,  we  may  say  that  where  there  have  been 
extensive  deposits  of  soft  beds,  and  these  have  become  exposed  b}^ 
the  action  of  denudation,  there  large  depressions  have  been  cut  out. 
The  existence  of  soft  Cenomanian  sandstones  and  clays  is  thus  the 
primary  cause  of  the  existence  of  the  depression  of  Baharia,  the  soft 
Esna  shales  have  played  a  similar  role  in  that  of  Farafra,  while, 
again,  Dakhla  is  cut  out  in  a  thick  series  of  soft  beds  of  Danian  age. 
The  other  oases  and  depressions  probably  owe  their  existence  largely 
to  the  same  cause." 

Farafra  and  Dakhla  Oasis. — In  Farafra  the  author's  chief  additions 
to  our  knowledge  were  rather  geographical  than  geological,  although 
some  evidence  is  brought  forward  to  show  that  the  very  fossiliferous 
clays  on  the  road  between  Farafra  and  Dakhla  are  somewhat  younger 
than  the  age  assigned  to  them  by  Zittel. 

In  Dakhla  oasis  thick  and  extensive  highly  phosphatic  bone-beds 
of  considerable  commercial  value  were  discovered. 

Fayum. — It  was  in  this  province  that  there  existed,  some  2,000 
years  before  Herodotus,  the  celebrated  Lake  Moeris,  the  exact  site 
of  which  has  led  to  so  much  discussion.  The  author  shows  that 
the  geological  evidence,  in  the  shape  of  clays  with  numerous  fresh- 
water shells  and  fish-remains,  of  the  same  species  as  those  at  present 
inhabiting  the  existing  lake,  proves  that  the  ancient  lake  occupied 
the  lowest  part  of  the  depression,  i.e.  that  now  occupied  by  the  Birket 
el  Qurun  and  a  considerable  area  of  the  low  surrounding  country. 
His  position,  in  fact,  closely  agrees  with  that  assigned  to  the  lake  by 
Major  Brown,  who  bases  his  conclusions  chiefly  on  considerations 
of  level. 

An  extensive  series  of  fluvio-marine  beds,  with  intercalated  sheets 
of  basalt  near  the  top,  is  shown  to  overlie  the  Upper  Mokattam 
formation  throughout  the  north  part  of  the  Fayum.  This  series  is- 
provisionally  regarded  as  Oligocene.  At  the  top  come  the  silicified, 
wood- bearing  sandstones,  which  stretch  northwards  across  the  desert 
to  beyond  the  latitude  of  Cairo. 

Within  the  Fayum  depression,  high  up  on  the  slopes  or  summits- 

128      Notices  of  Memoirs — II.  J.  L.  Beadnell — Geology  of  Egypt. 

■  of  the  surrounding  ridges,  are  found  extensive  raised  beaches, 
probably  of  marine  Pliocene  age,  at  which  time  the  sea  stretched 
far  up  the  Nile  Valley. 

'Nile  Valley. — la  conclusion,  some  highly  interesting  facts  are 
brought  forvvai'd  with  regard  to  the  Nile  Valley  itself,  which  the 
author  summarizes  as  follows: — "The  general  north  and  south 
direction  of  the  Nile  Valley  in  Egypt,  the  remarkable  high,  lofty, 
wall-like  cliffs  by  which  it  is  hemmed  in,  the  absence  of  any  true 
river  deposits  at  any  considerable  height  above  the  river,  the  almost 
•entire  absence  of  hills  or  outliers  of  the  plateau  within  the  valley, 
the  proved  existence  of  bounding  faults  throughout  a  long  stretch 
of  the  valley,  lead  us  to  infer  that  the  formation  of  this  gorge  was 
brought  about  by  faulting,  rifting,  and  folding,  and  not  cut  out  in 
the  usual  way  by  river  action." 

Between  Cairo  and  Assuan  the  Nile  Valley  floor  is  covered  for 
the  most  part  with  deposits  of  comparatively  recent  geological  age, 
which  may  be  divided  into  (1)  Marine,  Pliocene  ;  (2)  Lacustrine, 
Pleistocene  ;  and  (3)  Fluviatile,  Recent. 

The  marine  Pliocene  deposits,  discovered  near  Esna  by  Mr.  Barron 
and  the  author  in  1897,  consist  of  a  thick  series  of  limestones  and 
interbedded  conglomerates.  In  the  limestones  numerous  foraminifera 
were  found,  and  have  been  described  by  Mr.  F.  Chapman. 

The  lacustrine  series  consist  of  fresh-water  deposits  of  the  most 
variable  nature,  including  gravels,  conglomerates,  clays,  marls,  lime- 
stones, and  tufas.  They  have  been  mapped  and  examined  by  the 
author  throughout  a  large  length  of  the  Nile  Valley  from  Qena  to 
Cairo.  Calcareous  tufas,  crowded  with  the  most  beautiful  impressions 
of  leaves  and  twigs,  abound  in  places.  At  Isawia  the  limestones  of 
the  series  are  of  considerable  commercial  importance,  supplying  the 
material  for  the  construction  of  the  great  dam  at  Assiut.  Finally, 
the  fluviatile  deposits  include  the  Nile  mud  and  other  recent 

In  conclusion,  the  author  shows  the  probable  date  of  the  formation 
of  the  Nile  Valley  gorge  to  be  Lower  Pliocene,  and  refers  it  to  the 
same  great  series  of  earth-movements  which  determined  and  formed 
the  main  physical  feature  of  North-East  Africa  and  part  of  Asia. 
After  the  deposition  of  the  Pliocene  beds  a  gradual  elevation  led  to 
the  final  retreat  of  the  sea,  the  valley  then  becoming  the  site  of 
a  series  of  fresh-water  lakes  in  which  were  deposited  large  quantities 
of  calcareous  tufa,  which  enclosed  the  numerous  leaves  carried  into 
the  lakes  from  the  surrounding  forests. 

Finally,  "in  later  Pleistocene  times  drainage  must  have  become 
well  established  down  the  Nile  Valley,  and  a  river,  the  youthful 
Father  Nile,  commenced  its  cai'eer  by  carving  out  a  channel  through 
the  valley  deposits,  before,  owing  to  changed  conditions,  it  finally 
•took  to  depositing  layer  upon  layer  of  '  Nile  mud,'  thus  forming  the 
:strip  of  cultivable  and  inhabitable  country  without  which  the  Land 
•of  Egypt,  as  we  know  it,  would  be  non-existent." 

Notices  of  Memoirs —  Vegetation  of  tJie  Coal  Period.        20' 

II. — British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science. 
Bradford,  1900.  Joint  Discussion,  Sections  C  and  K.  On 
THE  Conditions  under  which  the  Plants  of  the  Coal 
Period  grew. 

1.  Flora  of  the  Coal-bieasures.     By  K.  Kidston,  F.R.S.E.,  F.G.S. 

LEAVING  out  of  consideration  a  few  genera  of  which  we  possess 
little  or  no  definite  knowledge,  the  flora  of  the  Coal-measures 
consists  of  Ferns,  Calaraites,  Lycopods,  Sphenophylleai,  Cordaites, 
and  Conifera^. 

In  genera  and  species  the  Ferns  are  probably  more  numerous  than 
the  whole  of  the  other  groups,  and  contain  representatives  of  the 
Eusporangiate  and  Leptosporangiate  members  of  the  class.  The 
Eusporangiate,  or  those  ferns  whose  sporangia  are  unprovided  with 
an  annulus,  were  more  numerous  in  the  Carboniferous  period  than 
at  present,  though  in  the  Coal-measures  they  do  not  appear  to  have 
been  more  numerous  than  the  genera  with  annulate  sporangia.  Tree 
ferns,  though  not  very  common,  are  more  frequent  in  the  Upper 
than  in  the  Lower  Coal-measures,  in  the  lowest  beds  of  which  they 
seem  to  be  very  rare. 

The  Calamites  are  largely  represented  throughout  the  whole  of 
the  Coal-measures,  AsteropJnjUites  {Calamocladtis)  and  Annnlaria-. 
probably  being  their  foliage. 

Lycopods  are  also  very  numerous,  and  are  represented  by  many 
important  genera  —  Lycopodites,  Zepidodendron,  LepidopMoios, 
Bothrodendron,  and  Sigillaria,  with  their  rhizomes  Stigmaria  and 
Stigmariopsis.  These  genera  contributed  largely  to  the  formation 
of  Coal. 

The  genus  Sphenophyllum  was  also  frequent  during  Coal-measure 
times,  and  forms  a  type  of  vegetation  essentially  distinct  from  any 
existing  group. 

The  Gymnosperms  are  represented  by  Cordaites,  Conifera),  and 

The  Cordaites  had  tree-like  trunks  and  long  yucca-like  leaves. 
They  are  plentiful  in  tlie  Coal-measures,  and,  like  the  arborescent 
lycopods,  must  have  been  a  prominent  feature  in  a  Carboniferous 
forest  scene. 

The  Conifera^,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  are  only  represented  by 
a  single  specimen  of  Walchia  from  the  Upper  Coal-measures  ;  and 
though  Cycads  have  been  discovered  in  the  Upper  Coal-measures  on 
the  Continent,  I  am  not  aware  of  any  British  species  which  can  be 
referred  with  certainty  to  this  group. 

2.  The  Origin  of  Coal.  By  A.  Strahan,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 
The  deposition  of  the  Coal-measures  was  due  to  the  subsidence  of 
large  portions  of  the  earth's  crust  to  a  depth  often  amounting  to 
several  thousand  feet.  The  subsidence,  being  unequal,  led  to  tlie 
formation  of  coal-basins,  parts  of  the  margins  of  which  are  still 
recognizable.  That  the  intervening  areas  rose  no  less  rapidly  than 
the  basins  sank  is  proved  l>y  the  vast  denudation  suffered  by  the 
earlier  Palaeozoic  rocks  during  the  Carboniferous  period. 

■30         Notices  of  Memoirs — Vegetation  oj  the  Coal  Period. 

The  subsidence  was  counterbalanced  during  Coal-measure  times 
by  sedimentation,  for  the  occurrence  of  marine  beds  among  deposits 
of  a  generally  estuarine  aspect  proves  that  the  surface  was  maintained 
at  or  near  sea-level.  The  Carboniferous  sediments  consist,  in  the 
majority  of  coalfields,  of  marine  limestones  in  the  lower  part,  of 
marine  grits  and  conglomerates  in  the  middle  part,  and  of  estuaro- 
marine  sandstones  and  shales  in  the  upper  part.  The  sequence  is 
due,  firstly,  to  the  admission  of  the  sea  to  the  subsiding  areas ;  and 
lastly,  to  the  restoration  of  level  brought  about  by  sedimentation  and 
denudation.  But  there  is  evidence  also  of  the  sedimentation  having 
been  more  or  less  spasmodic.  Thus  the  Limestone  Series  generally 
consists  of  repetitions  of  small  groups  of  strata,  each  group  being 
•composed  of  sandstone,  followed  by  shale,  shale  followed  by  lime- 
stone. Similarly  the  Coal-measures  present  repetitions  of  sandstone 
followed  by  shale,  shale  by  coal.  Limestone  in  the  one  case  and 
coal  in  the  other  are  therefore  comparable  in  this  respect,  that  each 
represents  an  episode  when  sedimentation  had  come  to  a  pause. 
Early  views  as  to  the  origin  of  coal,  namely,  that  it  was  formed  of 
vegetable  matter  drifted  beyond  the  region  to  which  the  finest 
mineral  sediment  could  reach,  were  in  accordance  with  these  facts. 

More  minute  examination  of  the  strata,  however,  revealed  proofs 
of  land-surfaces  in  the  Coal-measures,  and  it  was  generally  accepted 
that  the  coal-seams  represent  forests  in  the  place  of  their  growth. 
The  evidence  may  be  summarized  as  follows  :  — 

(1)  Rain-pittings,  sun-cracks,  and  footprints  prove  that  the  surfaces 
of  some  of  the  beds  were  exposed  to  the  air. 

(2)  Erect  tree-trunks  of  large  size,  in  some  cases  attached  to  large 
■spreading  roots,  are  not  uncommon.  Land-shells,  millipedes,  and 
the  skeletons  of  air-breathing  reptiles  have  occasionally  been  found 
within  the  hollow  trunks.^ 

(3)  The  underclays  of  coal-seams  are  traversed  in  all  directions  by 
^branching  rootlets,  unlike  the    drifted    fragments    in    the    bedding 

planes  of  the  other  strata.  They  were  described  as  an  invariable 
accompaniment  of  coals,  and  as  being  the  soils  in  which  the  coal- 
forest  was  rooted. 

(4)  Coal-seams,  with  thin  minute  partings,  persist  over  vast  areas, 
and  it  was  thought  impossible  that  so  wide  and  regular  a  distribution 
of  vegetable  matter  could  have  been  accomplished  by  drifting. 

(5)  The  chemical  composition  of  the  coals  was  believed  to  prove 
that  the  vegetable  matter  underwent  partial  decomposition  in  the 
open  air  before  being  submerged  or  buried. 

This  evidence,  however,  though  it  proves  the  existence  of  land 
surfaces,  is  not  conclusive  of  the  coal-seams  being  forests  in  place  of 
growth.  The  rain-pittings,  sun-cracks,  and  footprints  occur,  not  in 
the  coals,  but  in  the  intervening  strata.  Of  the  erect  tree-trunks 
a  large  proportion  occur  in  sandstones  devoid  of  coal,  a  few  only 
having  been  found  to  stand  upon  an  underclay,  or  to  be  associated 

1  C.  Brongniart  and  others  have  shown  that  air-breathing  insects  of  the  orders 
Neuroptera,  Orthoptera,  Thysanura,  and  Homoptera,  were  very  numerous  in  the 
Coal-period  in  Europe  and  America. — Edit.  Geol.  Mag. 

Notices  of  Jfenioirs — Vegetation  of  the  Coal  Period.         31 

-with  seams  of  coal.  Vast  areas  of  coal  have  been  worked  witliout 
any  such  trunks  having  been  encountered.  The  majority  of  the 
trunks,  moreover,  are  destitute  of  spreading  roots,  and  are  believed 
to  have  been  floated  to  their  present  positions.  The  land-shells, 
insect  and  reptilian  remains,  are  of  extremely  rare  occurrence. 

The  underclays  do  not  resemble  soils,  inasmuch  as  they  are 
perfectly  homogeneous,  and  lie  with  absolute  parallelism  to  the  other 
members  of  a  stratified  series.  They  are  not  always  present  beneath 
coal-seams,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  often  occur  in  them  or  above 
them.  Frequently  they  have  no  coal  associated  with  them.  The 
rootlets  in  them  have  no  connection  with  the  coal,  which  is  a  well- 
stratified  deposit  with  a  sharply  defined  base. 

The  persistence  of  the  partings  and  characters  of  the  coal  over 
^vide  areas  is  in  favour  of  their  being  subaqueous  deposits,  for  on  so 
large  an  expanse  of  land  there  must  have  been  river-systems  and 
variations  in  the  vegetation.  The  stream-beds,  known  to  miners  as 
•  wash-outs,'  are  not  proportioned  in  size  to  the  supposed  land- 

Subaerial  decomposition  of  part  of  a  mass  of  vegetable  matter 
would  take  place  whether  it  were  floating  or  resting  on  dry  land. 
tSpores,  which  enter  largely  into  the  composition  of  many  coals, 
would  travel  long  distances  either  by  wind  or  water. 

Some  coal-seams  show  clear  proof  of  a  drifted  origin,  as,  for 
example,  those  which  are  made  up  of  a  mass  of  small  water- worn 
chips  of  wood  or  bark.  Other  seams  pass  horizontally  into  bands 
of  ironstone,  and  one  case  has  been  observed  of  a  coal  changing 
gradually  into  a  dolomitic  tufa,  doubtless  formed  in  a  stagnant 
lagoon.  Putting  aside  exceptional  cases,  the  sequence  of  events 
which  preceded  the  deposition  of  a  normal  coal-seam  seems  to  have 
been — firstly,  the  outspreading  of  sand  or  gravel  with  drifted  plant- 
remains,  followed  by  shale  as  the  currents  lost  velocity.  The  water 
was  extremely  shallow,  and  even  retreated  at  times,  so  as  to  leave 
the  surface  open  to  the  air.  The  last  sediments  were  extremely 
fine,  homogeneous,  and  almost  wholly  siliceous,  and  in  them  a  mass 
of  presumably  aquatic  vegetation  rooted  itself.  This  further  im- 
pediment to  movement  in  the  water  cut  off  all  sediment,  and  the 
material  brought  into  the  area  then  consisted  only  of  wind-borne 
vegetable  dust  or  floating  vegetable  matter  carrying  an  occasional 
boulder.  Lastly,  the  formation  of  the  coal-seam  was  brought  to 
a  close  by  a  sudden  invasion  of  the  ai'ea  by  moving  water.  The 
mass  of  vegetable  matter,  often  after  suffering  some  little  erosion, 
was  buried  by  sandstone  or  shale  rich  in  large  drifted  remains  of 
plants  or  trees,  and  the  whole  process  was  recommenced. 

Z.   Botanical   Evidence   bearing   on   the    Climatic    and   other 

Physical   Conditions    under   which   Coal   avas   forsied.     By 

A.  C.  Seward,  F.R.S. 

Botanical  investigations  into  the  nature  and  composition  of  the 

vegetation  which  has  left  abundant  traces  in  the  sediments  of  the 

Coal-measures  may  be  expected  to  throw  some  light  on  the  natural 

32         Notices  of  Memoirs — Vegetation  of  the  Coal  Period . 

conditions  which  prevailed  during  that  period  in  the  earth's  history 
that  was  par  excellence  the  age  of  coal  production.  The  minute^- 
examination  of  petrified  tissues  has  rendered  possible  a  restoration 
of  the  internal  framework  of  several  extinct  tj'pes  of  plant-life,  and 
has  carried  us  a  step  further  towards  the  solution  of  evolutionary 
problems.  It  is  possible,  even  with  our  present  knowledge,  to 
make  a  limited  use  of  anatomical  structure  as  an  index  of  life- 
conditions,  and  to  restore  in  some  degree  from  structural  records  the- 
physiological  and  physical  conditions  of  plant-life  characteristic  of 
the  close  of  the  Carboniferous  epoch. 

(1)  Evidence  furnished  hy  the  Coal-period  Floras  as  to  Climatic  and' 

other  Physical  Conditions. 

The  uniformity  in  the  character  of  the  vegetation  has  no  doubt 
been  somewhat  exaggerated  ;  e.g.,  the  Glossopteris  flora  of  Australia, 
South  Africa,  and  South  America.  The  existence  of  botanical 
provinces  in  Upper  Palaeozoic  times. 

A  comparison  of  the  Coal-period  vegetation  with  that  of  the 
present  day  as  regards  (i)  the  relative  abundance  of  certain  classes 
of  plants,  (ii)  the  geographical  distribution  of  certain  families  of 
plants  during  the  Carboniferous  epoch  and  at  the  present  day.  The 
importance  of  bearing  in  mind  the  progress  of  plant-evolution  as 
a  factor  affecting  the  consideration  of  such  comparisons.  The 
possible  existence  of  a  Palceozoic  Mountain  flora  of  which  no 
records  have  been  preserved. 

(2)  The  Form,  Habit,  and  Manner  of  Occurrence  of  Individual  Plant& 

as  Indices  of  Conditions  of  Growth. 
Comparison  of  Calamites  and  horse-tails.  Fossil  forests  of 
Calamites.  Psaronius  stems  in  situ  and  bearing  roots  at  different 
levels,  suggesting  growth  in  a  region  of  rapid  sedimentation. 
Vertical  stems  either  in  loco  natali  or  drifted.  Climbing  plants 
possibly  represented  by  Sphenophijllum,  some  species  of  ferns  and. 
MeduUosefe.     Function  of  the  so-called  Aphlehia  leaves  of  ferns. 

(3)  Anatomical  Evidence. 

The  value  of  evidence  afforded  by  anatomical  features.  Eisks  of 
comparison  between  structural  character  of  extinct  and  recent  plants. 
Structure  considered  from  the  point  of  view  of  evolution,  as  the 
result  of  adaptation  to  external  conditions,  and  to  mechanical  and 
physiological  requirements. 

(o)  Spores  and  leaves.  —  Abundance  of  spores  provided  with 
filamentous  or  hooked  appendages  ;  adaptation  of  spores  to  floating 
or  to  wind-dispersal.  The  leaf  structure  of  Calamites,  ferns,  etc.  ; 
presence  of  stomata,  palissade  tissue,  and  water  -  glands  ;  the 
'  parichnos '  or  aerating  tissue  in  the  leaves  of  Lepidodendrete  and 

QS)  Stems  and  roots. — Absence  of  annual  rings  of  growth.  The 
large  size  of  water-conducting  elements  connected  with  rapid  transport 
(e.g.  Sphenophyllnm)  or  with  storage  of  water  (e.g.  Megaloxylon). 
The  chambered  pith  of  Cordaites,  quoted  as  evidence  of  rapid 
elongation,  of  little  or  no  physiological  significance.      Abundance- 

Notices  of  Memoirs — Vegetafiun  of  tlic  Coal  Period.         33 

of  secretory  tissue.  Auatomical  characteristics  of  a  Lepidotlendroid 
type  of  stem ;  great  development  of  secondary  tissue  in  the  outer 
cortex,  little  or  no  true  cork,  lax  inner  cortex.  Lacunar  tissue  in 
the  roots  of  Calamites  ;  hollow  appendages  of  Stigmaria.  Indications 
of  xerophytic  characters  may  be  the  result  of  growth  in  salt  marshes. 

(4)  Evidence  as  to  the  Manner  of  Formation  of  Coal. 

(a)  The  structure  of  calcareous  nodules  found  in  coal-seams  ;  the 
preservation  of  delicate  tissues,  the  occurrence  of  fungal  hyphse,  and 
the  petrification  of  Stigmarian  appendages  as  evidence  in  favour 
of  the  subaqueous  accumulation  of  the  plant-debris  found  in  the 
calcareous  nodules. 

(6)  Ordinary  coal  microscopically  examined.  Spores,  fragments 
of  tissues,  bacteria,  and  the  ground  substance  of  coal.  Coal  found  in 
the  cavities  of  cells  in  carbonized  tissues.  Suggested  non-vegetable 
origin  of  the  matrix  of  coal.  '  Boulders  '  and  coal-balls  included  in 

(c)  Boghead,  Cannel  coal,  and  Oil-shales.  Recent  investigations 
of  Bertrand,  Eenault,  and  others.  The  structure  and  mode  of  origin 
of  torbanite,  kerosene,  shale,  etc.  Suggested  origin  of  Boghead 
from  the  minute  bodies  of  algee  [fleurs  d'eau),  spores,  etc.,  embedded 
in  a  brown  ulmic  substance  found  on  the  floor  of  a  lake.  Absence 
of  clastic  material.  Cannel  coal  characterized  by  abundance  of 

{d)  Paper-coal  of  Biissia. — The  paper-coal  of  Culm  age  in  the 
Moscow  basin  consists  largely  of  the  cuticles  of  a  Lepidodendroid 
plant.  Bacterial  action  as  an  agent  in  the  destruction  of  plants  and 
as  a  factor  in  the  production  of  coal. 

4.    By  J.  E.  Mark,  F.E.S. 

(1)  What  is  coal  Y — A  non-scientific  term  introduced  into  scientific 
nomenclature  for  substances  of  divers  character,  and,  therefore, 
probably  of  different  modes  of  origin. 

(2)  Was  the  Carboniferous  period  one  where  conditions  suitable  to 
formation  of  coal  were  unusually  loidespread? 

Coincidence  at  this  period  of  dominant  giant  cryptogams,  extensive 
plains  of  sedimentation,  and  suitable  climatic  conditions.  Such 
coincidence  never  occurred  before  or  after  the  Carboniferous  period. 

(o)  What  loorlc  shoidd  be  done  in  order  to  advance  our  hwioledge 
of  origin  of  coal  ? 

In  the  past  light  has  been  thrown  on  coal-formation  by  chemical, 
petrological,  palgeontological,  and  stratigraphical  studies,  and  these 
should  be  continued. 

(a)  Chemical. — Importance  of  study  of  chemical  composition  of 
fire-clays  and  other  accompaniments  of  coal  in  addition  to  coal  itself. 

(h)  Petrological.  —  Dr.  Sorby's  work  on  origin  of  grains  of 
mechanically  formed  rocks  (sandstones,  etc.)  should  be  continued. 

(c)  Palaontological. — Studies  of  faunas  and  floras  throwing  light 
on  physical  and  also  on  climatic  conditions. 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — NO.  I.  3 

34  Notices  of  Memoirs — On  Strike-Majis. 

(d)  StratigrapJiical. — Much  detailed  work  is  required  in  many 
parts  of  the  world  to  discover  over  what  periods  coal-formation 
occurred  in  exceptional  amount.  Tendency  at  outset  to  refer  all 
Upper  Palaeozoic  coal-formations  to  the  Coal-measures. 

IIL — On    the    Construction   and   Uses   of    Stkike-Maps.^     By 
J.  LoMAS,  A.R.C.S.,  F.G.S. 

IN  studying  the  deformations  which  a  series  of  rocks  have  undergone, 
we  are  apt  to  regard  the  vertical  movements  as  all-important, 
and  neglect  the  horizontal  movements  to  which  they  have  been 
subjected.  This  is  largely  owing  to  the  difficulties  experienced 
in  picturing  such  horizontal  movements  and  representing  them 
on  a  plan.  Lines  dependent  on  surface  inequalities  confuse  the 
worker  when  he  seeks  to  use  the  ordinary  geological  maps  for  this 
purpose.  It  is  easy  to  get  rid  of  these  lines  by  projecting  the 
strikes  of  the  beds  on  to  a  horizontal  plane.  We  then  have  the 
appearance  that  would  be  produced  if  the  country  were  planed  down 
to  a  horizontal  surface.  The  outcrops  would  coincide  with  the 
strikes,  and  any  deviation  from  straight  lines  would  indicate 
horizontal  movements.  Vertical  movements  would  also  be  shown 
on  such  a  plan  by  the  closing  up  of  outcrops  of  beds  of  equal 
thickness.  All  the  data  necessary  to  represent  these  features 
on  a  strike-map  are  given  in  the  ordinary  Geological  Survey 
sheets.  To  construct  such  a  map,  first  trace  the  dips  given 
on  the  geological  map  and  draw  short  lines  at  the  points  of  the 
arrows,  at  right  angles  to  the  direction  of  dip.  We  thus  have 
represented  the  strikes  of  the  beds  at  a  number  of  points.  Now 
it  is  necessary'-  to  connect  these  up  by  lines  to  show  the  strike  at 
intermediate  places.  It  would  not  be  safe  to  connect  one  line  with 
another,  as  the  strikes  may  refer  to  different  beds.  In  order  to 
overcome  this  difficulty,  draw  a  series  of  lines  parallel  to  the  strike 
line  on  both  sides  of  it.  On  doing  this  for  all  the  positions  it  will 
be  found  that  the  lines  either  connect  themselves  in  linear  series, 
or  we  have  represented  a  series  of  tangents  to  curves  which  become 
evident  when  the  lines  are  prolonged  in  the  direction  of  the  strike. 
Care  should  be  taken  not  to  connect  in  the  same  line  strikes  with 
dips  in  contrary  directions,  and  it  is  well  to  represent  the  dip  side  of 
the  strike  lines  by  a  short  mark  i        .      When  the  amount  of 

dip  is  known,  as  well  as  the  direction,  we  can  represent  the 
steepness  of  the  folds  by  suitable  shading,  either  by  hachures  or 
closeness  of  strike  lines.  As  an  illustration  I  exhibit  strike  maps 
of  the  district  about  Clitheroe,  including  the  well-known  knolls 
at  Worsa  and  Gerna.  The  anticlinal  ridge  just  north  of  Chatburn 
is  clearly  shown,  and  the  strata  dipping  with  wavy  folds  towards 
the  Kibble  on  the  north  and  Clitheroe  on  the  south.  The  Salt  Hill 
quarries  are  excavated  in  this  southern  slope  at  a  place  where  the 
fold  becomes  acute.  The  knolls  at  Worsa  and  Gerna  appear  like 
whirls  or  eddies,  such  as  may  be  seen  in  a  stream  when  the  flow  is 
obstructed  by  boulders  in  the  stream  bed. 
1  Eead  before  the  Eritish  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

Notices  of  JTeinoirs — G.  Ahhott — Magnesian  Concretions.      35 

3V. — The   Coxcretionary   Types    in    the    Cellular    Magnesian 
Limestone  of  Durham.^     By  G.  Abbott,  M.R.C.S. 

A  SSOCIATED  with  the  Cannon-ball  bed  near  Sunderland  is 
j\_  a  cellular  limestone  which  is  much  more  extensive,  and  exhibits 
^till  more  remarkable  physical  features.  Although  described  by 
Professor  Sedgwick  more  than  sixty  years  ago  with  other  magnesiau 
beds  in  the  North  of  England,  it  is  still  compai'atively  unknown.  He 
divided  the  concretions  in  these  strata  into  four  classes,  but  I  have 
been  unable  to  find  any  classified  collection  except  the  one  in  the 
Newcastle  Museum,  and  even  in  this  series  it  is  only  partially  done. 

My  own  studies  at  Fulwell  and  Hendon  lead  me  to  suggest  a  new 
classification,  with  five  primary  forms,  viz. :  (1)  rods,  (2)  bands, 
(3)  rings,  (4)  balls  and  modified  spheres,  (5)  eggs.  Combinations  of 
these  forms  constitute  the  major  part  of  these  massive  beds,  and 
frequently  a  bed  of  less  than  a  foot  thick  shows  examples  of  several 
different  combinations.  These  I  place  in  ten  classes,  though  they  may 
have  to  be  added  to.  The  chief  types  are  (1)  tubes,  (2) '  cauliflowers,' 
(3)  basaltiform,  (4)  irregulai',  (5  and  G)  troughs  and  bands  (two 
kinds),  (7)  '  floral,'  (S  and  9)  '  honeycomb  '  or  coralloid  (two  kinds), 
(10)  pseudo-organic. 

I  exhibit  photographs  on  the  screen  showing  both  the  primary 
forms  and  the  combinations  as  seen  (wherever  possible)  in  the 
undisturbed  rock  sections. 

My  own  conclusions  are  as  follows : — 

1.  That  the  rod  structure  is  secondary  to  the  formation  of  the 
conspicuous  bands  which  run  across  the  beds  at  various  angles. 
(These  bands  need  to  be  distinguished  from  the  bands  mentioned 
among  the  '  primary  forms.')  The  conspicuous  bands  act  as  planes 
of  origin  for  the  '  rods,'  and  do  not  cross  through  the  long  axes  of 
the  rods  themselves.  They  appear  never  to  cross  the  bedding 
planes,  though  occasionally  they  follow  them  and  also  the  outline 
of  the  joints.  The  question  therefore  arises,  whether  this  does  not 
give  us  a  clue  to  the  age  and  sequence  of  the  changes  which  have 
occurred  in  these  beds,  and  whether  the  previous  existence  of  joints 
does  not  mean  that  the  beds  were  already  above  the  sea-level  when 
the  changes  commenced. 

2.  The  rods  invariably  start  from  the  last-mentioned  bands,  and 
may  be  seen  at  every  possible  angle.  As  they  have  grown  upwards 
and  obliquely  as  well  as  downwards  the  term  '  stalactitic '  is  a  very 
misleading  one  to  use.  As  Mr.  Garwood  stated  long  ago,  these  beds 
"  present  many  points  which  appear  irreconcilable  with  the  theory  of 
their  stalactitic  origin." 

3.  The  first  step  in  the  series  of  changes  which  have  taken 
place  was  probably  an  orderly  but  unsymmetrical  arrangement  of 
amorphous  molecules  of  calcium  carbonate  which  separated  them- 

.  selves  from  those  of  the  carbonate  of  magnesia. 

4.  The  internal  architecture  is  due  to  such  arrangement  of 
amorphous  particles  of  lime  which  has  since  been  coated  with  an 

^  Eeud  before  the  British  Association,  Sectiou  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

36        Notices  of  Memoirs — A.  C.  Seward* s  Jurassic  Flora. 

outer  crystalline  layer.  In  some  cases,  however,  the  entire  mass- 
has  undergone  a  complete  subsequent  change  into  a  crystalline- 

5.  Peai'l-spar  (crystals  of  the  combined  carbonates)  is  seldom  met 
with.     I  failed  to  find  any. 

6.  In  the  Fulwell  beds  there  are  very  few  fossils,  and  where  met 
with,  as  at  Mai'sden,  concretionary  action  is  seldom  traceable  near  them. 

7.  The  specimens  at  Fulwell  which  arouse  the  most  interest 
are  coralloid  masses  ('  honeycomb '  of  the  quarrymen).  They  are 
confined,  so  far  as  I  could  discover,  to  a  stratum,  about  1^  foot  thick, 
above  the  marl  bed,  and  lie  in  close  juxtaposition  to  each  other, 
which  accounts  for  their  peculiar  external  shape. 

In  conclusion  I  would  point  out  the  close  resemblance  which  exists- 
between  the  '  lines '  and  '  planes '  in  these  concretionary  beds,  and 
the  '  lines '  which  shoot  across  congealing  water.  In  some  respects- 
the  architecture  of  the  magnesian  beds  compares  with  the  ice- 
decorations  seen  on  our  window-panes  in  frosty  weather. 

V.  —  The    Jurassic    Flora    of    East    Yorkshire.^      By    A.    C. 
Seward,  F.R.S. 

THE  plant-beds  exposed  in  the  cliff  sections  of  the  Yorkshire 
coast  have  afforded  unusually  rich  data  towards  a  restoration 
of  the  characteristics  and  composition  of  a  certain  facies  of  Mesozoic 
vegetation.  Eich  collections  of  plants  from  Gristhorpe  Bay  and 
other  well-known  localities  are  found  in  the  British  Museum  (Natural 
History),  also  in  the  Museums  of  Scarborough,  Whitby,  Cambridge, 
Oxford,  Manchester,  York,  Newcastle,  Leeds,  and  elsewhere.  Th& 
Natural  History  Museum,  Paris,  contains  several  important  York- 
shire plants,  some  of  which  have  been  described  by  Brongniart  and 
Saporta.  The  following  species  have  been  recognized  from  the  East 
Yorkshire  area  :  — 

MarcJiantites  erectiis  (Leek.,  ex  Bean  MS.) ;  Equisetites  columnaris,. 
Brongn. ;  Equisetites  Beani  (Bunb.)  ;  Lycopodites  falcatus,  L.  &  H.  - 
Cladophlebis  denticidata  (Brongn.)  ;  C.  haiburnensis  (L.  &  H.) ;  C  lohi- 
folia  (Phill.) :  Coniopteris  arguta  (L.  &  H.)  ;  C.  hjmenophylloides 
(Brongn.) ;  G.  quinqueloha  (Phill.) ;  Dictyophi/llum  rugosum,  L.  &  H.  ; 
Klulcia  exilis  (Phill.) ;  Laccopteris  polypodioides  (Brongn.) ;  L.  Wood- 
wardi  (Leek.)  ;  Matonidium  Goepperti  (Ett.)  ;  Pacliypteris  lanceolata, 
Brongn.  ;  Biiffordia  Goepperti  (Dunk.)  ;  Sagenopteris  PhilUpsi 
(Brongn.)  ;  Sphenopteris  Mtirrayana  (Brongn.)  ;  S.  Williamsoni, 
Brongn.  ;  Tceniopteris  major,  L.  &  H.  ;  T.  vittata,  Brongn. ;  Todites- 
Williamsoni  (Brongn.);  Anomozamites  Nilssoni  (Phill.) ;  Araucarites 
Phillipsi,  Carr ;  Baiera  gracilis,  Jimib.  ;  B.  Lindleyana  (Schimp.)  ;. 
£.  Phillipsi,  Nath. ;  Beania  gracilis,  Carr  ;  Brachypliyllum  mammillare, 
Brongn.  ;  Cheirolepis  setosus  (Phill.)  ;  Cryptomerites  divaricatus, 
Bunb. ;  Ctenis  falcata,  L.  &  H. ;  Czehanoioslcia  Murrayana  (L.  &  H.) ; 
Dioonites  Nathorsti,  sp.  nov. ;  Ginkgo  digitata  (Brongn.)  ;  G.  ichithi- 
ensis,  Nath.  ;  Nageiopsis  anglica,  sp.  nov.  ;  Nilssonia  compta  (Phill.) ; 

1  Eead  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900.- 

Befieics — The  Bntcina)i  Collection  hi  the  Sheffield  Museum.     37 

y.  viediana  (Leek.,  ex  Bean  MS.) ;  N.  teniunervis,  Natli, ;  Otozamltes 
iu'iminatus  (L.  &  H.) ;  0.  Beani  (L.  &  H.) ;  0.  Bunhtiryaims,  Zign.  ; 
O.  Feistmanteli,  Zign. ;  0.  graphicus  (Leek.,  ex  Bean  MS.)  ;  O.  obtusus 
(L.  &  H.),  var.  ooliticus  ;  0.  parallelns  (Phill.) ;  Fagiophyllnm  William- 
*oi«*  (Brongn.)  ;  Fodozamites  lanceolatiis  (L.  &  H.) ;  Ptilozamites 
(Leek.,  ex  Bean  MS.)  ;  Taxites  zamioides  (Leek.)  ;  WilUamsonia 
gigas  (L.  &  H.)  ;    W.  pecten  (Phill.). 

The  English  flora  is  eompared  by  the  author  with  Eha^tie,  Jurassic, 
and  Wealden  floras  of  other  regions  ;  a  eomparison  is  made  also 
between  the  fossil  flora  and  the  vegetation  of  the  present  day. 

VL — On  the  Fish   Fauna  of  the  Yokkshire   Coalfields.^     By 
Edgar  D.  Wellp.urn,  F.G.S. 

ONLY  the  Lower  and  Middle  Coal-measures  are  present.  The 
author  described  the  Lower  Measures,  their  extent  and  general 
characters,  with  their  beds  of  marine  and  fresh-water  origin.  The 
Middle  Measui-es  and  their  general  character  :  formed  in  a  series  of 
fresh-water  lake  basins.  The  author  described  the  fish-remains, 
where  found  and  in  what  state  of  preservation.  Elasraobranchs, 
Teleosteans  (and  in  some  cases  Dipnoans),  commingled,  i.e.  marine 
and  fresh-water  types  in  the  same  beds  ;  Elasmobranchs  found  in 
marine  and  fresh-water  beds  ;  Dipnoi  only  found  under  fresh- water 
conditions.  Teleostean  orders,  Crossopterygii  and  Actinopterygii 
found  in  both  fresh- water  and  marine  beds.  The  conditions  under 
which  coal  was  deposited  was  shown  to  have  a  bearing  on  the 
occurrence  and  habits  of  the  fishes.  The  swim-bladder  of  Co3la- 
canths,  and  its  peculiar  use  to  them  under  certain  conditions.  The 
Elasmobranchii  were  represented  by  eleven  genera  and  twenty-three 
species ;  Ichtbyodorulites  by  seven  genera  and  eight  species  ;  Dipnoi 
by  two  genera  and  two  species  ;  and  the  Teleostomi  by  twelve 
genera  and  thirty-three  species.  A  tabular  list  of  fish-remains  was 
given  showing  their  stratigraphical  distribution  ;  several  new  fish- 
bearing  coal  shales  were  recorded,  the  distribution  and  vertical 
range  of  the  Yorkshire  coal-fishes  being  thus  greatly  extended  ; 
several  genera  and  species  new  to  Yorkshire,  and  others  new  to 
science,  were  referred  to  by  the  author. 

I^  IE  "V  IIB  AAT'  S. 

-I. — Catalogue   of  the  Bateilvn  Collection   of   Antiquities   in 

THE  Sheffield  Public   Museum.      Prepared  by  E.  Howarth, 

F.R.A.S.,  F.Z.S.,  Curator  of  the  Public  Museum  and  Mappin  Art 

Gallery.     8vo ;   pp.  xxiv  and  2o4,  with  2G2  illustrations  in  the 

text.     Published  by  order  of  the  Committee.     (London  :  Dulau 

&  Co.,  1899.     Price  3s.  Qd.) 

rilHE    very  valuable  and  interesting  collection  which   forms  the 

X      subject  of  this  excellent  Catalogue  is  not  only  entirely  British, 

but  is  confined  to  Derbyshire,  Staftbrdshire,  and  Yorkshire,  and  is 

the  work  of   three    generations    of   Batemans    of   Middleton    Hall, 

1  Kead  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

38     Revieivs — The  Bateman  Collection  in  the  Sheffield  Museum. 

Derbyshire,  from  1759  to  184:7,  assisted  by  Mr.  Samuel  Carringtou 
in  Staffordshire,  Mr.  James  Euddock  in  the  North  Eidiug  of  York- 
shire, Mr.  Stephen  Glover  in  Derbyshire,  and  Mr.  Samuel  Mitchell 
of  Sheffield,  an  antiquary  of  wide  erudition. 

Following  the  Collection,  the  Catalogue  is  arranged  as  under,  viz. : 

Celtic  Period  :  Stone  and  bronze  weapons  and  utensils,  Nos.  1-526, 
pp.  1-89  ;  urns  and  other  pottery,  Nos.  757-896,  pp.  91-156  • 
miscellaneous  objects,  crania,  querns,  Nos.  897-985,  pp.  157- 
174 ;  tools,  personal  ornaments,  Nos.  527-598,  pp.  175-190. 

Eomano-British  Period  :  Nos.  599-687  and  986-1117,  pp.  191-218. 

Anglo-Saxon  Period  :  Nos.  688-756,  pp.  219-231. 

Miscellaneous  Objects  ;  Nos.  1118-1288,  pp.  232-254. 

In  his  excellent  Introduction  Mr.  Howarth  observes  that :  '•'Eecords- 
of  the  dead  are  almost  the  only  means  whereby  any  reliable  account 
can  be  constructed  of  the  life  and  customs  of  the  earliest  inhabitants 
of  Britain,  with  whom  writing  was  unknown  ;  pictorial  art,  if  not 
quite  beyond  their  skill,  was  of  the  simplest  kind,  and  their 
dwellings  were  of  such  a  temporary  and  unsubstantial  character  that 
all  traces  of  them  vanished  before  the  historical  period.  The  care 
of  the  dead  forms  their  most  lasting  memorials,  and  it  is  thes& 
sepultural  mounds  that  furnish  the  principal  information  respecting 
the  early  Britons.  Derbyshire  has  contained  many  conspicuous 
examples  of  ancient  barrows,  tumuli,  or  grave-mounds,  and, 
fortunately,  amongst  the  Bateman  family  there  were  men  of  leisure^ 
means,  and  knowledge,  with  the  taste  for  exploring  these  sepulchral- 
storehouses  and  carefully  preserving  them  ;  and  it  was  chiefly  owing 
to  the  labours  of  Mr.  Thomas  Bateman  that  the  collection  which 
bore  his  family  name  w^as  formed."     (p.  v.) 

"Under  the  Celtic  Period  are  grouped  all  those  objects  found  in 
the  burial-places,  or  in  any  way  associated  with  the  ancient  Britons, 
■whether  belonging  to  the  round-headed  or  long-headed  races,  two 
distinct  types  which  may  have  sprung  from  two  different  groups 
afterwards  associated  together.  Authorities  agree  in  regarding  tlifr 
earliest  race  inhabiting  these  islands  as  Celts,  and  as  the  exact 
indications  of  time  are  few  there  is  the  freer  scope  for  the  imagina- 
tion. Let  us  take  it,  then,  that  1600  years  before  Christ,  Britain 
was  inhabited  by  a  Celtic  race  of  long-headed  men  of  low  mental 
development  and  small  stature.  The  Phoenicians  traded  with  Britain 
for  tin,  lead,  and  skins,  600  years  before  Christ ;  and  about  500  b.c. 
Hecatus,  a  Greek  writer,  describes  Britain  as  an  island  opposite  the^ 
coast  of  Gaul  about  as  large  as  Sicily. 

"In  or  about  the  year  350  b.c.  the  Belga?,  a  tribe  descended  from 
the  Scythians,  invaded  the  island.  They  were  men  of  larger  stature^ 
than  the  Celts,  their  heads  were  round  rather  than  long,  and  they 
were  inured  to  the  dangers  and  hardships  of  wai*.  The  Belgfe^ 
conquered  and  occupied  the  southern  and  south-western  counties, 
driving  the  Celts  to  the  north  and  north-west.  When  the  Eomans- 
invaded  the  island,  first  in  55  b.c.  under  Julius  C^sar,  and  about 
a  century  later  in  the  reign  of  Claudius,  the  Belga^  were  the  tribes. 

Heviews — T/ie  Bcifeman  Collection  in  the  Sheffield  Museum.     30 

first  encountered.  The  skulls  found  in  the  barrows  mainly  belong 
to  the  round-headed  type,  some  of  them  being  mesaticephalous, 
representing  the  characters  of  the  two  types."     (p.  vi.) 

It  is  interesting  to  notice  the  "very  great  care  and  trouble 
expended  over  the  construction  of  many  of  the  grave-mounds, 
probably  those  in  which  were  deposited  chiefs  of  tribes  or  important 
individuals  of  the  community,  for  it  is  impossible  that  these  huge 
mounds,  which  sometimes  contain  only  a  single  interment,  and 
never  very  many,  could  have  been  constructed  for  all  the  people 
who  died.  It  is  these  barrows  or  tumuli  which  furnish  the  evidence 
of  the  customs,  habits,  and  rites  of  these  ancient  people. 

"  The  chief  characteristic  of  a  Celtic  place  of  burial  is  a  large 
mound,  sometimes  circular,  in  other  cases  oval,  and  more  rarely 
long-shaped,  the  latter  being  regarded  as  the  most  ancient.  These 
mounds  dififer  considerably  in  dimensions,  from  20  to  200  feet  in 
diameter  and  from  1  to  24  feet  in  height.  They  were  usually 
placed  in  a  conspicuous  position  on  or  near  the  summit  of  some 
natural  elevation  of  the  land.  The  mounds  of  earth  and  stone  are 
called  barrows,  and  are  formed  of  materials  from  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  the  situation  in  which  they  were  placed.  In 
some  cases  a  mound  of  stones  or  a  cairn  was  erected  over  the 
dead."     (p.  vii.) 

Burial  by  Cremation. — '•  Where  the  bodies  were  cremated  the 
ashes  were  afterwards  carefully  collected  together,  tied  up  in  some 
fabric,  and  placed  on  the  ground ;  or  they  were  covered  by  or  put 
into  an  urn,  and  frequently  placed  in  a  cist  or  in  a  cavity  hewn  in 
the  rock." 

Ordinarrj  Interment. — "Inhumation  was  the  more  common  mode 
of  burial,  the  body  probably  being  wrapped  in  some  skin  or  garment, 
for  although  these  have  long  since  perished,  pins,  buttons,  and  other 
articles  found  in  barrows  indicate  that  they  were  used  as  fastenings 
for  sepulchral  clothing  of  some  kind.  Some  barrows  contain  burnt 
and  unburnt  bones,  one  body  having  been  interred  in  the  position  in 
which  it  died,  while  the  others  were  burnt ;  and  it  may  be  inferred 
from  these  occurrences  that  the  sacrifice  of  human  life  at  the  death 
of  a  chief  was  practised  amongst  the  ancient  Britons,  as  is  the  custom 
in  recent  times  with  many  uncivilized  races.  The  wife,  children,  or 
slaves  may  thus  have  been  immolated  to  keep  the  head  of  the  family 
company  in  a  future  world."     (p.  viii.) 

Objects  found  in  Celtic  Tumuli  and  Barroios. — "The  contents  of  the 
graves  lead  strongly  to  the  supposition  that  belief  in  a  future  state 
was  held  by  these  jirimitive  people,  provision  evidently  being  made 
for  them  to  carry  on  their  work  and  amusements.  Besides  the 
cinerary  urns,  which  were  obviously  intended  to  contain  the  cremated 
bones,  other  vessels  of  three  distinct  types  have  been  found  with 
interments,  both  of  burnt  and  unburnt  bodies.  These  are  generally 
known  as  food-vessels,  drinkiug-cups,  and  incense-cups,  though  it 
must  not  be  inferred  that  they  were  strictly  used  for  the  purposes 
implied  in  those  names."     (p.  viii.) 

"  Implements   and   weapons,    both    in    stone    and    bronze,    are 

40     Revieics — The  Bateman  Collection  in  the  Sheffield  Museum. 

frequently  found  in  barrows,  as  also  personal  ornaments  in  the 
shape  of  necklaces,  glass  beads,  buttons,  bronze  and  bone  pins. 
Numerous  examples  of  these  finds  are  recorded,  amongst  them  being 
some  pieces  of  red  ochre,  the  rouge  of  that  period,  used  for  decorating 
the  body.  Although  the  use  of  iron  was  then  unknown,  pieces  of 
rubbed  and  polished  iron-ore  have  been  found  in  barrows,  as  if  they 
had  some  special  significance  as  charms. 

"  Stone  and  bronze  weapons  are  sometimes  found  in  the  same 
grave,  the  two  materials  evidently  being  used  at  the  same  period, 
probably  this  marking  the  time  when  bronze  first  came  into  use 
and  before  it  had  been  generally  adopted.  A  leaf-shaped  dagger  is 
the  principal  bronze  weapon  found  in  a  grave,  bronze  implements 
being  much  less  numerous  than  those  of  stone.  The  pins  in  bronze 
and  bone  and  the  buttons  in  Kimmeridge  Coal  show  that  some 
form  of  dress  was  worn  which  these  were  intended  to  fasten."  (p.  ix.) 

Mr.  Howarth  draws  the  following  conclusions  : — "  It  would  appear 
from  the  teachings  of  the  tombs  of  the  ancient  Britons  that  they 
were  in  a  serai-savage  state,  without  any  fixed  religion,  with  the 
sagacity  to  make  tools,  vessels,  weapons,  and  implements  for  daily 
use.  That  the  use  of  stone  only  gradually  gave  place  to  the  use  of 
bronze  from  an  acquired  knowledge  of  the  properties  of  the  ores 
of  copper,  tin,  zinc,  and  lead.  While  no  special  differentiation 
of  purpose  is  shown  in  their  manufactures,  yet  they  indicated 
a  separation  of  certain  objects  for  distinct  uses.  Clothing  was  worn 
amongst  them,  consisting  of  skins  and  probably  manufactured  stuffs, 
such  as  jute  and  flax.  They  cultivated  the  soil  to  a  certain  extent, 
and  had  domestic  animals  for  labour  and  sustenance.  While 
believing  in  a  future  state,  their  ideas  of  religion  were  of  a  very 
vague  character,  and  they  still  practised  certain  barbarous  rites 
which  belong  only  to  savages.  The  period  which  is  covered  by  the 
history  of  Celtic  barrows  probably  extends  over  many  hundreds  of 
years,  and  they  show  the  advance  the  people  had  made  during  that 
time,  ranging  through  the  later  or  neolithic  stone-period  to  the 
opening  of  the  age  of  bronze,  the  people  of  the  PalsBolithic  period 
being  much  more  ancient  than  the  architects  of  these  barrows,  and 
of  a  much  more  primitive  type."     (p.  xviii.) 

Space  does  not  permit  us  to  give  a  fuller  notice  of  this  very 
excellent  and  well-illustrated  Catalogue  and  Guide  to  one  of  the 
most  valuable  collections  of  its  kind  to  be  seen  in  any  museum  in 
this  country.  We  venture  to  suggest  to  the  author  that  the  very 
beautiful  necklaces,  said  to  be  of  '  Kimmeridge  Coal,'  figured  on 
p.  59  (J.  93,  431,  G.  79),  p.  Gl  (J.  93,  434,  G.  113),  and  p.  63 
(G.  158),  were  really  originally  made  of  jet  from  Whitby,  which, 
owing  to  damp,  etc.,  have  lost  their  pristine  lustre  and  become  decom- 
posed by  age  and  long  interment  in  the  earth,  until  they  resemble 
Kimmeridge  Coal  or  '  Brown-coal '  in  aspect.  We  compliment 
Mr.  Howarth  upon  the  production  of  this  excellent  Catalogue  of  the 
Bateman  Collection,  and  the  Committee  of  the  Sheffield  Museum  in 
authorizing  the  publication  with  such  ample  illustrations.  The 
Collection  itself  is  well  worthy  of  a  pilgrimage  to  Sheffield,  nor  is  it 
the  only  one  to  be  seen  in  this  admirable  Museum. 


Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Societg  of  London.        41 

31. — The   Geology   of   the   Country   between   Atherstone  and 
Charnwood   Forest.      By  C.  Fox-StranCxWAYs,  F.G.S.     With 
Notes   on    Chaknwood    Forest    by  Professor  W.  W.  Watts, 
M.A.,  F.G.S.      8vo  ;    pp.  102.      (London  :    printed   for  H.M. 
Stationery  Office,  1900.     Price  2s.) 
f  pmS  Memoir,  which  has  been  written  in  explanation  of  the  New 
1      Series    map,    Sheet    loo,   contains    a   good    deal    of  detailed 
information  of  practical  value  respecting  the  northern  part  of  the 
Warwickshire  Coalfield  and  the  southern  part  of  the  Leicestershire 
Coalfield.     A  number  of  records  of  borings  and  sinkings  are  given. 
Professor  Watts  contributes  a  summary  of  the  interesting  observations 
which  he  made  while  mapping  in  detail  the  old  rocks  of  Charnwood 
Forest.     These  he  groups  in  the  '  Charnian  System,'  whose  position 
in  the  great  Pre-Cambrian  sequence  cannot  at  present  be  determined. 
Among   the  other  rocks   dealt   with   by  Mr.   Strangways   are   the 
tStockingford  Shales  (Cambrian),  the  Permian  and  Trias,  the  Glacial, 
and  more  recent  deposits.     With  the  aid  of  Mr.  Whitaker  he  con- 
tributes a  useful  geological  bibliography  of  Leicestershire. 

Geological  Society  of  London. 

I. —November  7, 1900.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair.     The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "Additional  Notes  on  the  Drifts  of  the  Baltic  Coast  of 
-Germany."  By  Professor  T.  G.  Bonney,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S., 
and  the  Eev.  E.  Hill,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

The  authors,  prior  to  revisiting  Riigen,  examined  sections  of  the 
Drift  to  the  west  of  Warnemiinde,  with  a  view  of  comparing  it  with 
that  of  the  Cromer  coast.  Where  the  cliffs  reach  their  greatest 
elevation,  two  or  three  miles  from  that  town,  they  are  composed  of 
a  stony  clay,  which  occasionally  becomes  sandy.  At  intervals, 
however,  sand  interbanded  with  clay  occurs,  filling  what  appear  to 
be  small  valleys  in  the  Drift.  A  layer  of  grit  and  stones,  occasionally 
associated  with  a  boulder,  occurs  once  or  twice  between  these  sands 
and  clays.  The  valleys  are  excavated  in  the  great  mass  of  stony 
clay  which  extends  for  four  or  five  miles  to  the  west  of  Warnemiinde; 
and  the  synclinal  slope  of  the  layers  and  the  contortion  of  the  under- 
lying bedded  sands  indicate  that  the  mass  filling  them  has  been  let 
down  as  a  whole,  either  by  solution  of  the  Chalk  beneath  the  Drift 
or  by  the  melting  of  underlying  ice.  Of  these  two  hypotheses  the 
authors  view  the  latter  with  the  more  favour,  but  it  also  has  its 

In  Eiigen,  Arkona  was  visited ;  here  Chalk  occurs,  apparently  as 
a  sort  of  island  in  the  Drift.  At  the  well-known  locality  by  the 
lighthouse  it  seems  to  overlie  a  drift,  but  on  closer  examination  the 
latter  appears  more  probably  to  have  filled  a  cavity  excavated  in  the 
Chalk,  this  apparent  inlier  of  Drift  probably  being  only  a  remnant 
of  a  much  larger  mass;  therefore  it  is  likel}'  that  this  part  of  the 

42        Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

coast  nearly  corresponds  witli  a  pre-Glacial  chalk-cliff  against  whicli 
the  Drift  was  deposited. 

In  the  Jasmund  district  the  authors  lay  special  emphasis  on  three 
points: — (1)  The  'inliers'  of  Drift  appear  to  occupy  valleys 
excavated  in  the  Chalk ;  (2)  these  valleys  can  be  traced  for  some 
distance  inland;  (3)  the  steep  walls  of  Chalk  towards  which  the 
Drift  dips  sharply,  and  against  which  it  ends  abruptly  (usually  OU' 
the  southern  side),  often  trend  gradually  inland,  as  if  the  present 
coastline  had  passed  obliquelj'^  across  an  old  valley.  In  one  or 
two  instances  the  Drift  is  slightly  twisted  up  against  this  steep 
face  of  Chalk.  The  authors  call  attention  to  cases  where  the  Drift 
clearly  rests  against  old  surfaces  and  cliffs  of  Chalk ;  and  to  one  in 
particular,  which  was  not  visible  in  1898,  where  (o)  clay,  (h)  sand,. 
and  (c)  clay  occupy  a  shallow  valley,  and  have  assumed  a  synclinal 
form.  The  authors  give  reasons  to  show  that  neither  solution  of 
the  Chalk,  nor  ice-thrust,  nor  folding,  nor  even  faulting,  can 
satisfactorily  explain  the  peculiar  relations  of  the  Drift  and  Chalk 
in  Eiigen ;  and  they  can  find  no  better  explanation  than  that  offered^ 
in  their  previous  paper. 

2.  "  On  certain  Altered  Eocks  from  near  Bastogne  and  their 
Eelations  to  others  in  the  District."  By  Catherine  A.  Eaisin,  D.Sc. 
(Communicated  by  Professor  T.  G.  Bonney,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.^ 

Professor  Eenard,  from  the  petrographical  study  of  specimens, 
and  Professor  Gosselet,  after  description  of  the  district  and  its- 
stratigraphy,  have  attributed  the  changes  in  these  rocks  to 
mechanical  disturbances.  Dumont  had  previouslj'^  described  many 
examples  and  inclined  to  the  view  of  contact-alteration,  which  was 
favoured  by  Von  Lasaulx's  discovery  of  a  granite  in  the  Hohe  Venn 
and  M.  Dupont's  identification  of  chiastolite  from  Libramont. 

The  present  paper  treats  especially  of  the  garnetiferous  and 
hornblendic  rocks,  giving  the  full  petrographical  and  field  details 
of  a  few  examples.  It  points  out  that  the  eflects  of  pressure  are- 
evident  over  the  whole  district,  while  mineral  modifications 
resembling  the  results  of  slight  contact-action  are  found  in  certain 
areas.  In  a  few  cases  these  modifications  are  more  marked,  and 
sometimes  increase  as  we  approach  veins  composed  of  quartz, 
felspar,  and  mica,  such  as  might  be  connected  with  a  concealed- 

The  peculiar  garnetiferous  and  hornblendic  rocks,  although 
occurring  within  the  zone  of  alteration,  are  extremely  limited, 
often  forming  patches  or  bands  a  few  feet  across.  Thej'^  diff'er,  as 
described  in  the  paper,  from  ordinary  contact-altered  rocks.  The- 
evidence,  in  the  authoress's  opinion,  is  in  favour  of  Prof.  Bonney's 
suggestion  that  they  are  due  to  some  form  of  hot-spring  action. 

II.— Nov.  21,  1900.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair.     The  following  communications  were  read  : — 
1.  "  A  Monchiqnite  from  Mount  Girnar,  Junagarh  (Kathiawar)." 
By  John  William  Evans,  D.Sc,  LL.B.,  F.G.S. 

Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London.         43 

After  a  brief  account  of  tbe  rocks  of  the  moncbiquite  tj'pe,  in 
wbicb  ferromagnesian  silicates  are  embedded  in  an  isotropic  matrix 
with  the  chemical  constitution  of  analcime,  the  author  describes  aU' 
example  from  Mount  Girnar,  where  it  is  associated  with  a  nepheline- 
syenite  intrusive  in  a  mica-augite-diorite. 

The  most  striking  feature  of  this  rock  is  the  occurrence  of 
colourless  spheres  of  various  sizes  up  to  about  1  mm.  in  diameter. 
The  rest  of  the  rock  is  mainly  composed  of  a  hornblende  of  the 
barkevikite  type ;  a  pale-green  augite  is  also  present.  Both  the 
spherical  spaces  and  the  interstices  between  the  ferromagnesian 
silicates  are  usually  filled  with  an  isotropic  material  which  has  th© 
composition  and  most  of  the  physical  properties  of  analcime.  This 
material  does  not,  however,  show  the  anomalous  double-i'efractiou 
which  is  characteristic  of  that  mineral,  nor  has  it  any  crystalline 
outlines,  being  simply  an  allotriomorphic  glass-like  groundmass.  It 
contains  a  large  number  of  acicular  inclusions,  most  of  which  do  not 
affect  polarized  light ;  they  exhibit  a  parallel  arrangement  in  one  or 
more  directions,  and  appear  to  indicate  a  high  degree  of  symmetry. 
Cleavage  -  cracks  with  similar  orientation  may  be  occasionally 
observed.  As  it  is  clearly  a  crystalline  body,  its  isotropic  nature 
refers  it  to  the  cubic  system,  and  its  identity  with  analcime  maj' 
be  considered  proved.  It  is  evident  that  this  mineral,  growing 
outward  from  different  centres,  has  formed  the  spherical  spaces  by 
pushing  aside  the  previously  crystallized  minerals  until  they  came 
into  contact  one  with  the  other,  and  has  afterwards  crystallized  in 
the  interstices  between  them. 

The  presence  of  a  groundmass  of  analcime  (or  one  having  the 
same  composition)  in  all  the  members  of  the  widely  distributed' 
inonchiquite  group  of  rocks  implies  the  occurrence  in  dift'ei'ent 
localities  of  a  residuary  magma  of  uniform  composition,  which 
remains  liquid  after  the  other  constituents  of  the  rock  hav& 
crystallized  out.  Analcime  must,  therefore,  represent  an  eutectic 
compound.  If  the  cooling  were  sufficiently  rapid  the  magma 
would  consolidate  as  a  glass,  as  may  be  the  case  with  some 
monchiquites.  On  the  other  hand,  where  such  a  magma  has 
separated  and  cooled  slowly  enough,  a  nepheline-syenite  will  be 

At  some  points  the  analcime  in  the  spheres  and  in  the  interstices- 
has  become  decomposed  into  alkali-felspars  and  nepheline,  as  in  the 
IDSeudo-leucites  of  Dr.  Hussak,  so  that   in   these   places  the  rock 
might  be  described  as  a  hornblende-tinguaite.     In  other  parts  much 
of  the  analcime  has  passed  into  cancrinite. 

The  presence  of  a  mineral  of  the  eudialyte-eucolite  group  is  also 

2.  "The  Geology  of  Mynydd-y-Garn  (Anglesey)."  By  Charles  A. 
Matley,  Esq.,  B.Sc,  F.G.S. 

Mynydd-y-Garn,  a  hill  of  less  than  600  feet  elevation,  stands 
above  the  village  of  Llanfair-y'nghornwy  in  North-West  Anglesey. 
The  mass  of  the  hill  is  an  inlier  of  sericitic  and  chloritic  phyllites 
(Garu   Phyllites),  surmounted    by  a  massive   conglomerate   (Garu. 

44       Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

'Conglomerate),  and  surrounded  by  black  slates  and  shales  of 
apparently  Upper  Llandeilo  age.  The  general  dip  of  all  the  rocks 
is  northerly  and  north-easterly. 

The  Garn  Phyllites  are  usually  green  altered  shales  and  fine 
gritty  rocks,  and  are  intensely  contorted  near  their  southern 
boundary.  Even  whei-e  not  contorted  they  show  under  the  micro- 
scope evidence  of  powerful  earth-movement.  They  are  considered 
by  the  author  to  be  part  of  the  *  Green  Series '  of  Northern 
Anglesey.  They  are  cut  oflf  to  the  west  and  south  by  a  curved 
fault,  probably  a  thrust,  which  brings  them  against  Llandeilo  slates 
and  breccias. 

The  Garn  Conglomerate,  Grit,  and  Breccia,  a  formation  perhaps 
400  feet  thick,  rests  upon  the  Garn  Phyllites  and  contains  fragments 
derived  from  them,  as  well  as  pebbles  of  quartz,  grit,  gneissose  and 
granitic  rocks,  etc.  It  passes  up  gradually  into  black  slates,  from 
which  a  few  Upper  Llandeilo  fossils  have  been  collected.  In  the 
black  slates  an  oolitic  ironstone  or  ferruginous  mudstone  has  been 
found,  which  may  perhaps  be  on  the  same  horizon  as  the  similar 
I'ock  recorded  by  the  author  in  Northern  Anglesey. 

On  the  eastern  side  of  Mynydd-y-Garn  is  another  group  of  rocks, 
ihe  Llanfair-y'nghornwy  Beds,  which  the  author  correlates  with 
the  basal  part  of  his  Llanbadrig  Series.  They  consist  of  phyllites 
resembling  those  below  the  Garn  Conglomerate,  but  they  contain 
also  beds  and  masses  of  quartzite,  grit,  and  limestone.  They  are 
much  broken,  and  partly  in  the  condition  of  crush-conglomerates. 
They  have  been  thrust  over  the  Llandeilo  black  slates,  and  the 
thrust-plane  has  been  traced  to  the  coast  at  Forth  yr  Ebol.  This 
■thrust  is  continuous  with  that  which  forms  the  southern  boundary  of 
1;he  '  Green  Series  '  of  Northern  Anglesey. 

The  district  around  Mynydd-y-Garn  has  been  affected  since 
Llandeilo  times  by  two  powerful  earth-movements,  acting  one  from 
the  north,  the  other  from  the  north-east.  The  first-mentioned 
prevailed  in  the  area  west  and  north-west  of  the  hill,  where  the 
pre-Llandeilo  rocks  are  frequently  shattered  to  crush-conglomerates. 
Around  Mynydd-y-Garn  itself  and  east  of  it  the  principal  direction 
of  movement  has  been  from  the  north-east;  south  of  the  hill  the 
structure  is  perhaps  the  result  of  the  interference  of  these  two 

3.  "  On  some  Altered  Tufaceous  Ehyolitic  Eocks  from  Dufton 
Pike  (Westmorland)."  By  Frank  Eutley,  Esq.,  E.G.S.  With 
Analyses  by  Philip  Holland,  Esq.,  F.I.C.,  F.C.S. 

The  specimens  described  were  collected  by  the  late  Prof.  Green 
and  Mr.  G.  J.  Goodchild  from  the  Borrowdale  volcanic  series  which 
constitutes  the  central  mass  of  Dufton  Pike,  and  the  chief  interest 
attaching  to  them  is  their  alteration,  probably  as  the  result  of 
solfataric  action.  One  of  the  rocks,  which  has  the  composition  of 
a  soda-rhyolite,  contains  felspai',  augite,  magnetite,  and  possibly 
spinel  or  garnet,  scapolite,  and  ilmenite.  The  porphyritic  crystals  of 
felspar  are  much  corroded,  and  are  sometimes  mere  spongy  masses  in 
-which  mica  and  opal-silica  have  been  developed,  together  with  small 

Reports  and  PvoceeiU)i(js — Geological  Socktij  of  London.        4-> 

quantities  of  carbonates.  In  a  second  example,  felspar  fragments- 
appear  as  a  meshwork  of  rods  which  extinguish  simultaneously,, 
and  are  embedded  in  an  isotropic  groundmass  crowded  with  globu- 
lites  and  little  rods.  A  faint  streakiness,  which  cannot  be  fluxion- 
structure,  passes  through  the  matrix  of  the  rock  and  the  meshwork 
of  the  felspar  fragments  without  deflection.  Analyses  of  the  rocks 
and  diagrams  constructed  from  their  molecular  ratios  correspond 
closely  with  those  of  soda-rhyolite  and  potash-rhyolite  respectively. 

III.— Dec.  5,  1900.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair.     The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "  On  the  Corallian  Rocks  of  St.  Ives  (Hunts)  and  Elsworth." 
By  C.  B.  Wedd,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.G.S.  (Communicated  by  permission 
of  the  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey.) 

Starting  2|  miles  south-west  of  Elsworth,  the  author  traces  the 
Elsworth  Rock  at  intervals  through  Croxton,  Yelling,  Papworth 
Everard,  etc.,  to  Elsworth,  and  thence  towards  Fen  Drayton  and 
near  Swavesey.  The  Oxford  Clay  is  found  to  the  west  of  it,  and  the 
Ampthill  Clay  to  the  east.  Frequent  fossil  lists  are  given,  and 
the  character  of  the  rock  is  described  at  the  different  exposures. 
Again,  from  Haughton  Hall,  west  of  St.  Ives,  the  '  St.  Ives  Rock ' 
is  traced  through  that  town  and  towards  Holywell.  The  actual 
connection  with  the  Elsworth  Rock  cannot  be  seen  owing  to  an  area 
of  fen.  But  that  the  two  rocks  are  identical  the  author  considers 
is  proved  by  the  consistency  of  the  two  rocks,  the  absence  of  any 
other  rock-bed,  the  dip  of  the  strata,  and  the  presence  of  Ampthill 
Clay  above.  The  Corallian  strata  of  the  area  appear  to  have  been 
deposited  more  slowly  than  the  Oxfordian  strata.  Of  the  two 
zonal  ammonites  of  the  Corallian,  the  dominant  form  in  the  Elsworth 
Rock  and  in  the  stone-bands  of  the  Ampthill  Clay  is  of  the  i^licatilis 
and  not  \\\q  i^erarmatus  t3'pe. 

2.  "The  Unconformity  of  the  Upper  (red)  Coal-measures  to  the 
Middle  (grey)  Coal-measures  of  the  Shropshire  Coalfields,  and  its 
bearing  upon  the  Extension  of  the  latter  under  the  Triassic  Rocks." 
By  William  James  Clarke,  Esq.  (Communicated  by  W.  Shone, 
Esq.,  F.G.S.) 

The  Upper  Red  Measures  have  a  much  greater  extension  in  the 
Shropshire  Coalfields  than  the  productive  measures  below.  In  the 
Shrewsbury  field  they  are  the  only  Carboniferous  rocks  present,  and 
rest  on  pre-Carboniferous  rocks. 

When  the  sections  of  collieries  at  and  near  Madeley  are  plotted 
on  the  assumption  that  the  base  of  the  Upper  Carboniferous  rocks 
is  horizontal,  the  Lower  Measures  are  found  to  be  bent  into  a 
syncline  rising  sharply  to  the  north-north-west  and  more  gently  to 
the  south-south-east.  A  second  syncline,  broader  and  deeper, 
extends  from  Stirchly  towards  Hadley,  but  the  westerly  rise  is  often 
hidden  by  the  boundary-fault  of  the  coalfield.  This  phenomenon  is 
known  locally  as  the  '  Symon  Fault ' ;  and  instead  of  taking  Scott's 
view  that  it  represents  a  hollow  denuded  in  the  Lower  Coal-measures, 
the  author  considers  it  due  to  folding:  before  late  Carboniferous  times. 

46       .  Obiiuari/ — Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Jfei/er, 

A  third  little  syncline  occurs  at  the  Inett  and  Caughley.  Similar 
phenomena  are  exhibited  in  the  Forest  of  Wyre  Coalfield,  where 
a  series  of  unproductive  measures  come  in  between  the  Lower  and 
Upper  Coal-measures.  The  axis  of  the  folds  runs  east-north-east- 
ward, and  their  amplitude  and  length  diminish  in  proceeding  from 
north-west  to  south-east.  Inter-Carboniferous  folds  also  occur  in 
-the  North  Wales  and  North  Staffordshire  fields. 

3.  "Bajocian  and  Contiguous  Deposits  in  the  Northern  Cottes- 
wolds :  the  Main  Hill  Mass."     By  S.  S.  Buckman,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

After  giving  comparative  sections  at  Cleeve,  Leckhampton  Hill, 
and  Birdiip,  to  show  the  disappearance  of  three  horizons  at  the 
second  locality  and  five  more  at  the  third,  the  author  interprets  the 
absence  of  the  beds  as  due  to  '  pene-contemporaneous  erosion,' 
brought  about  by  the  elevation  of  rocks,  due  to  small  earth- 
movements  along  a  main  south-west  to  north-east  axis  and  subsidiary 
axes  north-west  to  south-east.  In  the  Northern  Cotteswolds  the 
beds  which  come  in  at  Cleeve  disappear,  while  there  is  a  development 
of  the  Harford  Sands,  the  Tilestone,  and  the  Snowshill  Clay  above 
the  Lower  Trigonia-Gvit.  A  series  of  detailed  sections  along  the 
main  hill-mass  is  given.  On  tracing  the  rocks  from  west  to  east 
across  the  Northern  Cotteswolds,  the  whole  of  the  Inferior  Oolite 
<lisappears,  except  quite  the  upper  portion,  which  rests  directly  on 
Upper  Lias,  and  the  Upper  Lias  itself  undergoes  denudation ; 
eastward  the  latter  thickens  again,  and  basal  beds  of  Inferior  Oolite 
I'eappear.  Thus  the  axis  of  an  important  anticline  is  along  the 
Vale  of  Moreton.     The  general  result  of  the  observations  does  not 

■  confirm  Professor  Hull's  view  that  these  members  of  the  Jurassic 
are  thinning  and  disappearing  eastward.  The  observed  phenomena 
were  really  brought  about  by  contemporaneous  erosions ;  whereof 
the  principal  one  occurred  before  the  deposition  of  the  Upper 
Trigonia-Grit.  A  revised  map  of  Bajocian  denudation  is  given, 
and  it  is  shown  that,  owing  to  anticlinal  axes  along  the  Vales  of 
Bourton  and  Moreton,  pene-contemporaneous  erosion  must  have 
had  considerable  influence  in  determining  the  position  of  these 
valleys.  Such  erosion  is  likely  to  have  taken  place  along  similar 
lines  at  different  times,  and  therefore  may  be  connected  with  folds 
in  Pala30zoic  rocks  and  may  have  a  bearing  on  the  thickness  of 
rocks  overlying  the  Coal-measures.     A  table  of  the  dates  of  the 

■  chief  erosions  in  Jurassic  times  is  appended  to  the  paper. 



BoEN  May  23,  1832.  Died  July  16,  1900. 

By  the  death  of  Mr.  Charles  Meyer  we  have  lost  a  geologist  who 

■  has  contributed  largely  to  our  knowledge  of  Cretaceous  rocks  and 

fossils.     He  belonged  to  a  family  in  whom  a  love  of  natural  history 

was  inherent,  and  from  the  time  of  his  leaving  school  until  his 

appointment  to  the  Civil  Service  he  greatly  assisted  in  the  pre- 

.paration  of  a  new  edition  of  H.  L.  Meyer's  "  Illustrations  of  British 

Obituary— Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Meyer.  47 

Birds."  Always  a  careful  and  patient  observer,  he  acquired  a  close 
acquaintance  with  the  habits  and  song-notes  of  British  birds,  and 
never  ceased  to  take  an  interest  in  them. 

In  July,  1857,  he  was  appointed  to  a  post  in  the  Accountant 
General's  Office  of  that  time,  in  a  division  which  was  subsequently 
transferred  to  the  Chancery  Courts  under  the  title  of  the  Supreme 
Court  Pay  Office.  At  that  time  his  family  lived  near  Godalming, 
and  his  attention  was  attracted  to  the  fossils  to  be  found  in  an  old 
quarry  in  the  Lower  Gi'eensand  near  the  house.  These  interested 
him  so  much  that  he  began  to  study  them  and  the  rocks  containing 
them,  and  this  laid  the  foundation  of  that  interest  in  geology  which 
bore  good  fruit  in  after  years.  From  that  time  he  always  devoted 
his  short  holidays  to  visiting  places  of  geological  interest,  chiefly 
along  the  south  coast,  and  almost  always  where  rocks  of  Cretaceous 
age  were  to  be  seen. 

He  had  a  remarkably  keen  eye  for  fossils,  and  knew  the  value  of 
recording  the  exact  bed  from  which  they  came ;  hence  his  notebooks 
contain  carefully  measured  sections,  and  his  published  papers  show 
that  he  had  always  the  correlation  of  beds  in  different  places  before 
his  mind. 

He  gradually  gathered  together  a  fine  collection  of  Cretaceoits 
fossils,  comprising  many  thousand  specimens,  obtained  entirely  by 
his  own  hands.  It  comprises  fossils  from  the  Lower  Greensand, 
Gault,  '  Upper  Greensand,'  and  Blackdown  Beds,  from  the  Devon- 
shire Cenomanian,  and  from  the  several  stages  of  the  Chalk,  and  it 
contains  many  unique  specimens.  This  collection,  by  the  generosity 
of  his  sister.  Miss  C.  Meyer,  has  been  presented  to  the  University  of 
•Cambridge,  together  with  a  smaller  but  fine  collection  of  London 
Clay  fossils  collected  by  his  brother,  Mr.  Christian  H.  Meyer,  C.E., 
during  the  dockyard  extension  works  at  Portsmouth. 

The  first  paper  published  by  Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Meyer  was  a  note  on 
the  age  of  the  Blackdown  Beds  in  1863,  and  from  that  time  to  1878 
he  contributed  frequently  to  the  pages  of  the  Geological  Magazine 
and  of  the  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Geological  Society.  A  list  of 
his  papers  is  given  below,  but  two  of  the  most  notable  may  be 
specially  mentioned. 

In  his  paper  "  On  the  Relations  of  the  Wealden  and  Punfield 
Formation  "  he  took  a  view  which  was  opposed  to  that  held  by 
another  well-known  geologist,  and  maintained  it  with  such  success 
that  it  is  now  generally  accepted  as  correct. 

His  paper  on  the  Cretaceous  Eocks  of  Beer  Head  is  really  a  very 
condensed  account  of  his  exploration  of  the  Devon  cliffs  from 
Sidmouth  to  Lyme  Regis.  He  visited  this  coast  again  and  again, 
collecting  carefully  from  every  bed  in  the  succession;  and  as  he 
was  practically  the  first  to  explore  this  fine  collecting  ground,  he 
obtained  a  lai-go  number  of  excellent  specimens,  especially  from 
those  beds  which  he  numbered  10,  11,  and  12,  and  which  lie  at  the 
base  of  the  Chalk.  He  continued  to  collect  from  these  clifi's  for 
many  years  after  the  publication  of  his  paper,  and  the  value  of  his 
researches  was  acknowledged  by  Messrs.  Jukes-Browne  and  W.  Hill 

48  Ohitiumj—Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Merjer. 

in  their  paper  on  the  "Delimitation  of  the  Cenomanian"  (189G)^ 
when  he  communicated  to  them  a  list  of  the  many  additional  fossils- 
he  had  obtained  from  these  beds,  with  notes  on  some  of  the  species. 

Specimens  from  his  collection  have  been  figured  by  Messrs, 
Davidson,  Lycett,  and  Woods  in  the  volumes  of  the  Palaeonto- 
j^raphical  Society,  and  no  doubt  others  will  appear  in  the  monograph' 
Mr.  Woods  has  undertaken. 

Mr.  Meyer  was  distinguished  for  his  quiet  and  courteous  manner, 
his  habit  of  patient  enquiry  and  of  accurate  observation,  and  by  his- 
willingness  to  impart  any  information  that  he  possessed.  When  we 
remember  that  his  life  was  really  spent  in  the  routine  of  office  work, 
and  that  all  his  scientific  work  was  done  in  his  evenings  and  in  his- 
short  holidays,  we  may  well  wonder  that  he  did  so  much,  and 
regret  that  he  was  not  able  to  give  more  time  to  a  pursuit  for  whicb 
he  was  so  well  qualified. 

We  are  indebted  to  Miss  C.  Meyer  for  some  of  the  information' 
in  the  above  notice. 


Meyer,  C.  J.  A. 

Age  of  the  Blackdown  Greensand.     (Geologist,  vol.  vi,  1863,  pp.  50-56.) 

Three  Days  at  Farringdou.     Position  of  Sponge-gravel.     (Geologist,  vol.  \\i,  1864^ 

pp.  5-11.) 
A  New  Species  of  TerebrateUa,  from  the  Bargate  Stone  {T.  trifida).     (Geologist,. 

A'ol.  vii,  1864,  pp.  166-7.) 
Notes  on  Brachiopoda  from  the  Pebble-bed  of  the  Lower  Greensand  of  Surrey ;  with 

descriptions   of  the   new   species,    and  remarks   on   the   correlation   of  the- 

Greensand  Beds  of  Kent,  Surrey,  and  Berks,  and  of  the  Farriugdon  Sponge- 

gravel,  and  the  Tourtia  of  Belgium.  (Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  1, 1864,  pp.  249-257.) 
On  the  Discovery  of  Ophiura   WethcreUi  at  Heme  Bav.     (Geol.  Mag,,  Vol.  IL 

1865,  p.  572.) 
Notes  on  the  Correlation  of  the  Cretaceous  Pocks  of  the  South-East  and  West  of 

England.     (Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  Ill,  1866,  pp.  13-18,  PI.  II.) 
Notes  on  Cretaceous  Brachiopoda,  and  on  the  Development  of  the  Looj)  and  Septum; 

in  TerebrateUa.     (Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  V,  1868,  pp.  268-272.) 
On  the  Lower  Greensand  of  Godalming.     (Geol.  Assoc. — separate  paper,  20  pp. 

Eead  before  the  Association  4th  Dec,  1868.) 
Note  on  the  Passage  of  the  Eed  Chalk  of  Speeton  into  an  imderljing  Clay-bed- 

(Geol.  Mag",  Vol.  VI,  1869,  pp.  13-14.) 
On  Lower  Tertiary  Deposits  recently  exposed  at  Portsmouth.     (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.. 

Soc,  vol.  xxvii,  1871,  pp.  74-89  ;  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  xli,  1871,  p.  546.) 
On  the  Wealden  as  a  Fluvio -lacustrine  Formation,  and  on  the  Eelation  of  the 

so-called  '  Punfield  Fonnation '  to  the  Wealden  and  Neocomian.      (Quart. 

Joiu'n.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxviii,  1872,  pp.  243-255.) 
Further  Notes  on  the  Punfield  Section.     (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxix,  1873,. 

pp.  70-76.) 
On  the  Cretaceous  Eocks  of  Beer  Head  and  the  adjacent  Cliff -sections,  and  on  the 

relative  Horizons  therein  of  the  Warminster  and  Blackdown  Fossiliferous- 

Deposits.     (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxx,  1874,  pp.  369-393.) 
Micrasters  in  the  English  Chalk. — Two  or  more  species?     (Geol.  Mag.,  Dec  II,. 

Vol.  V,  1878,  pp.  115-117.) 
Notes  respecting  Chloritic  Marl  and  Upper  Greensand.     (Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  II,. 

Vol.  V,  1878,  pp.  547-551.) 
An  Excursion  to  Guildford.    (Eeport  in  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  v,  1878,  pp.  161 ,  163.) 

Meyee,  C.  J.  A.,  k  Jukes-Bkowne,  A.  J. 
Chloritic  Marl  and  Warminster  Greensand.     (Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  IV,  Vol.  I,  1894,. 
pp.  494-495.) 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 
No.   II.— FEBRUARY,   1901. 



PASSED    AWAY    22    JANUARY,    1901, 

A    GLORIOUS    REIGN     OF    64    YEARS. 

OE,IC3-I3iT^^Xi     ^A^K-TIGLES. 

I. — British  Pleistocene  Fishes. 
By  E.   T.   Newton,    F.R.S.,   F.G.S.,   etc. 

rpHE  search  for  small  vertebrates  in  deposits  of  Pleistocene  age 
J_  has,  within  tlie  last  few  years,  been  prosecuted  with  much  zeal 
by  several  workers,  and  has  brought  to  light  the  remains  of  many 
species  of  mammals,  as  well  as  birds,  reptiles,  and  amphibia ;  the 
bones  in  some  instances  occurring  in  great  numbers.  The  I'emains  of 
fishes,  however,  have  but  rarely  been  found  with  the  bones  of  other 
vertebrata,  and  never  in  any  abundance.  Some  interesting  discoveries 
of  fish-remains  have  nevertheless  been  made;  but  the  records  of 
them  are  scattei'ed  through  various  publications,  and  it  seems  very 
desirable  to  bring  all  this  information  together. 

It  is  sixty  years  since  Sir  C.  Lyell,^  in  a  paper  read  before  the 
Geological  Society  (January,  1840),  first  made  known  that  remains 
of  fresh- water  fishes  had  been  fountl,  by  himself  and  Mr.  J.  B. 
Wigham,  in  the  fresh- water  deposit  which  occui's  in  the  cliff's  at 
Mundesley,  Norfolk.  These  remains  had  been  examined  by  the 
Rev.  Leonard  Jennings  and  Mr.  Yarrel,  and  were  referred  by  them 
to  Perch,  Carp,  Pike,  and  Trout. 

In  the  following  year  (January,  1841)  Sir  C.  Lyell  ■  made 
a  further  communication  to  the  same  society,  in  which  he  stated  that 
the  fish-remains  noted  in  the  eai'lier  paper,  together  with  some 
additional  specimens  from  the  same  locality,  had  been  submitted  to 
M.  Agassiz,  who  thought  the  Perch,  Pike,  and  Trout  diifered  from 
the  living  species,  and  that  the  remains  referred  to  Cai'p  were  really 

•  Proc.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.iii  (1843),  p.  171.    Loud.  &  Edinb.  Phil.  Mag.,  May,  1S40. 

^  "Oa  the  Frusli-water  Fossil  Fishes  of  Afundesley  as  determined  bv  M.  Agassiz  "  : 

Proc.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iii  (1843),  p.  362.    Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  viii  (1842).  p.  61 . 

DECAUK    IV. VOL.   VIII.  —  NO.  II.  4 

50  E.  T.  Newton — British  Pleistocene  Fishes. 

a  species  of  Leuctscus.  No  statement  was  marie  as  to  the  nature  of 
the  remains  which  had  been  found,  nor  what  became  of  the  specimens. 

M.  Agassiz  seems  to  have  been  impressed  with  the  idea  that 
DO  fossil  forms  could  be  identical  with  living  species,  and  this, 
apparently,  led  him  to  attach  greater  importance  to  the  slight 
differences,  which  he  saw  between  the  Mundesley  remains  and  the 
corresponding  parts  of  living  fishes,  than  would  be  allowed  by 
naturalists  of  the  present  day.  Certain  fish-remains,  more  recently 
obtained  from  these  fresh -water  deposits  at  Mundesley,  which  in 
all  probability  represent  the  same  forms  as  those  found  by  Lyell, 
cannot,  I  think,  be  separated  from  living  species. 

In  the  year  1854  Professor  J.  Morris'  recorded  Esox  sp.,  from 
the  Pleistocene  of  Copford,  Essex  :  the  specimens  were  jaws  and 
teeth  in  the  colleclion  of  Mr.  Brown,  and  they  are  now  preserved  in 
the  British  Museum,  South  Kensington  (Nos.  36,658-60).  Other 
reinains  of  Pike  from  Copford  were  presented  to  the  British 
Museum  by  the  Eev.  0.  Fisher  (No.  4,848). 

Twenty  years  elapsed  before  Mr.  William  Davies'  recognized,  in 
1874,  the  remains  of  Pike  in  the  collection  of  Sir  Antonio  Brady, 
from  the  Brickearth  of  Ilford,  specimens  which  are  now  in  the 
British  Museum,  South  Kensington  (No.  45,810).  These  remains 
■were  doubtfully  named  JSsox  lucins  ?,  but  were  acknowledged  to  be 
inseparable  from  that  species,  and  in  1890  were  so  named,  without 
douht,  by  Messrs.  A.  Smith  Woodward  and  C.  Davies  Sherborn.' 
During  Mr.  Clement  Reid's  *  Geological  Survey  of  the  "  Country 
around  Cromer,"  he  obtained  a  number  of  specimens  from  the 
classical  Mundesley  river  bed,  and  among  them  remains  of  Pike, 
Esox  hidns  (M.P.G.— C.R.  665-6).  Since  the  Survey  Memoir 
was  published,  Mr.  Eeid  has  collected  from  the  same  place  scales 
and  teeth  referable  to  Perca  fliwintiHs  (M.P.G. — C.R.  666)  and 
a  tooth  of  the  genus  Zeuciscus  (M.P.G. — C.R.  869).  We  are 
thus  able  to  confirm  the  occurrence  of  thi'ee  of  the  forms  recorded 
by  Sir  C.  Lyell ;  and  there  seems  no  sufficient  grounds  for  referring 
them  to  other  than  recent  species.  Two  or  three  different  kinds  of 
scales  remain  at  present  unidentified,  but  none  of  them  can  be 
definitely  named  Salmo,  the  fourth  genus  mentioned  by  Sir  C.  Lyell. 

Mr.  Reid's  researches  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Holderness,*  York- 
shire, enabled  him  to  record  Perca  flaviatilis  from  both  Hornsea 
(M.P.G.— C.R.  1.119)  and  Withernsea  (M.P.G.— C.R.  1,071). 

In  the  year  1888  Mr.  G.  W.  Lainplngh^  gave  an  account  of 
a  deposit  at  Sewerby,  near  Bridlington  Quay,  which  yielded  bones 
of  Elephas,  Rhinoceros,  Hippopotamus,  etc.,  and  is  doubtless  of 
Pleistocene  age.  With  these  mammalian  bones  were  also  found 
vertebrae  of  fishes,  which  almost  certainly  belong  to  Codfish.  This 
record  is  the  more  interesting  as  it  is  the  only  known  instance  of 

>  Catalogue  of  British  Fossils,  2nd  ed.  (1854),  p.  326. 

*  Cat.  Pleistocene  Vert.  Coll.  Sir  Ant.  Brady,  1874,  p.  61. 
'  rataloo:ue  of  British  Fossil  Vertebrata. 

*  Mem   Gaol.  Surv.,  1882,  p.  126. 

*  Mem.  Geol.  t^urv.,  1885,  pp.  82  and  85. 

*  "  An  Ancient  Sea  Beach  near  Bridlington  Quay  " :  Brit.  Assoc.  Report  for  1888. 

E.  T.  Newton — British  Pleistocene  Fishes,  51 

marine  fish-remains  being  found  in  a  British  Pleistocene  deposit. 
Tlie  proximity  of  the  sea  would  easily  account  for  the  presence  of 
these  fish  bones,  as  well  as  for  the  marine  molluscs  which  were 
found  with  them ;  but  it  also  suggests  the  possibility  of  a  more 
recent  introduction.  Mr.  Lamplugh's  careful  work  is,  however, 
a  guarantee  that  the  fish  bones  were  cotemporary  with  those  of  the 
Mammoth,  and  the  condition  of  the  specimens,  which  are  now  in 
the  Jermyn  Street  IMuseura,  is  precisely  the  same. 

Two  teeth,  probably  of  Pike,  found  by  Mr.  B.  B.  Woodward  in 
the  Crayford  Biickearth  in  1891,  are  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

In  the  year  1891  Mr.  F.  C.  J.  Spurrell  presented  to  the  Museum 
of  Practical  Geology  a  number  of  specimens  from  the  Brickearth  of 
Erith,  and  among  these  were  some  teeth  of  Esox  hicius  (No.  5,646). 

Mr.  Clement  Raid's  most  interesting  work  on  the  series  of  strata 
found  at  Hoxne,'  in  Norfolk,  not  only  brought  to  light  a  large 
number  of  plants,  but  also  of  small  bones  of  vertebrata,  among  which, 
from  Bed  E,  were  remains  of  Perca  fluviatilis  (M.P.G.,  6,084)  and 
Leiiciscns  rntilus  (M.F.G.,  6,083).  In  the  following  year,  1897,  the 
results  of  Mr.  Eeid's  similar  reseai'ches  at  Hitchin^  were  published, 
:and  from  beds  on  the  same  horizon  as  D  and  E  at  Hoxne  he  was 
able  to  record  Perca  fluviatilis,  Esox  lucius,  Tinea  vulgaris,  Leuciscus 
■erijtTirophthalmus.  and  L.  rutilus  (M.P.G.,  6,301). 

For  some  time  past  Mr.  M.  A.  C.  Hinton  and  Mr.  A.  S. 
Kennard  have  been  searching  the  various  Pleistocene  beds  at 
•Grays  Thurrock,  and  have  obtained  a  good  number  of  bones  and 
teeth  of  small  vertebrates,  among  which  are  many  belonging  to 
fresh-water  fishes.  Some  account  of  these  was  read  before  the 
Essex  Field  Club  '  on  October  27th,  1900.  About  a  dozen  otoliths, 
which  agree  most  nearly  with  those  of  the  Euflf,  are  provisionally 
referred  to  Acerina  vulgaris  ? ;  a  number  of  teeth  doubtless  belong 
to  the  Pike.  Esox  lucius  ;  several  pharyngeal  bones  and  numerous 
isolated  teeth  are  referi'ed  partly  to  Boach,  Leuciscus  rutilus,  and 
partly  to  Dace,  L.  vulgaris ;  one  tooth  has  the  characteristic  curved 
and  creuulated  crown  of  the  Rudd,  L.  erijthrophthalmus ;  and  there  is 
a  single  vertebra,  having  the  peculiar  tubular  neural  arch  found  in 
the  Eel,  which  is  with  much  hesitation  named  Anguilla?  vulgaris? 

There  is  a  series  of  small  vertebrata  from  Grays  Thurrock  in  the 
Brown  Collection  in  the  British  Museum  (No.  28,079),  among  which 
are  remains  of  fishes  referable  to  Pike,  Rudd,  and  probably  Dace. 

Many  otoliths  of  fishes  have  been  collected  by  Mr.  Clement  Reid 
from  Pleistocene  beds  on  the  foreshore  at  Selsea ;  they  belong  to 
about  sixteen  different  forms,  but  none  of  them  have  been  definitely 
recognized  as  of  living  species.  It  is  almost  certain  that  the  greater 
number  of  these  otoliths  have  been  derived  from  the  denudation  of 
Eocene  strata  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  they  cannot,  therefore,  be 
included  among  the  British  Pleistocene  fishes. 

The  discoveries  of  Pleistocene  fish-remains  on  the  Continent  have 

1  Brit.  Assoc.  Report  for  1896. 

-  I'roc.  Hoy.  Soc,  vol.  Ixi  (1897),  p.  45, 

2  Essex  Naturalist  (ia  tlie  press,  not  yet  publit>bed). 

52        Professor  G.  A.  J.  Cole — On  Belinurus  Jdltorkensis. 

been  even  fewer  than  in  England.  Dr.  Alf.  Nehring,^  in  his  "Ueber- 
sicht  Uber  24  mitteleuropaische  Quartiir-Faunen,"  mentions  the 
following  : — From  (1)  "  Westeregeln  bei  Magdeburg  "  (p.  474),  Esox 
Indus;  (2)  "DieRauberhohleamSchelmengraben  zwischen  Niirnberg 
und  Eegensburg"  (p.  488),  Silurus  glanis,  Esox  luciiis,  Cyprinus  carpio ;. 
(3)  "Der  Hohlefels  im  Achthal  bei  Ultn  "  (p.  490),  Cyprinus  carpio 
(or  Perca  fluviatilis)  ;  (4)  "  Die  Fuchslocher  am  Eothen  Berge  bei 
Saalfeld"  (p.  495),  Esox  litcius;  (5)  "  Die  Hohle  von  Balvein  West- 
falen"  (p.  504),  Esox  Indus.  The  age  of  the  specimens  from  the 
first  two  localities  is  doubtful. 

Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward  has  kindly  called  my  attention  to 
Professor  F.  Bassani's  -  record  of  Anguilla  vulgaris,  Cyprinus  carpio, 
and  Leuciscus  aula  from  beds  at  Pianico,  Lombardy,  which 
Dr.  Forsyth-Major  assures  me  are  of  early  Pleistocene  age. 

British  Pleistocene  Fishes  at  present  known, 

With  the  Localities  from  which  they  were  obtained  and  the  Collection* 

in  which  they  are  preserved. 

B.M.  =  British  Museum.         M.P.G.  =  Museum  of  Practical  Geology. 
H.  &  K.  =  Collection  of  Messrs.  Hinton  and  Kennard. 

Perca  fluviatilis,  Linn.  (Perch)  :   Mundesley,  Hornsea,  Withernseaf 

Hitchin,  Hoxne  (M.P.G.). 
Acerina  vulgaris'?,  Cuv.  &  Val.  (Ruff)  :  Grays  ThuxTock  (H.  &  K.). 
Salmo  sp.  (?  Trout)  :   Mundesley  {fide  Lyell). 
Esox  Indus,  Linn.  (Pike)  :  Erith,  Hitchin  (M.P.G.)  ;  Copford,  Ilford 

(B.M.)  ;  Grays  Thurrock  (B.M.  and  H.  &  K.). 
Leuciscus    rutilus,    Linn.    (Roach)  :    Mundesley  ?,    Hitchin,    Hoxne 

(M.P.G.)  ;  Grays  Thurrock  (H.  &  K.). 
Leuciscus  vtdgaris,  Flem.  (Dace)  :  Grays  ThuiTock  (B.M.  and  H.  &K.), 
Leuciscus  erythrophthrdmus,  hinn.  (Rudd)  :  Hitchin  (M.P.G.)  ;  Grays 

Thurrock  (B.M.  and  H.  &  K.). 
Tinea  vulgaris,  Cuv.  (Tench)  :  Hitchin  (M.P.G.). 
Anguilla?  vidgaris?,  Turton  (Eel)  :  Grays  Thurrock  (H.  &  K.). 
Gadus  morhua?,    Linn.  (Codfish)  :  Sewerby  (M.P.G.). 


II. — On  Belinurus  kiltorkensis,  Baily. 

By  Professor  Grenville  A.  J.  Cole,  M.E.I. A.,  F.G.S. 

N  1899  Messrs.  Rupert  Jones  and  Henrj'  Woodward^  stated  that 
Belinurus  "has  not  at  present  been  found  in  rocks  of  earlier  age 
than  the  Coal-measures."  Belinurus  grandcevus,  described  in  the  same 
paper,  was  referred,  with  probability,  to  the  Lower  Carboniferous. 
A  writer  ("  R.  W.  E.")  in  the  Ottawa  Naturalist^  for  January, 
1900,  thereupon  called  attention  to  the  record  of  Belinurus  from  the 
Kiltorcan  Beds  of  Ireland.     This  record  is  founded  on  Mr.  W.  H. 

1  Zeitscli.  d.  Deutsch.  geol.  GeselL,  1880,  p.  468,  where  reference -will  be  found 
to  the  original  records. 

'  Atti  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  vol.  xxix  (1886),  p.  344. 

'  "  Contributions  to  Fossil  Crustacea  "  :  Gbol.  Mag.,  1899,  p.  389. 

*  Quoted  in  Geol.  Mag.,  1900,  p.  177. 

Professor  G.  A.  J.  Cole — On  Bclmitrus  kiltorkensis,        53 

Baily's  discovery*  of  "a  well-marked  head  (or  carapace),  to  which 
is  attached  portions  of  two  of  the  thoracic  segments,"  Dr.  Henry 
Woodward,-  in  1878,  accepted  this  determination,  on  the  basis  of 
sketches  furnished  to  him  by  Mr.  Baily,  who  had  by  this  time 
discovered  a  second,  though  distorted,  specimen.  The  Kiltorcan 
Beds,  it  may  be  remarked,  are  of  Upper  Old  Ked  Sandstone  age, 
•and  are  part  of  the  '  Yellow  Sandstone  Series,'  which  passes  con- 
formably up  into  the  Lower  Carboniferous  Shale.  They  are  not, 
therefore,  of  such  high  antiquity  as  the  writer  in  the  Ottaioa 
Naturalist  suggests. 

Fig.  1. — Sketch  of  the  less  imperfect  specimen  of  Brlinuriis  kiltorhcnsis,  Baily, 
showing  the  principal  features  visible  with  a  platyscopic  lens.  Natural  size. 
The  carapace  is  viewed  from  the  under  side. 

Fig.  2. — Sketch  of  the  distorted  specimen,  viewed  from  the  upper  side  with  the  aid 
of  a  platyscopic  lens.  Natural  size.  The  details  of  the  central  portion  are 
best  seen  in  this  example,  though  the  whole  is  greatly  broadened. 

The  question  having  thus  been  raised,  I  obtained  the  permission 
of  the  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey  to  examine  the 
specimens  preserved  in  the  collections  in  the  Dublin  Museum. 
Mr.  Baily's  specimens  have,  at  some  later  time,  been  relabelled 
«s  '  Limuloides ';  but  the  carapace  is  certainly  not  of  the  hemiaspid 
type.  It  presents  the  continuous  unnotched  margin  shown  in 
]\Ir.  Baily's  original  drawing.  The  better  specimen  is,  I  feel 
confident,  presented  to  us  from  the  under  side,  and  shows  more 
detail  than  has  hitherto  been  attributed  to  it.  The  flat  border, 
Imra.  wide,  is  followed  by  a  smoothly  curving  region,  from  which 
the  protuberances  rise  which  correspond  in  part  to  the  glabella  in  the 
trilobites.  The  form  of  these  is  best  seen  from  the  annexed 
sketches,  which,  like  Mr.  Baily's,  have  been  made  from  the  original 
specimens.  The  distorted  example  is  seen  both  as  an  external  cast 
and  in  relief,  and  the  four  elevated  portions  stand  out  distinctly 
on  it.  They  seem  to  have  been  highest  at  their  margins,  a  rim 
thus  occurring  about  a  depressed  area  on  each.  This  feature  is  also 
seen  in  Mr.  Griesbach's  drawings  of  the  better  known  species  of 

The  eyes  indicated  by  Baily  are  based  on  a  thickening  that  occurs 
on  the  edge  of  the  '  glabella,'  where  it  descends  to  meet  the 
-smoother  lateral  area.  The  evidence  is  slight,  but  agrees  with  what 
ss  already  known  of  BeUnurus. 

There  are  indications  of  radial    ribbings  on   either    side  of  the 

'  "On  Fossils  obtained  at  Kiltorkan  Quarry,  Co.  Kilkenny":  Report  Brit.  Assoc, 
ior  1809,  p.  75. 

*  "  British  Fossil  Crustacea"  (Paheontographical  Society),  p.  238. 
^  *'Brit.  Foss.  Crust."  (I'lil.  Soc),  pi.  .\\.\i. 

54  Professor  T.  Bupert  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

'glabella,'  like  those  that  have  been  attributed  to  impressions  of 
the  limuloid  limbs. 

The  '  pleuree '  (if  we  may  use  the  nomenclature  adopted  in  th© 
case  of  trilobites,  with  which  these  forms  provide  so  valuable  a  link) 
are  furrowed,  while  in  Heniiaspis  (Limuloides)  they  are  unfurrowed. 
Traces  of  three  segments  are  preserved  in  the  more  perfect  specimen. 
Even  the  somewhat  abrupt  posterior  bend,  so  characteristic  of  the 
pleurae  of  Helinurus  reginoi,  is  noticeable  in  the  first  segment  of 
Belinnrus  Jciltorlcensis,  and  was  doubtless  repeated  in  the  others. 

Frotolimulus  (Prestwichia)  erieusis,  described  from  the  Devonian 
of  Pennsylvania  by  H.  S.  Williams  and  A.  S.  Packard,^  is  only 
known  by  its  under  surface  ;  but  the  cephalic  shield  does  not 
resemble  that  of  the  Kiltorkan  specimens. 

I  feel,  then,  that  Belinurus  may  safely  be  regarded  as  occurring 
in  the  Upper  Old  Ked  Sandstone  of  Ireland,  which  some  authors  have 
proposed  to  include  in  the  Lower  Carboniferous  Series.  There  seems- 
no  reason  to  depart  from  the  determination  made  by  Mr.  Baily  and 
Dr.  Woodward  thirty  years  ago,  a  determination  that  has  become 
widely  known  through  the  works  of  Zittel  and  other  paleontologists. 

III. — History  of  the  Sarsens. 

By  Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  etc. 

Additional  Notes. — These  further  references  and  fuller  quotations 
are  here  given  with  the  view  of  making  the  History  of  the  Sarsens, 
or  Sarsen  Stones,  more  complete  and  more  easily  available, 
especially  by  indicating  the  chronological  succession  of  observed- 
facts  and  published  opinions. 

§  1.  Origin  and  Constitution  of  the  Stones  called  '  Sarsens.' 

§  2.  Fossils  in  Sarsens. 

I  3.  Localities.  I.  In  the  Counties  north  of  the  Thames :  (1)  Northamptonshirep. 
(2)  Suffolk,  (3)  Essex,  (4)  Hertfordshire,  (5)  Buckinghamshire,  (6)  Oxford- 
shire, (7)  Middlesex.  II.  In  the  Counties  south  of  the  Thames :  (8)  Kent, 
(9)  Surrey,  (10)  Hampshire,  (U)  Berkshire,  (12)  Wiltshire,  (13)  Dorset. 
(14)  Somerset,  (15)  Devon. 

§  4.  Bibliographic  List. 

§   1.  Origin  and  Constitution  of  Saksens. 

(See  also  Part  i  in  Wilts  Mag.,  1886,  p.  126.) 

1819.  G.  B.  Greenough,  in  his  "  Critical  Examination  of  the 
First  Principles  of  Geology,"  p.  112,  says  that  the  Grey  weather 
Stones  ('  Grey  wether  sandstone,'  etc.,  p.  293),  scattered  over  the 
southern  counties  of  England,  have  been  evidently  derived  frona 
the  destruction  of  a  rock  which  once  lay  over  the  Chalk. 

1871.  In  the  Transactions  of  the  Newbury  District  Field  Club, 
vol.  i,  p.  99,  Sarsens  are  referred  to  as  "indurated  blocks  of  sand- 
stones and  conglomerates." 

1882  and  1885.  Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  treating  of  siliceous 
cements  in  sandstones,  writes,  "where  the  component  particles  are 

^  Packard,  "  Carboniferous  Xiphosurous  Fauna  of  JYorth  America":  Mem.  Nat.. 
Acad.  Sci.  Washington,  vol.  iii  (1886),  p.  150. 


Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarsens.  55 

bound  together  by  a  flinty  substance,  as  in  the  exposed  blocks  o{ 
Eocene  sandstone  known  as  '  Grey-weathers  '  in  Wiltshire,  and 
which  occurs  also  [Landenian,  sandstone]  over  the  north  of  Franca 
towards  the  Ardennes"  ('-Textbook,"  2nd  ed.,  1885,  p.  162). 

In  a  letter,  Sir  Archibald  has  obligingly  stated  that  the  first  and 
best  account  on  which  the  reference  to  the  above  was  b  ised  is  by 
Dr.  C.  Barrois,  Ann.  Soc.  Geol.  du  Nord,  vol.  vi  (1878-9),  p.  8GG. 
See  also  his  short  paper  in  the  Assoc.  Fran^aise,  1879,  p.  6G6, 
Gosselet  quotes  Barrois  in  his  gi'eat  work  "  L'Ardenne,"  1888,  p.  829. 
Further  references  are  also  given  by  these  two  authors. 

188o.  The  Rev.  A.  Irving,  taking  it  for  granted  that  a  large  river 
in  Eocene  times  flowed  from  a  region  of  Palceozoic  rocks  in  the  west, 
in  the  direction  of  the  Thames  Valley  to  the  east,  said  that  the  detritus 
would  be  quartzose  and  feli^pathic  ;  the  felspars  would  ultimately  be 
decomposed  by  the  agency  of  carbonic  acid,  and  gehitinous  liyilnted 
silica  would  be  produced.    (Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  viii,  pp.  150,  157.) 

1887.  The  Rev.  A.  Irving,  in  a  letter  dated  March  6th,  LS87, 
writes  : — "  You  have  overlooked  one  point  which  I  have  tried  to  bring 
out  in  some  relief — the  fact  that  the  surface  acquires  a  poicelhiuous 
texture,  not  duo  to  cementation  by  iron  (for  from  the  sup^rtioial 
layer  tlie  iron  is  entirely  leached  out),  but  to  an  actual  change  of  the 
material  by  a  solution-process.  I  suggesteil  (three  or  four  years 
ago)  C  0^  as  the  chief  assent ;  but  later  work  has  shown  me  that  the 
organic  acids  contained  in  pea  It/  water  have  played  a  far  more 
potent  part  in  this  sub-metamorphic  change." 

1888.  In  the  Geological  Magazine,  Dec.  Ill,  Vol.  V, 
Dr.  T.  G.  Bonney  states  that  the  Sarsens  of  the  Tertiaries  are  of 
concretionary  origin  :  "  In  the  Sarsen  Stones,  and  with  matrix  of 
the  Hertfordshire  Pud<1ingstones,  tliei  e  is  chalcedonic  silica  converting 
sandstone  into  quartzite"  (pp.  298-300). 

1888.  J.  Prestwich:  "Geology,"  etc.,  vol.  ix,  p.  342.  "These 
sands  [of  the  Woolwich  and  Reading  Series]  also  occasionally 
contain  concreted  blocks  in  irregular  local  beds  of  sandstone, 
sometimes  with  very  liard  siliceous  cement."  Footnote  at  p  342  : 
"  Mr.  Whitaker  and  Prof.  Rupert  Jones  think  that  in  Berkshire  and 
Wiltshire  they  [the  Sarsens]  are  more  frequently  derived  fiom  the 
Bagshot  Sands."  The  '  Puildingstone  '  of  Bucks  and  Herts  is  here 
referred  to  the  Reading  Be<ls.  Further  on,  at  p.  3G4,  it  is  stated 
that  Sarsens  occur  in  the  Bagshot  Sands  of  Frimle}'  and  Chobham. 

N.B.  —  Concretionary  action  has  produced  in  many  Sarsens 
mammillations  on  a  large  scale,  which  show  on  some  surfaces 
irregular,  coalescent,  smooth  swellings,  with  shallow,  valley-liUo 
slofjcs  and  depressions,  like  those  on  the  so-called  '  bowel-stones  ' 
of  the  Lower  Greensand  near  Aylesbury.  H.  B.  Woodward's 
"Geology  of  England  and  Wales,"  2nd  ed.  (1887),  p.  377.  Such 
mammillated  Sarsens  occur  in  Suffolk,  Wiltshire,  and  elsewhere. 

N.B. — The  convexity  of  the  lower  face  of  a  Sarsen  l}'ing  in  its 
original  sand-bed  is  due  to  the  concretionary  formation  of  tiie  stone. 

1901.  J.  W.  Judd's  "Note  on  the  Structure  of  Sarsens" 
(Gkol.  Mag.,  January,   1901,  pp.  1,   2)  gives   definite  descriptions 

SS  Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

bf  the   intimate   constitution  of  many  Sarsens  from  authenticated 

N.B. — Besides  the  Tei'tiary  sandstones,  other  and  older  white 
sandstones  have  yielded  large  and  small  blocks,  now  on  the  surface 
or  in  superficial  deposits ;  for  instance,  Upper  and  Lower  Greensand, 
Ijiassic  sands,  Millstone  Grit,  etc. 

§  2.  Fossils. 
(Refer  also  to  pp.  142-147  of  Part  i  in  Wilts  Mag.,  1886.) 
1871.  Professor  John  Phillips,  in  his  "  Geology  of  Oxford,"  1871, 
p.  447,  states  : — "  I  have  never  found  shells  in  any  of  these  stones 
lying  in  their  native  beds,  and  have  some  scruple  in  mentioning  that 
they  do  occur  in  a  layer  in  one  of  the  blocks  at  Stonehenge.  But, 
as  1  did  not  choose  by  chiselling  that  monumental  stone  to  attract 
attention  to  it,  probably  it  may  for  many  years  to  come  escape  all 
injury  except  that  which  it  must  suffer  from  the  strokes  of  time." 

1878.  In  the  churchyard  of  Sandhurst,  a  large  Sarsen  perforated 
with  pipe-like  holes  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  old  yew-tree  there. 
(T.  E.  J.,  Trans.  Newbury  Distr.  F.  Club,  vol.  ii,  p.  249.) 

1887.  C.  0.  King  suggested  that  in  the  Avebury  district  the 
Sarsens  were  more  particularly  perforated  by  rootlets,  and  that,  if  so, 
the  shoals  or  sandbanks  formerly  bearing  the  trees  were  better 
conditioned  for  the  vegetation  than  other  parts  of  the  formation. 

1888.  J.  Prestwich  :  "  Geology,"  etc.,  vol.  ii,  p.  344.  The 
indications  in  the  Sarsens  of  the  former  presence  of  rootlets,  possibly 
of  Palms,  are  here  mentioned. 

1888.  The  same  kind  of  fossil  tubular  marks  in  Sarsens  may  be 
seen  in  some  blocks  on  the  side  of  the  Newbury-Hermitage  road,  or 
Long  Lane,  west  of  Coldash  Common. 

1897.  Eootlet-holes,  mostly  vertical,  occur  in  a  Sarsen  in  a  brick- 
field near  Watford,  Herts. — C.  D.  Sherborn. 

N.B. — The  perforations  due  to  rootlets  have  been  widened  on  the 
exposed  surfaces  of  the  stones  by  water-action  and  blown  sand,  so  as 
to  leave  the  surface  variously  pit-marked. — T.  R.  J. 

N.B. — Analogous  pipe-like  i-emains  of  rootlets  occur  as  long, 
small,  vertical  holes,  in  the  Hastings  sand-rock,  East  Cliff,  Hastings 
{Geologist,  vol.  v,  1862,  pp.  135,  136,  fig.  9;  and  Geol.  Mag., 
1875,  p.  589)  ;  in  the  Triassic  (?)  Sandstone  of  South  Sweden ;  and 
in  some  of  the  estuarine,  Jurassic  shales  of  Yorkshire,  near  Whitby 
(A.  C.  Seward)  and  near  Scarborough. — T.  E.  J. 

§  3.  Localities. 

L  (1)  Northamptonshire. — 1896.  Mr.  Edwin  Sloper  observed  in 
a  pit  at  the  Northampton  Brickworks  at  Blisworth  a  Sarsen  that 
had  evidently  fallen  from  the  base  of  the  Drift  overlying  the  Lias 
claj'  there.  This  Sarsen  was  to  be  cared  for  by  being  placed  in  the 
gardens  of  the  Hotel  at  Blisworth.  It  consists  of  a  white  sandstone 
with  siliceous  cement,  and  with  filamentous  cavities,  which  are 
faintly  stained  with  limonite. 

(2)  Suffolk. — 1889.  Sarsens  are  abundant  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Nayland,  at  corners  of  cross-roads  and  elsewhere.     Fine-grained 


Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — Hidory  of  Sarsens.  57 

•saccharoldal,  ami  stained.  Many  with  large  and  small  tubular  holes, 
some  of  which  are  split  open  and  form  furrows  on  the  surfaces,  often 
due  to  old  natural  splitting. 

1889.  Hartest  Green,  Suffolk.  A  large  brownish  Sarsen  (5  ft.  8  ins. 
X  5  ft.  2  ins.  X  3  ft.  6  ins.),  much  rounded  (almost  like  a  boulder), 
fine-grained  and  whitish  inside,  where  wounded  bj'  blows  of  stones. 
Much  pitted  naturally  on  the  outside.  Flattened  at  the  top,  and 
worn  smooth  by  boys'  play.  It  was  taken  years  ago  out  of  a  field 
now  occupied  by  Mr.  Griggs,  and  recpiired  eight  horses  to  drag  it. 
It  is  stated  in  a  letter  from  a  resident  there  that  "  it  measures  12  feet 
round  (probably  touching  the  ground  for  6  feet  of  its  length),  and 
about  4  feet  across,  weighing  5  of  6  tons."  It  is  not  alluded  to 
as  a  boulder  by  the  Committee  on  Boulders,  etc.  (British  Association). 

1889.  At  Newton  Green  there  is  a  large  Sarsen  stone  (4|  X 
•3x2  feet)  by  the  side  of  the  pond  next  to  the  "  Saracen's  Head  " 
Inn,  which  shows  on  one  side  a  '  bowelly  '  surface,  and  the  other 
«ides  split  flat. 

1889.  One  stone  (3  feet  long)  with  bowelly  surface,  and  with 
tubules,  is  at  Frost  Farm,  Stoke,  near  Nayland.  Near  Nayland,  at 
the  corner  of  cross-road  from  Bures  to  Colchester,  there  is  a  Sarsen 
7ft.  Gin.  long,  roughly  oval  in  outline.  By  the  side  of  the  high 
road  near  the  Popsey  bridge,  a  little  east  of  tlie  Anchor  bi'idge.  Nay- 
land,  a  Sarsen  standing  on  the  bank  (3  X  1^  feet)  shows  a  natural 
surface  with  a  large  hole,  also  a  boldly  mammillated  surface 
(bowelly).     Its  upper  end  and  sides  are  split  flat;  lower  end  buried. 

1889.  In  a  letter  dated  Ipswich,  September  12th,  1889,  the  late 
Dr.  J.  E.Taylor  obligingly  informed  me,  with  regard  to  some  Sarsen 
stones  found  at  Ipswich,  that  "  the  Reading  stone-bed  specimen  [not 
a  Sarsen]  is  highly  calcareous,  but  I  have  found  no  traces  of 
Foraminit'era  in  it.  The  mammillated  stone  is  purely  siliceous.  .  . 
..  .  The  siliceous  stones  are  abundant  hereabouts ;  the  others  not 
so.  I  got  them  both  [the  stones  referred  to]  during  the  excavation 
of  the  deep  sewers  in  one  of  tlie  streets  of  this  town." 

(3)  Ussex.—lSdQ.  T.  V.  Holmes :  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xiv, 
p.  190.  A  large  Sarsen  is  here  mentioned  that  has  been  removed 
from  the  Glacial  Gravel  at  Writtle  Wick,  near  Chelmsford.  A  note 
on  the  possible  origin  of  the  word  Sarsen  is  also  given. 

1896.  A.  E.  Salter:  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xiv,  p.  394.  In  the 
Epping  Forest  gravel  A.  E.  Salter  noticed  "  Sandstones  and  Sarsens, 
both  large,  various,  and  plentiful.  At  Epping  Forest  I  saw  three, 
measuring  9  in.  by  5  in.,  12  in.  by  6  in.,  and  20  in,  by  5  in. 
respectively."  In  the  high  -  level  Glacial  Gravel  at  Witherthorn, 
four  miles  east  of  Ongar,  "large  Sarsens  (2  ft.  by  1^  ft.)  "  (p.  395), 
At  Woodton,  in  the  Yare  Valley,  "a  block  of  Hertfordshire  Pudding- 
•stone  was  found  "  (p.  399), 

(4)  Hertfordshire.  —  18d7  and  1899.  The  Eev.  Alex.  Irving 
describes  both  Sarsens  and  Herts  Pmldingstones  as  common  in  the 
^tort  Valley  (Herts  and  Essex).  He  refers  both  to  the  Bagshot 
Series,  the  latter  particularly  to  the  Pebhle-beds ;  and  he  states  that 
both  rocks  are  agglutinated  by  the  same  kind  of  siliceous  cement 

58  Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarscns. 

(Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xv,  pp.  196  and  236).  He  duly  mentions 
that  Mr.  Whitaker  regards  the  Hertfordshire  Pudding-stone  of  the 
neighbourhood  under  notice  as  having,  in  part  at  least,  been  con- 
solidated pebble-beds  of  the  Woolwich  and  Reading  Series,  like 
those  at  Addington,  near  Croydon.  See  also  Mr.  Whitaker's  Address- 
to  the  Herts  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.,  Proc.,  vol.  x,  pt.  4  (September,  1899), 
p.  116. 

(5)  BucTcinghamsJiire. — 1890.  A  row  of  coarse,  gravelly  Sarsens 
lies  along  the  side  of  the  road  up  to  the  church  at  Badenham.  They 
were  placed  there  by  the  Eector,  who  said  that  such  stone  underlies 
the  Rectory  house  and  lawn  cl()s>e  by ;  and  some  blocks  of  it  were 
still  lying  about  there.  In  the  cliurch  tower,  up  along  the  re-entrant 
angles  of  the  buttresses  and  tower,  numerous  ordinary  fine-grained 
Sarsens  are  built  in  with  the  flint-work.  Professor  Prestwich  said, 
June  21st,  1890,  that  the  coarse-grained  Sarsens  at  Bradenham  cam© 
from  the  base  of  the  Tertiaries. 

In  Buckinghamshire  Sarsens  are  known  as  'Wycombe  stones,' and 
in  the  Bagshot  district  as  '  Heath  stones.' 

(6)  Oxfordshire. — 1871.  Professor  J.  Phillips  regarded  the 
Sarsen  stones  as  concretionary  portions  of  extensive  sand-beds  once 
overlying  the  district  with  its  previously  excavated  Chalk  valleys. 
The  loose  sands  were  carried  away  by  denudation,  and  the  solid 
portions  suffered  displacement.  Some  containing  flint  pebbles  and' 
fragments  lie  on  the  north  side  of  the  Wiltshire  downs.  Some  larg& 
Sarsens  are  found  in  the  Drift,  for  instance  at  Long  Wittenham, 
near  Abingdon.  See  his  "  Geology  of  Oxford  and  the  Valley  of  the 
Thames,"  1871,  pp.  447  and  462. 

(7)  Middlesex. — 1891.  Horace  B.  Woodward,  in  the  Geol.  Mag.^ 
Dec.  Ill,  Vol.  VIII,  pp.  119-121,  succinctly  described  a  very  large 
Grey  wether,  of  irregularly  quadrangular  form,  that  was  found 
lying  in  the  London  Clay,  at  the  bottom  of  the  Thames 
Valley  Gravel,  at  Moscow  Road,  Bayswater,  in  enlarging  the 
cellarage  of  the  '*  King's  Head."  It  was  9  ft.  6  ins.  long,  and  at 
least  2  ft,  8  ins.  thick.  Mr.  H.  B.  Woodward  remarks  that  Sarsen* 
have  been  found  in  many  places  at  the  same  horizon  in  the  base 
of  the  Thames  Valley  Gravel  —  at  the  Law  Courts  in  the  Strand,. 
and  near  Kew  Bridge  ;  at  Ealing  in  the  Brent  Valley  ;  at  II ford,  and 
at  Grays  ;  but  not  usually  of  large  size  nor  common.  He  notes 
also  that  Sarsens  and  Hertfordshire  Puddingstone  occur  in  the 
Brickearth  in  Buckinghamshire,  derived  in  Glacial  times  from  the 
wreck  of  Woolwich  Beds  and  Bagshot  Sands.  The  Thames  Valley 
got  its  gravel  mainly  from  the  Glacial  Drift.  The  Bayswater  Sarseu 
is  six  miles  distant  from  nearest  known  Glacial  Drift ;  and,  he  says,. 
*'  it  is  quite  possible  that  this  particular  block  may  have  been 
derived  directly  from  an  outlier  of  Bagshot  Sands,  or  it  may  hav© 
been  left  as  a  relic  of  Preglacial  denudation  near  the  spot  where  it 
has  now  been  found." 

1895.  At  the  Grove,  Stanmore  (the  residence  of  Mrs.  Brightwen),. 
large  Sarsens  have  been  collected  from  the  neighbourhood  and  made 
into  a  grotto.    Que  slab  measures  about  6  X  3  X  2  feet;    another^ 

Miss  M.  S.  Johnston — Geological  Notes  on  Central  France.     59> 

about  6x6x2  feet.  The  surfaces  of  these  two  large  slabs  bave 
been  deeply  scored  by  ruiiuing  water,  and  pierced  in  all  directions 
by  rootlet  and  other  holes. —  C.  D.  S.  -• 

1896.  In  the  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xiv,  p.  158,  Mr.  Alien 
Brown  states  that  "  a  large  tabular  water- worn  Sarsen,  and  a  portion 
of  it  broken  off  in  Quaternary  times,"  were  found  in  the  gravel  at 
Hanwell ;  and  that  another  Sarsen  occurred  at  the  base  of  the 
gravel  at  the  back  of  Hanwell  Station. 

1900.  In  "  The  Pits,"  old  gravel  workings,  an  allotment,  now- 
wooded,  belonging  to  William  Sherborn,  Esq.,  and  formerly  part  of 
Bedford  Common,  Middlesex,  there  is  a  large  Sarsen,  measuring 
about  5x5x2  feet,  from  one  end  of  which  a  block  about  a  foot 
thick  was  removed. — C.  D.  S. 

1900.  In  front  of  the  roadside  inn  (the  "  GrifEn  ")  at  Totteridga 
or  Whetstone,  near  Highgate,  stands  a  short  thick  Sarsen,  abuut 
25  inches  high  above  ground,  and  20  inches  broad  at  top  and 
18  inches  below.  It  is  locally  said  to  be  as  large  again  below  th© 
surface  ;  and  to  have  been  used  as  a  '  whetstone  '  for  their  weapons 
by  the  soldiers  going  to  the  Battle  of  Barnet  (1471). — A.  0.  Brown. 

1900.  Horace  B.  Woodward  describes  a  Greywether  from  the 
Gravel  of  South  Kensington,  in  the  Geol.  Mag.,  December,  1900^ 
p.  543  (with  figure).  It  measures  3  ft.  10  ins.  X  3  ft.  3  ins.  X  2  ft., 
and  is  in  many  respects  analogous  to  the  specimen  from  Bayswater 
described  above.  A  smaller  one  has  just  been  found  on  the  same 
spot  (January  23,  1901). 

[To  bt  continued.) 

IV. — SoMK  Geological  Notes  on  Central  Feance. 

By   M.    S.    Johnston. 

1  THOUGHT,  perhaps,  some  readers  of  the  Geological  Magazine 
might  be  interested  in  a  few  notes  taken  during  the  Inter- 
national Geological  Congress  excursion  to  the  Massif  of  Central 
France  and  the  region  of  the  Gausses,  and  on  the  chief  rocks  there, 
with  the  best  places  for  finding  examples. 

-  By  making  Clermont  Ferrand  a  starting-point,  the  Piiy  de  Dome 
may  be  visited  first.  The  road  winds  its  way  up  from  the  extensive 
plain  of  Limagne.  This  plain,  of  Teitiary  age,  extends  all  along  the 
foot  of  the  Monts  Domes  from  Brioude  to  the  Loire.  It  is  formed 
by  an  alluvial  deposit  left  by  an  ancient  lake  of  the  age  of  the  Paris 
Basin,  whose  waters  at  periods  of  high  level  probably  flowed  into 
Lac  Limagne.  The  Monts  Domes  rise  abruptly  from  this  plain, 
their  basalt  flows  forming  in  places  preci})itous  cliffs. 

At  Royat,  the  great  basalt  flow  of  Quaternary  age  is  reached,  at 
the  foot  of  which  abundant  mineral  springs  gush  out.  On  either 
side  of  the  lava  rise  rounded  hills  of  granite;  the  typical  granite 
of  these  hills  is  grey  and  coarsely  crystalline. 

The  Pay  de  Dome  is  composed  of  tracliyte.  The  typical  rock 
contains  large  crystals  of  sanidine,  and  is  very  acid,  having  G2  per 
cent,  of  silica.     M.  Michol-Luvy  is  of  opinion  that  the  trachyte  is- 

^0     Miss  M.  8.  Johmton — Geological  Notes  on  Ceniral  France. 

«  (lyke  which  has  been  buried  in  the  scoria,  projected  from  the 
crater,  of  which  every  vestige  has  been  obliterated.  On  the  north 
side  of  the  Puy  de  Dome  there  is  a  curious  sandy  scoriaceous 
deposit,  containing  small  rounded  grains  and  specular  iron.  The 
grains  are  considered  by  M.  Michel-Levy  to  be  lapilli  from  the 
volcano.  Down  the  side  of  the  Nid  de  Poule  there  is  a  large 
(deposit  of  scoria  and  bombs  of  various  forms. 

The  Puy  de  Pariou  is  a  scoriaceous  cone,  with  an  immense  lava 
stream  of  andesite  flowing  round  the  eastern  side  of  the  cone  to  the 
basaltic  plateau  of  Prudelles,  which  imposed  so  great  a  barrier  that 
the  stream  divided  and  flowed  down  to  the  Limagne  plain  on  either 
side  of  the  plateau.  Between  Puy  de  Pariou  and  Prudelles,  at 
Le  Cressigny,  a  cordierite  gneiss  may  be  found,  while  the  Pliocene 
basalt  of  Prudelles  contains  zeolites. 

Proceeding  from  Royat  by  train  to  La  Bourboule,  the  confines  of 
Mont  Dore  massif  are  entered  upon.  The  line  runs  round  the  north 
•of  the  Monts  Domes.  At  Volvic  a  fine  andesitic  stream  is  crossed  ; 
■this  stone  is  much  quarried  for  building  purposes,  whose  durable 
■qualities  are  well  seen  in  the  cathedral  ot  Clermont  Ferrand. 

On  arriving  at  La  Bourboule,  the  first  section  of  interest  is  at 
.a  short  distance  from  the  station  at  Lusclade,  where  rhyolites, 
.perlites,  phonolites,  and  trachytes  are  found.  One  section  of  rhyolite, 
■facing  the  road  to  Mont  Dore  and  at  a  small  gorge,  shows  remarkable 
•stratification,  the  rhy'olite  being  of  two  kinds,  glassy  and  fibrous. 
Up  the  gorge  the  rhyolite  becomes  perlitic,  and  masses  of  ophitic 
basalt  from  the  heights  above  have  fallen  into  the  bed  of  the  stream. 
Phonolites  without  nepheline,  with  nosean  and  haiiyne,  are  found 
a  few  3'ards  further  to  the  south. 

The  district  of  Mont  Dore  is  formed  by  two  principal  centres 
of  eruption — one  at  the  Pic  de  Sancy,  the  other  between  the 
.Banne  d'Ordenche,  Puy  de  la  Croix  Morand,  and  Puy  de  I'Angle, 
overlooking  the  gorge  mentioned  above.  The  Pic  de  Sancy  is 
trachytic,  and  fine  porphyroidal  trachyte  may  be  found  on  its 
inorthern  slopes.  In  the  ravines  of  the  Grande  Cascade  and 
Egravat  remarkable  sections  are  seen,  tuffs  and  conglomerates  of 
i:rachyte  or  andesite  alternating  with  compact  flows  of  different 
rocks,  as  trachytes,  andesites,  basalts,  and  labradorites.^  The  greater 
part  of  the  massif  is  formed  of  materials  of  every  size  from  fine 
cinerites  to  conglomerates. 

Cinerites  containing  vegetable  remains  are  well  exposed  on  the 
west  side  of  the  valley  of  the  Dore,  to  the  north-west  of  Mont  Dore 
Jes  bains.  At  the  Kavin  de  la  Grande  Scierie  is  an  interesting- 
example  of  denudation  and  successive  volcanic  phenomena.  The 
ibottom  of  the  ravine  is  of  cinerite,  which  rises  on  either  side  and 
iis  capped  by  porphyritic  trachyte.  x\fter  the  first  erosion  of  the 
valley  a  stream  of  lava  poured  down  it,  partly  filling  it,  and  which 
was  in  its  turn  eroded  and  has  left  its  mark  in  a  bank  of  andesite  on 
both  sides  of  the  ravine.     A  little  further  on  is  a  basaltic  dyke  rising 

^  A  labradorite  of  French  geologists  is  a  basic  andesite  of  English  geologists. 

Gf.oi..  Mag.  1901. 

Dec.  IV,  Vol.  \III,  I'l.  II. 

Fig.  I. — The  Orgues  de  Boit,  left  bank  of  the  Dordugne. 

■,  ir»»- 


Fig.  2. — rroiiioiUoiy  of  Basalt,  Carlal. 


Miss  M.  S.  Johnston — Geological  Notes  on  Central  Fnmce.     61 

as  an   isolated  hill  in  the  centre  of  a  circular  valley.     This  is  the 
Roche  Vendeix. 

After  traversing  some  woods  the  road  opens  on  to  a  fine 
panorama,  an  immense  circle  bounded  by  the  mountains  of  Mont 
Dore,  the  Cantal  and  Cezallier,  and  the  hills  of  lesser  heights,  the 
Orgues  de  Bort  and  the  Limousin.  The  village  of  Latour  is  built 
on  a  basaltic  promontory.  The  columns  of  basalt  are  magnificent  ; 
their  broad  tops  serve  as  excellent  foundations  to  the  houses,  and  are 
especially  well  seen  in  the  small  hill,  on  which  once  stood  a  castle. 

Here  the  road  descends  into  the  valley,  and  the  sceneiy  is  changed. 
Eounded  and  striated  hills  of  granite  betoken  the  presence  of 
ancient  glaciers,  and  between  them  stretch  marshy  fields  of  peat, 
whose  undersoil  is  formed  of  scratched  pebbles  and  erratic  blocks  of 
every  size.  The  glaciers  were  of  Pliocene  age  and  when  the 
volcanoes  of  Auvergne  were  at  their  highest.  The  glaciers  have 
scooped  out  curiously  shaped  valleys,  and  the  moraines  lie  along 
successive  hills,  whose  contours  are  rounded  and  lowered  as  fur 
as  La  Pradelle,  when  the  materials  spread  themselves  out  over 
a  flat  tableland,  which  constitutes  the  plateau  of  Lanobre  and 
extends  to  the  Orgues  de  Bort,  whose  precipitous  escarpment 
dominates  the  left  bank  of  the  Dordogne.  It  may  be  added  that 
at  Bagnols  erratic  blocks,  forming  immense  heaps,  repose  oa 
rounded,  polished,  or  striated  cordierite  gneiss. 

From  Bort  a  short  drive  brings  one  up  to  the  Orgues  de  Bort; 
these  'orgues'  are  of  phonolite  (PI.  II,  Fig.  1).  A  cap  of  phonolite, 
rising  in  immense  columns,  overspreads  a  hill  of  augen  gneiss.  Many 
of  the  '  eyes  '  in  this  gneiss  are  very  large  and  in  regular  and  con- 
tinuous layers. 

The  view  from  this  hill  is  very  fine.  The  massifs  of  Mont  Dore 
and  the  Cantal  are  both  seen  ;  the  Dordogne  and  the  Rhue  have  cut 
narrow  precipitous  valleys  on  the  north  and  east,  but  on  the  south, 
after  the  junction  of  the  two  streams,  the  valley  widens  and  there 
are  some  small  glacier-formed  lakes,  which  are  filling  with  peat. 

On  leaving  Bort  by  train  for  Aurillac  the  line,  a  marvel  of 
engineering  skill,  winds  between  the  spurs  of  the  Cantal,  which 
the  train  crosses,  ascends,  and  descends  in  constant  succession. 
Before  reaching  the  slopes  of  the  Cantal  a  small  Carboniferous 
deposit  is  crossed,  in  which  mines  are  worked  at  Chanjpagnac. 

Aurillac  is  built  on  the  banks  of  the  Jordanne,  and  on 
crossing  the  railway  to  the  south  of  the  town  the  alluvial  terraces 
of  Quaternary  age,  with  the  rounded  hills  of  mica-schist  rising- 
above  them,  are  very  noticeable.  There  is  also  in  this  valley  other 
evidences  of  glacial  action,  and  at  Vezac  a  Quaternary  moraine 
is  prominent,  forming  waterfalls  and  rapids  in  the  small  stream. 

The  next  interesting  section  on  the  road  to  Carlat  is  an  andesitio 
conglomerate  at  Cahanes.  This  conglomerate  is  found  in  great 
blocks  amongst  tuft's  and  andesitic  dust,  and  forming  a  high  hill. 
The  theory  concerning  this  deposit  is,  that  it  may  be  the  projection 
of  what  was  the  last  effort  of  the  volcano.  From  this  hill  is  also, 
seen  u  wonderful  promontory  of  basalt.     This  promontory  is  furnK'(f, 

'62     Miss  M.  S.  Johnston — Geological  Notes  on  Central  France. 

of  very  regular  columns  and  overlies  a  Pliocene  river  bed,  situated 
some  hundred  feet  above  the  valley  of  the  Goul.  The  basalt  is 
Itreached  in  places;  the  largest,  as  seen  in  PI.  II,  Fig.  2,  has 
caused  the  andesitic  breccia  below  to  be  seen. 

After  leaving  Carlat  the  road  takes  a  sharp  turn  to  the  south, 
and  a  section  of  cinerite,  with  loose  felspar  crystals,  is  found  near 
ihe  top  of  a  hill  overlain  by  concretionary  Miocene  sand. 

Tlie  I'oad  now  continues  around  the  southern  spurs  of  the  Cantal, 
which  presents  new  vistas  of  beauty  at  every  turn,  and  on  reaching 
Cui'ebourse  a  magnificent  panorama  of  the  valley  of  the  Cere  is 
obtained.  At  a  short  distance  from  Curebourse  and  above  Vic-sur- 
Cere  is  the  celebrated  section  of  Mougudo  of  compact  cinerite, 
containing  fossil  plants.  About  twenty-two  species  of  plants  have 
been  found  there,  in  the  shape  of  leaves,  twigs,  trunks,  and 
wood  opal. 

The  road  now  follows  the  valley  of  the  Cere,  where  there  is  an 
abundance  of  volcanic  breccia,  mostly  capped  by  columns  of  basalt. 
At  Thiezac,  near  St.  Jacut,  is  a  noticeable  section  across  the  valley 
and  one  which  may  be  easily  distinguished  at  sight.  On  the  north- 
-west  side  the  highest  rocks  are  of  andesite,  then  a  band  of 
porphyritic  basalt,  beneath  this  a  mass  of  breccia,  with  dykes  of 
andesite  and  labradorite  overlying  the  mica-schists.  The  formation 
■of  the  small  hill,  on  which  stands  a  white  statue  of  the  Virgin,  is 
a  dyked  breccia,  while  on  the  south-east  side  of  the  Cere  rises 
a  dome  of  trachyte  and  phonolite,  tilting  the  breccia  containing 
andesite  and  cinerite  dykes,  and  capped  by  andesite  and  Oligocene 

The  two  most  striking  features  now  in  the  landscape  are  the  peak 
of  the  Puy  Grion,  a  w^eathered  phonolite  dyke  on  the  left,  and  the 
Plomb  du  Cantal,  the  highest  summit  in  this  region,  and  situated  on 
the  edge  of  the  crater  ring  on  the  right.  The  lateral  ravines  and 
the  flanks  of  the  cirques  are  riddled  with  dykes,  as  are  also  the  cliffs 
along  the  valley  of  the  Allagnon,  which  is  reached  by  the  tunnel 
-of  Lioran,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long. 

At  a  waterfall  not  far  from  Lioran  a  trachyte  called  the  '  roche 
de  deuil '  is  to  be  found,  and  at  Laveissiere,  a  short  distance  further 
on,  the  base  of  an  ancient  volcano  may  be  seen  resting  on 
Oligocene  limestone.  The  Rocher  de  Bonnevie  rises  in  successive 
tiers  of  basaltic  columns  above  the  town  of  Murat,  and  there  is  also 
a  fine  example  of  columns,  showing  various  directions  of  contact 
cooling  in  the  hill  below  Bredon  church.  In  the  village  of  Bredon 
aTe  cave  dwellings,  which  were  inhabited  as  late  as  fifteen  years  ago. 

From  Murat  a  good  excursion  can  be  made  to  the  Puy  Mary 
(PI.  Ill,  Fig.  3).  The  road  leads  up  the  valley  of  the  Chevade  to  the 
"Gol  d'Entremont,  where  there  is  a  large  exposure  of  augitic  andesite, 
with  haiiyne,  which  is  used  for  tiles.  Many  of  the  specimens  are 
good  sounding  clinkstones.  At  this  point  the  road  descends  and 
crosses  the  valley  of  the  Dienne,  which  has  its  origin  at  the  foot 
of  the  Puy  Mary,  and  is  a  good  example  of  a  glacially  and  aerially 
denuded  valley. 


Geol.  Mac.  1901. 

Dec.  IV,  Vol.  VIII,  I'l.  III. 

ViG.  3. — Puy  Mary  and  the  Valk-y 

b'lO.  4.  —  I'lionolilc  Hills  in  llif  Mryai,   \  clay. 


Miss  M.  S.  Johnston — Geological  Notes  on  Central  France.     63 

The  peak  of  the  Puy  Mary  is  capped  by  an  andesite,  with 
■porphyritic  felspars  and  horublende,  overlying  a  band  of  porphy- 
roidal  basalt,  which  is  situated  on  a  mass  of  breccia;  the  whole 
three  deposits  being  dyked  by  phonolite,  basalt,  and  andesite. 
From  the  top  of  this  Puy  a  fine  view  of  the  crater  of  the  Cantal 
is  obtained.  The  Cantal  massif  was  formed  by  one  crater,  the 
remains  of  which  may  be  traced  from  the  Puy  Mary  ;  its  ring 
is  eight  miles  in  diameter,  the  highest  points  being  the  Plomb 
<le  Cantal,  the  Pay  Mary,  and  the  Puy  Chavaroche.  In  the  centre 
of  the  crater  are  several  cone-shaped  hills  of  phonolite,  the  Puy 
Orion  being  the  highest.  These  are  weathered  dykes,  phonolite 
having  the  peculiarity  of  weathering  into  cones,  as  will  be  observed 
in  PI.  Ill,  Fig.  4  of  the  phonolite  hills  of  the  Megal  district. 

The  order  of  deposition  in  the  Cantal  region  is — Miocene  basalt, 
trachyte,  and  phonolite ;  andesitic  breccia  ;  andesitic  and  phonolitic 
flows  ;  and  finally,  the  plateau  basalt. 

On  leaving  the  Cantal  district  and  proceeding  by  train  to  Le  Puy, 
another  volcanic  area  may  be  studied,  that  of  Velay.  The  chief 
points  to  be  noticed  along  the  line  are  the  union  of  Quaternary 
moraines  from  the  valleys  of  the  Allagnon  and  AUange  at 
Neussargues,  and  at  Mei'dogne  a  remarkable  basaltic  rock  over- 
spreading cinerites,  containing  Miocene  flora ;  at  this  point  also  the 
valley  casts  off  its  glacial  character,  and  narrows  itself  between  walls 
of  gneiss,  often  amphibolic.  At  Leuipdes  the  plain  of  the  Limagne 
is  reached,  but  soon  the  line  turns  to  the  south,  and  after  Arvant 
it  passes  over  some  part  of  the  Oligocene  plain  and  then  on  to  the 
gneiss  again.  At  Darsac  is  to  be  seen  a  characteristic  view  of 
the  plains  of  basalt,  with  the  scoriaceous  cones  of  the  axis  of  the 
Velay  chain  in  the  distance. 

The  plain  in  whicli  Le  Puy  is  situated  bears  striking  evidence 
of  tlie  wearing  away  of  volcanoes.  In  the  centre  are  two  isolated 
rocks  of  breccia,  the  Roches  Cornel  lie  and  Aguilhac,  surrounded 
by  Oligocene  deposits.  From  the  Roche  Corneille  is  seen  the  plain, 
whose  edges  rise  on  all  sides  in  terraces  and  hills,  first  of  ravined 
'Oligocene  deposits,  tlien  of  volcanic  remains.  Over  the  hills  to  the 
south  and  east  are  the  Mezen  and  Megal  peaks.  On  the  north, 
in  the  middle  distance,  is  a  small  volcano  which  has  been  cut  in 
half;  the  crater  pipe  and  outer  slopes  can  still  be  clearly  traced. 
The  hills  of  Polignac  and  Denise  are  both  of  interest.  At  Denise 
the  hill  is  composed  of  a  pipe  of  scoria,  often  containing  granite,  and 
two  varieties  of  breccia,  one  of  Middle  Pliocene  age,  the  other  of 
the  age  of  Elephns  meridionalis  :  in  the  latter  was  found  the  '  Man 
of  Denise,'  but  how  he  got  there  is  still  a  vexed  question  ;  his 
skeleton  has  been  placed  in  the  Le  Puy  Museum. 

The  Loire  flows  along  to  the  east  of  Le  Puy,  but  in  early 
Quaternary  times  the  principal  river  flowed  away  to  the  west 
on  the  south  of  the  town. 

The  Megal  and  Mezen  district  is  one  of  the  most  interesting 
round  Le  Puy.  This  region  is  the  oldest  volcanic  area  of  the  Velay, 
and  is  composed  almost  entirely  of  basalt  and  phonolite  ;  indeed,  the 

64-    Miss  M.  S.  Johnston — Geological  Notes  on  Central  France. 

latter  is  so  abundant  that  it  is  called  '  le  pays  des  phonolites,'  and 
the  rock  gives  a  characteristic  appearance  to  the  landscape  (PI.  Ill, 
Fig.  4).  Some  of  the  best  sections  for  obtaining  it  are  at  Lardeyrol,. 
specimens  without  nepheline ;  at  Mont  Pidgier,  containing  a  vast 
quantity  ;  at  Boussoulet  and  Montvert,  a  phonolite  rich  in  nepheline 
and  EBgyrine;  near  Estables  the  '  rocher  d'Aiglet';  and  the  Mezen 
peak  itself  is  mainly  composed  of  this  rock. 

On  the  road  from  Le  Puy  to  Blavozy  are  several  excellent 
sections  of  arkose  of  Eocene  age  and  Oligocene  sandy  clays  and 
spotted  marls,  while  at  Blavozy  itself  there  is  a  very  large  deposit 
of  arkose,  in  which  great  crystals  of  orthoclase  from  the  older 
granite  appear.     At  Queyrieres  is  found  a  good  Miocene  trachyte. 

There  are  a  few  glacial  lakes  in  this  district,  the  chief  one  being 
that  of  St.  Front,  crater-form  in  shape  and  worn  in  the  basalt. 

Large  crystals  of  orthoclase  and  hornblende  can  be  picked  up 
in  the  labradorite  tuffs  of  Besseyre,  many  of  the  hornblende  crystals 
being  very  nearly  perfect  in  shape.  Between  Coubon  and  Le  Puy 
may  be  noticed  the  lava  streams  from  the  Mont  Jonet  of  Quaternary 
age,  overspreading  those  of  the  Garde  d'Ours,  which  was  an  active 
volcano  in  Pliocene  times. 

-  The  geologist  may  now,  if  he  chooses,  pass  from  the  land  formed 
by  the  internal  fires  to  that  deposited  in  the  waters,  by  driving 
from  Le  Puy  to  Mende,  a  distance  of  ninety-two  kilometres.  One 
first  traverses  igneous  and  metamorphic  rocks  as  far  as  Mont  Lozere, 
at  which  point  the  Liassic  and  Jui'assic  plateaux  are  reached,  and 
where  the  road  makes  a  rapid  descent  into  the  valley  to  Mende. 

The  rocks  to  be  noted  en  route  are  first  the  bombs  containing 
peridotite  found  in  a  cone  at  Tarreyre.  Basaltic  plateaux  are 
crossed  until  one  arrives  at  Langogne.  The  hills  on  the  west 
side  of  the  valley  of  the  Allier  are  of  porphyritic  granite;  here 
the  felspathic  crystals  of  orthoclase  are  very  large. 

From  Chateauneuf  de  Kandon  one  perceives  the  Gausses,  of 
Secondary  age,  rising  against  the  crystalline  mass  of  Mont  Lozere. 
The  Gausses  are  immense  undulating  barren  plateaux  of  limestone 
of  Jurassic  age.  There  are  frequent  depressions  called  '  sink-holes,' 
and  the  whole  country  from  Mende  to  the  Gevennes  on  the  south 
is  supposed  to  be  riddled  with  caverns  ;  some  with  underground 
streams,  as  at  Bramabiau  and  Padirac,  others,  where  there  is  an 
entire  absence  of  running  water  and  where  they  are  slowly  filling 
with  stalactitic  materials,  as  at  Dargilan, 

PI.  IV,  Fig.  5  is  a  view  taken  from  the  pathway  up  to  Dargilan, 
the  entrance  of  the  cave  being  at  the  top  of  the  cliffs  in  Middle 
Jurassic  dolomitic  limestone  ;  the  rounded  formation  on  the  top 
of  the  precipitous  cliff  is  of  Kellaway  age.  The  Gausses  are  also 
cut  up  by  caiions,  that  of  the  Goi'ge  de  Tarn  being  the  largest.  The 
river  of  this  gorge  is  fed  by  underground  springs,  and  its  sides 
are  weathered  out  into  pinnacles  and  buttresses. 

In  the  Dourbie  gorge,  not  far  from  Milhau,  is  Montpellier-le- 
Vieux.  The  limestone  on  the  top  of  the  Gausse  Noir  has  been  worn 
away    either    bv    weathering    or,    as    some    think,   by  underground! 

H.  A.  Allen — A  South.  Wales  Coal-measure  Insect.         05 

streams  and  afterwards  aerial  denudation.  Here  is  the  most  wonderful 
representation  of  an  old  city,  with  its  ramparts,  castles,  and  halls ; 
there  are,  of  course,  many  fantastically  sculptured  rocks,  but  the 
Chateau  Gailliard  is  a  marvel,  of  which  only  the  eye  can  form 
any  idea. 

At  Eglazine,  in  the  Tarn  gorge,  is  a  basalt  flow  which  has  half 
filled  a  denuded  volcanic  neck  of  breccia.  In  the  basalt,  which 
is  Pliocene  in  age,  are  lai'ge  crystals  of  augite  and  inclusions  of 
olivine.  The  breccia  also  contains  well-developed  crystals  of  various 

The  Tindoul  (near  Eodez)  and  Padirac  (near  Eocamadour)  caverns 
have  very  deep  holes  or  '  puits  '  to  the  entrance  of  the  underground 
galleries.  The  one  at  Padirac  is  245  feet ;  the  Tindoul  is  a  little 
less  (PI.  IV,  Fig.  6). 

The  Bramabiau  is  situated  near  the  east  and  west  fault  which 
brings  up  the  crystalline  rocks  of  the  Cevennes  above  those  of 
Jurassic  age.  This  fault  is  very  well  marked  by  the  configuration 
of  the  country,  as  to  the  north  of  it  are  the  table-like  causses,  to  the 
south  rises  the  jagged  outline  of  the  Cevennes.  The  Cevennes  are 
the  watershed  of  the  Mediterranean  and  the  ocean  rivers,  and  their 
south-east  and  north-west  slopes  present  different  aspects.  From 
Mont  Aigoual,  on  the  south  and  east,  are  seen  narrow  and  steep 
gorges  in  endless  successions  ;  the  spurs  of  the  mountains,  running 
out  in  long  rows,  give  the  appearance  of  waves  of  the  sea.  On  the 
north  and  west  the  valleys  are  broader  and  less  steep,  and  the 
mountains  have  flatter  tops. 

Mont  Aigoual  is  formed  by  a  granite  intruded  into  the  Cambrian 
sandstone,  which  has  been  metamorphosed  into  gneiss  and  schists. 
The  granite  is  porphyritic,  containing  large  orthoclase  crystals, 
sometimes  four  or  five  inches  long. 

An  excursion  to  these  parts  may  be  ended  at  Eocamadour, 
a  curious  little  village  clinging  to  the  precipitous  side  of  a  canon 
and  celebrated  during  many  centuries  for  its  pilgrimages. 

V. — On  an  Insect  from  the  Coal-3ieasures  of  South  Wales. 
By  H.  A.  Allex,  F.G.S. 
rpHE  rarity  of  insect  remains  from  the  Carboniferous  rocks  of  the 
X  British  Isles  is  demonstrated  by  the  small  number  of  genera 
and  species  included  in  the  lists  published  by  such  authorities  as 
Dr.  Henry  Woodward  ^  and  Mr.  S.  H.  Scudder.-  A  portion  of  a  wing, 
with  a  neuration  unlike  that  of  any  specimen  yet  described,  having 
recently  been  exhumed,  it  may  be  deemed  not  unworthy  of  notice. 

The  specimen  was  obtained  by  Mr.  G.  Eoblings  from  the  top  of 
the  four-foot  seam  in  the  Lower  Coal-measures  of  Llanbradach 
Colliery,  Cardiff.  A  fragment  of  shale  split  into  two  pieces  exposes 
nearly  the  Avhole  of  a  wing  lying  almost  flat ;   the  distal  portion  of 

^  Quart.  Jouvn.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxxii  (1870),  p.  6o.  Geol.  Mao.,  1887,  p.  49, 
PI.  II  ;  ibid.,  p.  433,  PI.  XII. 

-  Mem.  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  iii  (1883),  pp.  213-224. 

DECADE    IV. A'OL.   VIII. — XO.   II.  5 

66        H.  A.  Allen — A  South  Wales  Coal-measure  Insect. 

it,  as  far  as  the  broken  line  in  the  figure,  is  seen  on  one  half  of  the 
shale,  and  a  little  more  of  the  basal  part  on  the  other.  The  base  is 
wanting,  and  what  remains  of  the  basal  portion  has  suffered  much 
injury.  The  length  of  the  fragment,  measured  from  the  apex, 
is  41  mm.,  and  the  greatest  breadth  of  the  wing,  measured  from 
the  costal  to  the  posterior  margin,  is  13  mm. 

vn  IX 

"Wing  of  Fouquea  cambrensis,  n.sp.,  from  the  Coal-measures  of  South  Wales,      x  2. 

The  costal  nervure  (the  vena  marginalis  of  Heer),  numbered  I  in 
the  Figure,  is  marginal. 

The  subcostal  (v.  mediastina),  II,  is  simple,  and  is  situated  about 
midway  between  the  costal  and  the  anterior  branch  of  the  radius. 
It  curves  gently  towards  the  costal  margin,  and  dies  out  at  about 
12  ram.  from  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

The  radius  (v.  scapularis),  III,  is  bifurcated  near  the  base;  its 
anterior  portion  is  simple,  curves  gently  towards  the  costal  margin, 
then  turns  rearward,  and  dies  out  near  the  apex  of  the  wing.  The 
posterior  portion  of  the  radius  is  situated  slightly  in  advance  of  the 
long  axis  of  the  wing,  and  runs  nearly  in  a  straight  line  towards  the 
apex.  It  gives  off  a  bifurcated  branch  at  15  mm.,  a  simple  one  at 
10  mm.,  and  a  second  simple  branch  at  8  mm.  from  the  apex  of  the 
wing.  All  these  branches  of  the  posterior  portion  of  the  radius 
reach  the  posterior  margin  of  the  wing  near  the  apex. 

The  median  (v.  externo-media),  V,  is  forked  at  a  short  distance 
from  the  base ;  the  anterior  branch  runs  parallel  with  the  radius  for 
a  distance  of  6  mm.,  and  then  divides  into  two  minor  branches, 
which  reach  the  posterior  margin  by  a  slight  curve.  The  posterior 
branch  of  the  median  runs  straight  towards  the  margin,  produces 
a  few  branchlets,  and,  9  mm.  from  its  point  of  bifurcation,  sends  an 
offshoot  direct  to  the  margin ;  4  mm.  further  the  branch  bifurcates. 
All  the  branches  of  the  median  join  the  apical  half  of  the  posterior 

The  cubitus  (v.  interno-media) ,  VII,  is  directed  towards  the  middle 
of  the  posterior  margin  until  within  a  distance  of  2  mm.,  where  it 
turns  sharply  in  the  direction  of  the  apex.  A  simple  branch  is 
given  off  at  5  mm.  from  the  margin,  and  a  few  branchlets  may  be 
seen  running  out  from  the  main  branch. 

Nearer  the  base  faint  indications  of  nervures  occur  which  may 
form  the  anal  system  {v.  analis),  IX,  but,  on  account  of  the  injured 
condition  of  the  wing,  their  origin  cannot  be  traced. 

11.  A.  Alien — A  South  Wales  Coal-measure  Insect.        67 

Over  the  areas  between  the  principal  nervures  there  is  a  delicate 
Teticnlation.  No  transverse  nervules  are  present,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  faint  traces  in  the  costal  area.  The  specimen  assumes  the 
colour  of  the  shale  in  which  it  is  embedded. 

Of  the  few  wings  known  from  the  British  Carboniferous  rocks, 
those  of  Lithomnntis  carbonnria,  from  the  Coal-measures  of  Scotland, 
described  by  Dr.  H.  Woodward,'  to  a  certain  extent  resemble  our 
specimen,  but  diifer  in  the  shape  of  the  area  situated  anteriorly  to 
the  subcostal  nervure,  i.e.  the  costal  area,  which  in  L.  carbonaria  is 
narrow  near  the  base  and  increases  in  width  towards  the  apex, 
whilst  in  our  specimen  the  reverse  obtains.  The  difterence  in  the 
«hape  of  the  M'ing  and  in  the  neuration  will  not  admit  of  the 
specimen  above  figured  being  referred  to  L.  carbonaria,  H.  Woodw, 

For  corresponding  reasons  this  new  specimen  cannot  be  placed 
with  Lithomantis  GoJdenbergi,  Ch.  Brongn.,-  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  the  costal  area  is  somewhat  similar  in  shape.  The  posterior 
or  branched  limb  of  the  radius  is  situated  much  further  from  the 
anterior  margin  than  in  either  of  the  two  species  of  TMliomantis 
mentioned,  and  bears  fewer  branches. 

Gryllacrls  (Coryclalis)  Brongniarti,  Mant.,  from  Coalbrookdale, 
<liffers  from  the  South  Wales  specimen  in  its  neuration,  especially  in 
the  radius,  which  bifurcates  much  nearer  the  apex  of  the  wing,  and 
also  in  the  transverse  nervules,  which  are  strongly  marked. 

In  the  simplicity  and  general  appearance  of  its  neuration  our  wing 
much  resembles  Dicti/oneura  simiosa,  Klivei',-'  but  in  that  species  the 
important  subcostal  nervure  is  directed  towards  the  apex  and  does 
not  curve  towards  the  costal  margin.  M.  Kliver's  specimen  lacks 
both  base  and  apex,  and  therefore  the  above-mentioned  character  may 
perhaps  be  deceptive. 

The  genus  Foiiquea,  to  which  our  specimen  may  be  referred,  is 
<lescribed  by  Ch.  Brongniart,^  who  states  that  "  it  agrees  with 
Lithomantis  in  its  neuration,  but  diifers  greatly  in  the  reticulation  ; 
the  nervules  which  unite  the  nervures  are  so  numerous  that  they 
anastomose  and  form  a  veritable  network." 

The  shape  of  the  wing,  the  position  of  the  longitudinal  nervures, 
and  the  reticulation  in  our  specimen  bear  a  general  resemblance  to 
Fouquea  Lacroixi,  from  Commentry,  but  neither  of  the  two  species 
figured  by  C.  Brongniarf^  exactly  agree  with  it,  since  in  both  of 
them  the  branches  running  from  the  principal  nervures  to  the 
posterior  margin  are  more  numerous.  The  cubitus  also  shows 
a  considerable  difference. 

The  specimen  differs  from  any  described  form  that  has  come  under 
my  notice,  more  especially  in  the  cubitus.  The  injui-y  to  the  base 
of  the  wing  is  most  unfortunate,  and  it  is  consequently  impossible 

'  Uuait.  Jouni.  Geo).  Sot-.,  vol.  xxxii  (1876),  p.  60,  pi.  ix,  fig.  1. 

*  Rech.  Insects  Fossilcs,  pi.  xxxvii,  ligs.  1,  2. 

'  Pahnontographica,  Bd.  xxix  (1883),  p.  260,  t.  ii,  fig.  4. 

*  "Rocli.  lusectes  fossiles  dos  Temps  prim.,"  p.  372  ;  St.  Etk-uiif,  1893. 

*  Op.  cit.,  pi.  xxxv,  figs.  10,  11. 

68  E.  Greenly — Denudation  in  North  Wales. 

to  trace  any  of  the  principal  nervui-es  to  their  source,  but  the  wing; 
is  otherwise  in  a  good  state  of  preservation. 

It  will  be  placed,  provisionally,  in  the  genus  Fouquea,  Ch.  Brongn.^ 
and,  in  order  to  note  the  principality  in  which  the  wing  was  found, 
I  propose  the  name  Fouquea  cambrensis. 

The  specimen  has  been  presented  to  the  Geological  Survey 
Museum,  London,  by  Mr.  Eoblings. 

VI. — Kecent  Denudation  in  IS  ant  Ferancon,  Nokth  Wales. 
By  Ed-vvakd  Greenly,  F.G.S. 

READERS  of  this  Magazine  may  remember  that  early  last 
August  there  were  descriptions  in  many  provincial  and  even 
in  some  London  newspapers  of  an  extensive  '  landslip,'  which  had 
occurred  on  the  side  of  the  mountain  called  Carnedd  Dafydd,  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  valley  of  Nant  Ffrancon,  in  North  Wales. 
The  impression  conveyed  was  perhaps  somewhat  exaggerated,  and 
yet  the  phenomenon  was  on  a  scale  quite  large  enough  to  be  of 
geological  importance. 

In  a  brief  but  vividly  written  article  in  the  Geological  Magazine 
for  January,  1900,  my  friend  Mr.  J.  R.  Dakyns  described  a  number 
of  cases  of  denudation  on  an  important  scale  that  had  come  under 
his  observation.  It  may  be  well,  therefore,  in  the  same  way,  and 
under  a  similar  title,  to  preserve  a  record  of  this  landslip.  There 
was  almost  incessant  rain  from  the  5th  to  the  10th  of  August,  with 
streams  all  in  heavy  spate  and  floods  in  many  districts,  and  on 
August  Gth  (I  believe)  at  about  4  p.m.  two  torrents  broke  out  on  the 
side  of  Carnedd  Dafydd,  carrying  with  them  a  great  deal  of  debris, 
and  blocking  the  road  in  the  valley  for  many  yards.  The  spot  is 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  valley,  nearly  opposite  the  house  called 
Pentre,  shown  on  the  Geological  Survey  and  old  Ordnance  Maps. 

The  mountain  side  here  is  composed  of  the  Bala  volcanic  series, 
alternations  of  various  igneous  rocks  with  hard  grits,  resting,  with 
a  south-easterly  dip,  upon  a  thick  mass  of  softer  and  rather  homo- 
geneous black  slates.  The  volcanic  series  form  a  great  range  of 
crags  along  the  brow  of  the  mountain  some  hundreds  of  feet  in 
height,  cut  into  huge  buttresses  and  deep  recesses,  while  the  dark 
slates  give  rise  to  long  uniform  steep  slopes  extending  from  the 
foot  of  these  crags  to  the  bottom  of  the  valley,  and  along  theni 
the  road  is  carried  at  a  height  at  this  point  of  about  200  feet  above 
the  alluvial  plain.  These  slopes  are  covered  with  great  sheets  of 
scree,  resting  upon  loose  glacial  debris,  which,  though  rising  here 
and  there  into  moraine-like  mounds,  have  for  the  most  part,  and  at 
the  point  where  the  landslip  occurred,  a  pretty  uniform  slope. 

As  we  pass  up  the  valley  from  the  north  we  see  nothing  but  two 
streams  of  stones,  grey  and  fresh-looking,  near  the  road.  They  do  not 
extend  far  up  the  slopes,  and  appear,  indeed,  rather  insignificant;  but 
this  is  due  to  the  great  depth  of  the  valley,  and  when  we  arrive  at 
the  place  where  they  cross  the  road  they  are  much  more  imposing 
in  appearance.  From  this  point  we  see  that  they  are  fans  of  debris 
spread  out  at  the  ends  of  two  long  channels,  which,  light  grey  and 
evidently  quite  newly  cut,  are  conspicuous  features  all  down   the 

E.  Greenly — Denudation  in  North  Wales.  69 

slopes  from  the  foot  of  the  crags.  The  northern  one  can  be  traced 
by  the  eye  a  little  way  up  into  the  crags  themselves,  but  from  below 
we  cannot  tell  whether  the  two  channels,  which  disappear  behind 
a  great  rocky  buttress,  have  or  have  not  a  common  origin. 

The  northern  stream  of  debris  crossed  the  road,  broke  down  the 
wall,  and  poured  over  on  the  other  side  a  fan  or  cone  of  great  stones 
all  the  way  down  to  the  alluvial  plain,  while  the  finer  material  was 
spread  out  upon  the  alluvium  itself,  and  some  even  reached  as  far 
as  the  river  Ogwen.  This  fan  is  about  58  yards  wide  at  the  road, 
and  begins  a  considerable  distance  above  it,  the  angle  at  its  top 
being  a  moderate  one. 

Some  of  the  debris  is  very  coarse.  I  measured  one  block  of 
felsite  12x6  X  4  feet,  standing  on  its  narrow  side,  a  little  way 
above  the  road.  How  far  this  had  been  carried  by  the  torrent,  I  do 
not  know ;  it  may  have  been  embedded  in  the  drift  before,  but  from 
its  position  on  the  fan  it  must  have  travelled  a  good  many  yards. 

The  southern  stream  crosses  the  road  about  175  yards  further  on, 
and  is  about  33  yards  wide  at  that  place.  It  is  more  conspicuous 
in  the  distance  than  the  other,  and  the  amount  of  material  at  the 
road  is  very  great,  but  it  does  not  go  so  far  down  into  the  valley,  the 
debris  stopping  on  the  steep  slopes  and  not  reaching  the  alluvium. 

Above  these  fans  the  work  has  been  wholly  erosive.  At  the  head 
of  the  northern  one  the  channel  cut  in  the  drift  and  scree  seemed  to 
mo  to  be  more  than  20  feet  deep,  and  I  think  that  it  was  cut  down 
to  the  solid  slate  here  and  there.  On  the  steep  rocky  slopes  at 
the  crag's  foot  the  gully  had  been  swept  very  clean  and  white. 
Whether  the  erosive  work  afi"ected  solid  rock  as  well  as  drift, 
I  cannot  tell.  I  saw  no  sign  of  a  rock-fall  in  the  crags,  and  to 
ascertain  whether  there  was  any  it  would  be  necessary  to  go  some 
way  up  into  the  gully.  The  material  of  the  fan,  however,  did  not 
seem  to  me  quite  angular  enough  to  suggest  any  great  fall  of  solid 
rock,  considering  the  short  distance  of  transport. 

Whether  this  be  so  or  not,  it  is  clear  that  torrential  denudation, 
the  work  of  only  one  afternoon,  and  probably  of  a  very  short  time 
in  that  afternoon,  has  cut  channels  through  20  feet  or  more  of  drift 
and  scree  on  the  mountain  side,  moved  blocks  of  felsite  of  as  much 
as  28S  cubic  feet,  and  spread  out  fans  of  stones  and  debris  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  in  length. 

The  fans  and  channel  would  be  well  worth  being  photographed. 
In  the  Windsor  Magazine  of  November  last  there  is  an  account  of 
a  disaster  near  Driffield  in  the  Chalk  wolds  of  Yorkshire,  said  to 
have  been  caused  by  a  '  waterspout.'  The  article  is  illustrated  by 
photographs,  not  only  of  damage  to  buildings,  but  of  channels  and 
fans  of  debris  very  like  these;  and  the  point  of  origin  is  there  quite 
clear.     These  views,  indeed,  are  of  considerable  geological  interest. 

In  view  of  the  great  importance  of  the  subject  of  denudation,  it 
really  seems  a  pity  that  instead  of  occasional  papers,  there  should 
inot  be  some  kind  of  regular  organization  for  collecting  and  recording 
descriptions  of  what  is  actually  going  on  at  the  present  time. 

70  Dr.  F.  A.  Bather — Alleged  Prints  of  Triassic  Echinoderms. 

VII. — Alleged  Prints  of  Echinoderbis  in  Triassic  Reptilipeeous- 


By  F.  A.  Bather,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.G.S. 

IN  the  Geological  Magazine  for  January,  1901  (n.s.,  Dec.  IV, 
Vol.  VIII,  pp.  3,  4),  Professor  Burckhardt  describes  certaia 
markings  in  the  sandstone  matrix  of  specimens  of  Hyperodapedon 
and  Bhynchosaurus  in  the  British  Museum,  from  Elgin,  Shropshire, 
and  Warwickshire  (the  last,  however,  not  being,  as  implied  by 
the  legend  to  the  figure,  represented  in  the  Museum).  He 
believes  that  these  are  hollow  imprints  "  left  by  Echinoderms  of 
a  Euryalid  shape,  having  peripheral  arms,  either  simple  or  forked," 
but  he  appeals  to  specialists  to  decide  to  which  group  of  Echinoderms 
they  are  due.  Since  these  marks  are  said  to  be  exceedingly  numerous,^ 
and  since  Dr.  Burckhardt  uses  them  as  evidence  of  contemporaneity,^ 
I  thought  it  my  duty,  as  the  specialist  nearest  at  hand,  to  examine 
these  statements  without  delay. 

Any  student  of  Echinoderms  would  probably  gather  from  Professor 
Burckhardt's  description  that  the  impressions  were  those  of  Penta- 
crinid  columnals,  with  a  pentagonal  lumen,  and  with  occasional 
cirri.  The  outlines  drawn  by  Dr.  Burckhardt  do  not  really  agre& 
with  that  of  the  disc  of  a  Euryalid  ophiuran,  nor  does  the  paucity 
of  alleged  arm-structures  confirm  that  suggestion.  The  asserted 
abundance  of  the  pentagons  also  favours  the  idea  that  they  are  due 
to  Crinoid  columnals,  for  many  sandstones  filled  with  imprints  of 
those  structures  are  known  from  all  parts  of  the  world  and  all  ages, 
including  the  Trias.  The  only  difficulty  that  a  reader  would  find 
in  accepting  this  conclusion  would  be,  that  these  immensely 
numerous  and  by  no  means  minute  appearances  have  escaped  the 
notice  of  all  the  eminent  geologists  and  palaeontologists  who  have 
devoted  to  these  sandstones  the  most  anxious  and  pertinacious' 

Examination  of  the  actual  specimens,  in  which  I  received  the  kind 
help  of  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward,  has  led  to  very  difiFerent  results. 
In  common  with  those  of  my  colleagues  whom  Professor  Burckhardt 
endeavoured  to  convince,  I  am  absolutely  unable  to  distinguish  the 
appearances  described  and  drawn  by  him.  Anyone  that  looks  long, 
enough  at  a  rough  sandstone  surface  can  make  out  as  many  patterns 
as  there  are  faces  in  the  fire.  But  a  scientific  question  is  not  to 
be  decided  by  the  vote  of  a  majority,  and  the  fact  that  we  cannot 
see  may  only  show  that  our  senses  are  deficient.  Fortunately  there 
is  other  evidence. 

Professor  Burckhardt  himself  adduces  the  "hollows  left  by  Elgin- 
reptiles  "  in  favour  of  his  interpretation.  But  these  hollows  are  all 
quite  smooth  and  are  iron-stained  darker  than  the  matrix,  in  these- 
respects  resembling  the  hollows  left  by  Echiuoderra  fragmetits  in 
many  another  sandstone.  Moreover,  the  fractured  rock  surfaces  of 
the  British  Museum  specimens  under  discussion  do  show  imprint* 
in  places,  whether  of  dermal  armour  and  scales,  or  abdominal  ribs, 
or  perhaps  fragments  of  some  other  creatures  ;  and  all  the  marking* 

E.  J).  Wellhurn — On  C<xlacanthus.  71 

clearly  recognizable  as  of  organic  origin  have  a  smooth  surface. 
But  wherever  or  whatever  the  uuirkings  perceived  by  Dr.  Burckhardt 
may  be,  their  whole  surface  is  adinittedly  rough  with  "  the  coarse 
grains  of  the  sand,"  and  they  show  no  distinctive  colour. 

"  In  size  "  these  impressions  are  said  by  Professor  Burckhardt  to 
"vary  between  o  mm.  and  3  cm.  in  diameter."  Now  Echinoderm. 
plates  or  tests  of  this  area  must  have  had  an  appreciable  thickness, 
and  this  thickness  would  be  manifest  in  their  hollow  casts,  since  the 
rock  has  undergone  no  extrao-rdinary  pressure.  Therefore  the  spaces 
should  be  visible  in  section  wherever  the  rock  is  broken  at  a  sharp 
angle.  But  Dr.  Burckhardt,  who  had  a  piece  of  the  matrix  specially 
chipped  off  for  examination,  will  doubtless  admit  tliat  such  is  not 
the  case. 

If  the  matrix  did  contain  impressions  or  moulds  of  Echinoderm 
objects  of  the  nature  described  by  Professor  Burckhardt,  one  would 
certainly  expect  to  find  them  lying  roughly  parallel  to  the  plane  of 
stratification,  and  we  are  indeed  told  that  these  bodies  are  "  all  of 
them  lying  in  the  same  plane  as  the  skeleton  of  Uyperodnpedony 
But  the  skeleton  in  question  is  a  large,  irregular  object,  and  the 
exposed  surfaces  along  which  the  matrix  has  been  fractured  ai-e  not 
in  any  one  plane,  but  lie  at  various  angles.  There  is  no  trace  of 
lamination,  and  if  any  objects  ever  did  lie  on  the  rough  fracture- 
surfaces,  they  must  have  been  deposited  in  most  irregular  fashion, 
and  the  sandy  floor  of  the  Triassic  lagoon  in  which  these  reptile 
skeletons  lay  undisturbed  must  have  been  unlike  any  sea-bed  before 
or  since.  But  it  is  well  known  that  the  Elgin  sandstones  are  quite 
objectionably  like  dozens  of  other  sandstones,  and  one  cannot  doubt 
that  were  Professor  Burckhardt  to  pursue  the  geological  studies  he 
finds  so  attractive,  he  would  discover  equally  clear  or  equally  obscure 
appearances,  in  many  rocks  besides  those  "fragments  from  the  Maleri 
deposits  in  India." 

We  conclude,  then,  that  the  phenomena  described  by  the  learned 
professor  are  mainly  subjective,  such  objective  basis  as  they  possess 
being  furnished  solely  by  the  mechanical  arrangement  of  sand-grains 
and  the  natural  irregularity  of  a  broken  surface. 

VIII.— On  the  Pectoral  Fin  of  C(ELACAifTHU^, 
By  Edgau  D.  Wellburn,  L.R.C.P.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.I. P.II.,  etc. 

AMONG  the  fossil  fishes  of  the  Talbragar  Beds  (Jurassic?) 
described  by  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward  in  a  memoir  of  the 
Geological  Survey  of  New  South  Wales  (1895),  there  is  the  ventral 
portion  of  the  abdominal  region  of  a  Coelacaiith  fish,  having  one  of 
the  pectoral  fins  well  shown.  The  fin  is  shown  in  counterpart,  and 
is  thus  described  : — "  It  exhibits,  as  usual,  the  characteristic  ohtuso 
lobation  and  the  large  fringe  of  articulated  attenuated  dermal  rays, 
and  is  unique  in  displaying  some  of  the  endoskeletal  supporting 
bones.  These  elements  seem  to  have  been  well  ossified,  though 
with  persistent  cartilage  internally.  At  the  base  of  the  fin  there 
occurs  a  broken  fragment  of  bone  '  incapable  of  determination ;  but 
*  My  specimen  would  point  to  the  fact  that  thi8  is  a  fragment  of  the  clavicle. 

72       Notices  of  Memoirs — Underground  Waters  of  Craven. 

in  the  lobe  of  the  fin  itself  there  is  a  series  of  four  well-defined, 
hourglass-shaped  supports.  Of  these  bones  the  anterior  three  are 
much  elongated,  and  nearly  equally  slender,  while  the  fourth  is 
much  more  robust  and  expanded  at  its  distal  end.  The  four  elements 
radiate  from  the  anterior  half  of  the  base  of  the  fin  ;  and  it  seems 
very  probable  that  some  smaller  cartilage  behind  and  near  the  distal 
border  of  the  lobe  have  disappeared  from  lack  of  ossification.  The 
fin-rays  gradually  increase  in  length  from  the  anterior  border  to  the 
middle  of  the  lobe,  whence  they  decrease  again  backwards,  and 
finally  become  extremely  delicate." 

In  my  collection  there  is  a  specimen  of  Coelacanthus  tingleyensis, 
Davis,  from  the  Cannel  Coal,  Middle  Coal-measures,  Tingley,  York- 
shire, crushed  vertically,  which  exhibits  the  pectoral  fins,  and  one, 
the  left,  shows  characters  very  similar  to  those  given  by  Dr.  Smith 
Woodward.  The  clavicle  is  well  shown  and  springing  fi'om  a  point 
about  its  centre  ;  and  opposite  to  the  process  which  is  usually  seen 
on  these  bones  there  are  six  basal  supports,  of  which  the  anterior 
four  are  elongated  and  more  or  less  uniform  in  thickness,  the 
fifth  is  more  nearly  hourglass-shaped,  and  the  sixth  (fourth  of 
Dr.  Woodward  ?)  is  more  robust  and  widely  expanded  distally.  No 
supports  are  seen  posteriorly  to  the  sixth,  but  as  the  dermal  rays 
extend  some  distance  behind  this  point,  and  as  the  lobe  of  the  fin 
has  here  sufi'ered  somewhat  from  crushing,  it  seems  highly  probable 
that  there  were  two,  if  not  three,  supports  posterior  to  the  sixth,  but 
that  they  have  in  the  specimen  been  destroyed  during  fossilization. 
At  tiicir  distal  extremities  each  support  is  opposed  to  two  or  more 
of  the  dermal  rays,  which,  as  pointed  out  by  Dr.  Woodward, 
"increase  in  length  from  the  anterior  border  to  the  middle  of  the 
lobe,  whence  they  decrease  backwards,  and  finally  become  extremely 
fine."     All  the  rays  are  closely  articulated  distally. 

From  the  above  it  will  at  once  be  seen,  as  pointed  out  by 
Dr.  Woodwai'd,  that  the  pectoral  fin  of  Ccelacantlms  is  a  striking 
contrast  to  that  of  the  existing  Crossopterygian  Polypterus,  the 
basalia  more  closely  approaching  that  of  the  Actinopterygii. 

JsroTXCDZES  oip   DvniBnvnoTK-s, 

I- — The  Movements  of  Underground  Waters  of  Craven.^ — 
I'irst  Eeport  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  W.  W. 
Watts  (Chairman),  Mr.  A.  R.  Dwerrtuouse  (Secretary),  Pro- 
fessor A.  Smithells,  Rev.  E.  Jones,  Mr.  Walter  Morrison, 
M.P.,  Mr.  G.  Bray,  Rev.  W.  Lower  Carter,  Mr.  W.  Fairley, 
Mr.  P.  F.  Kendall,  and  Mr.  J.  E.  Marr.  (Drawn  up  by  the 

THE  Committee  is  carrying  out  the  investigation  in  conjunction 
with  a  Committee  of  the  Yorkshire  Geological  and  Polytechnic 
Society.  The  present  is  merely  an  interim  report,  as  the  work  is 
still  in  progress. 

'  Bead  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

Notices  of  Memoirs — Underground  Waters  of  Craven.       73 

It  was  decided  that  the  first  piece  of  work  should  consist  of  an 
investigation  of  the  iindergronnd  flow  of  water  in  Ingleborough. 
This  hill  forms  with  its  neighbour,  Simon's  Fell,  a  detached  massif, 
which  is  peculiarly  suitable  for  investigations  of  this  nature.  The 
summit  of  the  group  is  formed  of  Millstone  Grit,  then  follow 
Yoredale  Shales  and  Sandstones,  the  whole  resting  on  a  plateau  of 
Carboniferous  Limestone.  Many  streams  rise  on  the  upper  slopes 
of  the  hills  and  flow  over  the  Yoredales,  but  without  exception  their 
waters  are  swallowed  directly  they  pass  on  to  the  Carboniferous 
Limestone,  to  reappear  as  springs  in  the  valleys  which  trench  the 

The  Committee  first  turned  its  attention  to  tracing  the  water 
which  flows  into  Gaping  Ghyll  hole.  It  was  generally  believed 
that  the  water  issued  at  a  large  spring  immediately  above  the  bridge 
at  Clapham  Beck  Head  and  immediately  below  the  entrance  to 
Ingleborough  Cavern.  On  April  28  specimens  of  the  water  from 
this  spring  were  taken  for  analysis  before  the  introduction  of  any 
test.  Two  cwt.  of  ammonium  sulphate  was  then  put  into  the  water 
flowing  into  Gaping  Ghyll,  and  at  the  same  time  the  amount  of  the 
water  was  gauged  and  found  to  be  equivalent  to  251,856  gallons 
per  diem.  A  few  hours  later  a  second  quantity  of  2  cwt.  of  the  same 
substance  was  introduced.  On  the  same  day  1^  lb.  of  fluorescein  in 
alkaline  solution  was  put  into  a  pot-hole  known  as  Long  Kin  East, 
about  1,^00  yards  north-east  of  GapiTig  Ghyll. 

In  view  of  the  important  influence  which  the  direction  of  the 
joints  in  the  limestone  had  been  found  to  exercise  over  the  flow  of 
underground  water,^  the  direction  of  the  joints  in  the  limestone 
clints  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Long  Kin  East  was  taken,  and  was 
found  to  be  N.N.W.  to  S.S.E.,  and  to  run  in  such  a  direction  as  to 
lead  to  the  probability  that  the  water  would  reappear  at  the  springs 
at  the  head  of  Austwick  Beck,  and  these  were  consequently  watched. 

The  ammonium  sulphate  put  in  at  Gaping  Ghyll  reappeared  at 
the  large  spring  at  Clapham  Beck  Head  on  tlie  morning  of  May  3, 
and  continued  to  flow  until  the  evening  of  May  6,  when  the  water 
again  became  normal.  Thus  the  time  occupied  by  the  ammonium 
sulphate  in  travelling  from  Gaping  Ghyll  to  Clapham  Beck  Head, 
a  distance  of  one  mile,  was  about  five  days.  No  ammonium  sulphate 
was  found  in  any  of  the  other  springs  in  Clapdale.  This  result 
proved  beyond  doubt  that  Gaping  Ghyll  was  connected  with  Clapham 
Beck  Head. 

The  fluorescein  put  in  at  Long  Kin  East  showed  itself  at  Austwick 
Beck  Head,  but  not  at  any  of  the  neighbouring  springs,  on  May  11, 
having  taken  over  thirteen  days  to  travel,  the  delay  being  probably 
due  to  the  small  amount  of  water  flowing  at  the  time  of  the 

These  results  are  of  considerable  importance,  as  they  definitely 
reveal  two  lines  of  divergent  movement  of  these  underground 
waters,  and  indicate  a  subterranean  watershed  of  much  interest. 

^  See  previous  invcstigatious  of  the  Yorks.  Gcol.  and  Polyt.  Soc.  Committee. 

74       Notices  of  Memoirs — Underground  Waters  of  Craven. 

The  influence  of  the  master-joints  of  the  Carboniferous  Limestone 
in  determining  the  direction  of  flow  of  these  underground  waters 
was  also,  as  at  Malham,  clearly  shown. 

The  next  set  of  experiments  was  carried  out  by  the  joint  Com- 
mittee on  June  8  and  following  days. 

In  order  to  confirm  the  results  in  connection  with  the  Gaping 
Ghyll  to  Claphara  Beck  Head  flow,  and  further  to  ascertain  moro 
definitely  if  there  existed  any  connection  between  Gaping  Ghyll 
and  the  smaller  springs  in  Clapdale,  10  cvvt.  of  common  salt  was 
put  into  the  waters  of  Gaping  Ghyll  on  June  4,  and  a  further  10  cwt. 
on  June  5,  samples  of  the  water  from  each  of  the  springs  being 
taken  several  times  a  day  until  June  25. 

One  pound  of  fluorescein  in  alkaline  solution  was  introduced  into 
the  stream  flowing  through  Ingleborough  Cave  on  June  8  at  10  p.m.^ 
at  the  point  where  the  water  plunges  down  a  hole  in  the  floor  of  the 
cave,  and  marked  '  Abyss '  in  the  6-inch  Ordnance  map.  Five  cwt. 
of  ammonium  sulphate  was  introduced  into  a  sink  on  the  allotment, 
about  500  yards  north-east  of  Long  Kin  East,  on  June  9,  at  3  p.m. ; 
and  at  3*15  p.m.  on  the  same  day  1  lb.  of  fluorescein  in  alkaline 
solution  was  poured  into  the  stream  which  flows  past  the  shooting- 
box  on  the  allotment  and  sinks  near  the  Bench  Mark  13201. 

The  fluorescein  introduced  into  the  abyss  came  out  of  Claphami 
Beck  Head,  and  possibly  at  Moses  Well  and  other  springs  ia 
Clapdale,  but  this  point  requires  further  investigation,  the  evidence 
being  as  yet  somewhat  unsatisfactory.  The  salt  from  Gaping  Ghyll 
appeared  at  Clapham  Beck  Head  on  June  15,  16,  17,  18,  19,  20,  and 
21,  being  at  its  maximum  on  June  18,  but  not  at  any  of  the  other 

The  ammonium  sulphate  put  into  the  sink  on  the  allotment 
appeared  at  Austwick  Beck  Head  on  June  22,  the  other  springs  ia 
the  neighbourhood  being  unafifected  on  that  day ;  but  on  the  24th 
and  25th  there  were  slight  increases  in  the  amount  of  ammonia  in 
two  small  springs  in  Clapdale,  viz.,  the  small  spring  below  Clapdale 
Farm  and  Cat  Hole  Sike.  As  one  of  these  streams  is  close  to  the 
farmyard,  and  the  other  was  at  the  time  nearly  dry  and  flowing 
through  pasture  land,  no  importance  is  attached  to  these  slight 
increases.  Of  the  fluorescein  put  in  below  the  shooting-box  no 
trace  has  since  been  found,  and  the  same  is  the  case  with  ^  lb.  of 
methylene  blue  introduced  into  Grey  Wife  Sike,  above  Newby  Cote. 

Several  most  interesting  problems  still  await  solution  in  this  area, 
one  of  them  being  the  relations  of  the  Silurian  floor  which  underlies^ 
the  Carboniferous  Limestone  of  the  plateau  to  the  flow  of  under- 
ground water.  The  two  sinks  Gaping  Ghyll  and  Long  Kin  East 
are  only  about  1,300  yards  apart,  and  yet  the  waters  of  the  one  take 
a  direction  quite  distinct  from  those  of  the  other,  and  eventually 
emerge  in  a  separate  valley,  the  distance  between  the  springs  being 
1^  miles  apart,  the  great  mass  of  Carboniferous  Limestone  known  as 
Norber,  a  hill  upwards  of  1,300  feet  in  height,  lying  between  the 
two  valleys.     In  Crummack  Dale  it  is  seen  that  the  Silurian  rock» 

Nodces  of  Memoirs —  Underground  Waters,  N.  W.  Yorks.     75' 

form  a  ridge  running  in  an  approximately  nortb-west  and  south-east 
direction,  and  unconformably  overlain  by  the  Carboniferous  Lime- 
stone. If  this  line  be  continued  it  separates  the  Gaping  Ghyll  to 
Clapbam  Beck  Head  flow  from  that  of  Long  Kin  East  to  Austwick 
Beck  Head.  Thus  it  appears  that  this  ridge  of  Silurian  rocks  forms 
an  underground  water-parting,  which  the  Committee  hopes  to  bo 
able  to  ti'ace  for  a  considerable  distance  across  the  area. 

The  magnitude  of  this  undertaking  will  be  to  some  extent  realized 
whfn  it  is  stated  that  upwards  of  400  samples  of  water  have  been 
tested  for  common  salt,  ammonium,  and  fluorescein,  making  in  all 
upwards  of  1,200  tests.  The  whole  of  the  grant  of  £40  has  been 
spent  upon  the  investigation,  and  a  small  sum  in  addition.  The 
experiments  which  have  been  carried  out  have  indicated  which  are 
the  most  suitable  reagents  for  use  in  difi'erent  cases,  and  it  is 
consequently  hoped  that  future  investigations  will  be  carried  out 
at  rather  less  cost  than  has  been  the  case  up  to  the  present.  The 
Committee  ask  to  be  reappointed,  with  a  grant  of  £50. 

IL — The  Underground  Waters  of  North-West  Yorkshire.'^ 
By  Rev.  W.  Lower  Carter,  M.A.,  F.G  S.,  Hon.  Sec.  Under- 
ground Waters  Committee,  Yorkshire  Geological  and  Polytechnic 

Part  I.    The  Sources  of  the  Aire. 


Malham  are  traversed  by  two  branches  of  the  Craven  Fault  with 
the  downthrow  to  the  south.  Malham  Tarn  lies  on  Silurian,  and 
its  overflow  sinks  in  the  limestone  directly  the  northern  fault  i» 
crossed.  The  drainage  of  the  area  to  the  west  of  the  Tarn 
disappears  at  the  Smelt  Mill  Sink.  The  drainage  of  the  area  east  of 
the  Tarn  is  carried  off  by  Gordale  Beck,  along  the  course  of  which 
some  water  sinks  into  the  jointed  limestone.  To  these  three  sinks 
correspond  three  principal  outlets,  the  stream  at  Malham  Cove, 
Aire  Head  Springs,  and  the  springs  at  the  bottom  of  Gordale. 

The  history  of  previous  investigations  is  then  given.  From  the 
centre  of  Malham  Cove  a  dry  limestone  gorge  runs  in  a  northerly 
direction  to  the  Tarn.  Up  to  the  beginning  of  this  century  flood- 
waters  were  known  to  traverse  this  valley  and  discharge  over  the 
Cove.  There  are  several  sinks  along  the  line  of  this  dry  valley. 
Now  all  the  overflow  is  taken  by  three  sinks  south  of  the  Tarn. 

Yarious  efforts  have  been  made  to  trace  the  connection  between 
the  sinks  and  outlets.  Flushes  of  water  from  the  Tarn  have  been 
shown  to  aff'ect  Aire  Head  before  Malham  Cove.  Experiments  by 
introducing  chaff,  bran,  magenta,  and  uranin  into  the  sinks  failed  to 
show  any  traces  at  the  outlets. 

The  present  investigation  was  carried  out  during  1899,  by  a 
Committee  of  Engineers,  Chemists,  and  Geologists,  appointed  by 
the  Yorkshire  Geological  and  Polytechnic  Society.  Flushes  of 
water  were  sent  down  from  the  Tarn  to  the  Tarn  Water  Sinks. 

*  Read  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

vfS    Notices  of  Memoirs — Underground  Waters,  N.W.  Tories. 

Aire  Head  Springs  responded  in  two  hours.     With  lai-ge  flushes 

a  rise  in  Malham  Beck  was  also  observed. 

,    The  chemical  investigations  were  as  follows : — 

Ammonium  sulphate  was  put  in  below  the  Malham  Tarn  Sluice 
on  June  22,  and  appeared  at  Aire  Head  from  July  4  to  11.  Distinct 
traces  were  also  found  at  Malham  Cove  on  the  same  dates. 

Common  salt  and  fluorescein,  put  in  at  the  Smelt  Mill  Sink  between 
June  22  and  28,  appeared  at  Malham  Cove  from  July  4  to  11. 
,    Fluorescein,  put  in  at  Tranlands  Beck  on  June  22,  appeared  at 
Scalegill  Mill  on  June  23. 

.    Ammonium  sulphate,  put  into  upper  Gordale  Beck  on  August  26, 
appeared  at  the  springs  below  Gordale  Scar  on  September  7. 
,.    Common  salt,  put  into  Cawden  '  Burst '  on  September  18,  appeared 
at  Mire's  Barn  from  September  23  to  27. 
■    Fluorescein  put  into  the  bottom  of  Grey  Gill  Cave  was  not  traced. 

A  geological  investigation  of  the  area  showed  that  the  limestone 
is  traversed  by  two  sets  of  prominent  joints,  of  which  the  master- 
joints,  which  run  in  a  north-west  to  south-east  direction,  are  very 
well  developed.  These  master-joints  are  found  to  largely  determine 
the  flow  of  the  underground  waters.  The  direction  of  these  master- 
Joints  unites  the  Smelt  Mill  Sinks  and  Malham  Cove  directly,  and 
that  may  be  taken  as  the  direction  of  flow.  A  parallel  line  from 
Malham  Tarn  Sinks  would  bring  the  water  from  them  to  Grey  Gill, 
a  dry  valley  in  the  escarpment  to  the  east  of  Malham  Cove.  No 
evidences  of  moving  water  were  found  there. 

To  the  south  of  the  Mid-Craven  Fault  the  jointing  of  the  lime- 
stone is  found  to  be  variable ;  but  prominent  joints  were  found 
bearing  in  a  north-east  and  south-west  direction.  If  the  Tarn  water 
followed  these  joints  on  crossing  the  fault  it  would  traverse  a 
direction  almost  at  right  angles  to  its  previous  course,  and  following 
the  limestone  in  its  bend  underneath  a  synclinal  of  Yoredale  shale, 
would  be  likely  to  reappear  at  Aire  Head  Springs,  which  is  the 
nearest  point  for  re-emergence  on  the  southern  side  of  the  anticlinal. 

The  master-joints  north  of  the  Mid-Craven  Fault  would  similarly 
<!arry  the  water  which  sinks  into  the  bed  of  Gordale  Beck  south- 
eastward into  the  limestone,  and  if,  as  it  nears  the  fault,  it  followed 
a  set  of  joints  running  at  right  angles  to  the  previous  set,  it  would 
oorae  out  at  the  springs  at  the  foot  of  Gordale  Scar,  which  was 
found  to  be  the  case  by  the  chemical  tests.  Gordale  itself  turns  in 
this  direction  from  some  cause. 
:    The  conclusions  of  the  Committee  are  : — 

1.  That  Malham  Cove  Spring  discharges  the  water  from  Smelt 
Mill  Sink  and  the  limestone  area  west  of  the  dry  valley;  and  under 
certain  conditions  some  of  the  Tarn  water. 

2.  That  Aire  Head  Springs  discharge  the  main  portion  of  the 
water  disappearing  down  Malham  Tarn  Water  Sinks. 

3.  That  Gordale  Beck  Springs  discharge  the  water  sinking  in 
Upper  Gordale. 

4.  That  chemicals  put  into  Cawden  'Burst'  appeared  at 
Mire's  Barn. 

Notices  of  Mcnnoirs — Ingk'horourjh  Cdces  and  Pof-/io/es.       77 

5.  That  Tranlands  Beck  Sinks  discharge  at  Scalegill  Mill. 

6.  The  investigations  show  that  within  the  area  the  main  direction 
of  underground  How  is  along  the  master-joints  of  the  limestone. 

III.  —  The    Caves    and    Pot-iioles   of   Inglebouougu    and   the 
District.^     By  S.  W.  Cuttriss. 

THE  portion  of  Yorkshire  to  which  this  paper  refers  is  contained 
in  Sheets  49,  50,  and  60  (New  Series)  of  the  1-inch  Ordnance 
Survey.  The  great  Craven  Faults  which  traverse  it  in  a  north-west 
to  south-east  direction  have  produced  a  difference  of  level  of  the 
strata  of  several  thousands  of  feet ;  the  limestones  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Faults  being  far  below  the  surface. 

The  Silurian  slates  and  grits  form  the  basement  beds,  and  are 
exposed  in  several  of  the  valleys.  On  these  rests  the  Carboniferous 
Limestone,  which  has  a  thickness  of  about  oOO  feet  from  the  base  to 
the  present  exposed  surface  on  Ingleborough.  The  name  Carboni- 
ferous Limestone  is  here  applied  only  to  distinguish  a  particular  bed 
of  rock  in  the  district.  Above  this  are  a  series  of  thinner  limestones, 
shales,  and  sandstones  (the  Yoredales  of  Professor  Phillips),  capped 
by  Millstone  Grit. 

Towards  the  west  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  has  been  cut  off' 
by  the  Dent  Fault,  while  the  Craven  Faults  determine  its  extension 
towards  the  south.  The  main  line  of  fault  passes  through  Ingleton, 
Clapham,  and  Austwick  to  Settle,  then  eastwards  by  Malham. 
North  of  this  is  another  fault,  near  the  first  at  Austwick,  but  about 
1^  miles  apart  at  Malham.  Further  north  the  most  interesting 
caves  and  pot-holes  are  found  in  an  area  comprising  the  Leek  Fells, 
Kingsdale,  Chapel-le-Dale,  Hibblesdale,  and  around  Ingleborough. 

The  whole  area  may  be  divided  into  three  sections : — 

1.  The  Yoredales,  comprising  the  rocks  of  that  name.  These 
limestones  being  comparatively  thin,  and  intercalated  with  beds  of 
shale  and  sandstone,  the  caves  ai"e  small  and  obstructed  with  earth, 
through  which  the  water  percolates.  They  are  at  an  elevation  of 
from  1,300  to  1,600  feet,  and  do  not  materially  aff"ect  the  drainage 
of  the  ground. 

2.  The  Southern  Carboniferous,  including  the  Carboniferous  Lime- 
stone between  the  two  Craven  Faults.  Although  part  of  the  same 
formation  as  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  north  of  the  Fault,  yet 
the  caves  in  the  two  sections  differ  entirely  in  their  characteristics.^ 
Here  they  are  distinguished  by  an  absence  of  running  water,  the 
walls  are  covered  with  a  considerable  thickness  of  calcareous  deposit, 
and  their  entrances  ai*e  blocked  with  clay  and  rock  debris.  The 
well-known  Victoria  and  Attermire  Caves  are  included  in  this  section. 
A  further  characteristic  is  the  entire  absence  of  pot-holes — vertical 
chasms  in  the  ground  caused  by  falling  water  enlarging  the  rock 

3.  The  Main  Carboniferous,  which  includes  the  remainder  of  the 
Carboniferous  Limestone  within  the  area  defined.    Here  there  are  no 

'  Read  betorc  the  IJritish  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradtord,  Sept.,  1000.. 

78     Notices  of  Memoirs — C.  B.  Wedd — CoralUan  Limestones. 

dry  caves,  all  being  active  drainage  channels.  Pot-holes  also  are 
•very  abundant.  In  the  Leek  Fell  and  Kingsdale  districts  the  caves 
are  almost  without  exception  those  of  engulfment,  while  in  Chapel- 
le-Dale  and  Ribblesdale  they  are  chiefly  caves  of  debouchure.  The 
•first-named  are  usually  low  at  the  entrance.  The  passages  then 
increase  in  height  to  20  feet  or  more,  but  rarely  exceed  G  feet  in 
width,  usually  much  narrower.  Some  may  be  traversed  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  or  more,  such  as  Lost  John's  Cave,  which  terminates  in 
a  subterranean  pot-hole  over  100  feet  deep.  The  caves  of  debouchure 
are  much  more  numerous.  The  mouth  is  generally  wide  and  shallow, 
with  a  flat  roof.  A  cascade  or  waterfall  is  usually  found  some  little 
distance  in,  beyond  which  the  passage  is  a  simple  water-worn 
channel,  gradually  shallowing  and  broadening  until  too  low  to 
permit  of  further  progress. 

The  pot-holes  occur  at  or  near  the  top  of  the  limestone,  at  between 
1,100  and  1,300  feet  elevation,  and  always  where  there  are  surface 
streams,  which  fall  into  the  chasms.  Over  thirty  have  been  named, 
nearly  all  of  which  have  been  descended  by  the  writer  and  friends, 
members  of  the  Yorkshire  Kamblers  Club,  many  of  them  for  the 
first  time.  Half  the  number  are  over  100  feet  deep.  Gaping  Ghyll, 
on  Ingleborough,  attains  a  depth  of  350  feet,  and  was  first  descended 
by  Monsieur  E.  A.  Martel,  in  1895.  Rowten  Pot,  in  Kingsdale, 
was  conquered  in  1897,  and  found  to  be  365  feet  deep,  thus  being 
the  deepest  known  pot-hole  in  the  country. 

No  evidence  of  the  presence  of  the  Silurian  rocks  has  been  found, 
the  lowest  observable  rock  being  either  light  or  black  limestone. 
The  average  Summer  temperature  in  both  caves  and  pot-holes  is 
48°  Fahr. 

The  writer  has  prepared  a  special  map  of  the  district  on  whicb 
are  shown  all  the  known  caves  and  pot-holes,  with  the  surface 
streams.  Such  a  map  illustrates  in  a  forcible  manner  the  interesting 
fact  that  the  entire  surface  drainage  of  Ingleborough  is  swallowed 
up  by  the  limestone.  Not  a  single  stream  from  the  higher  levels 
continues  an  uninterrupted  course  into  the  valley  below. 

IV. — The  Outcrop  of  the  Corallian  Limestones  of  Elswoeth 

AND  St.  Ives.^     By  C.  B.  Wedd,  B.A.,  F.G.S. 

(Communicated  by  permission  of  tlie  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey.) 

THE  ferruginous  and  oolitic  limestones  known  as  the  Elsworth 
and  St.  Ives  Rocks  are  now  generally  believed  to  be  one  and 
the  same,  an  opinion  supported  by  my  own  work  in  that  district 
recently.  The  limestone  in  question  has  long  been  known  to  occur 
at  St.  Ives  in  brick-pits,  being  well  exposed  to  the  west  of  the  town. 
It  was  known  also  to  occur  throughout  the  village  of  Elsworth. 
Mr.  Cameron  noticed  a  fossiliferous  rock  outcropping  near  Hilton, 
between  Elsworth  and  St.  Ives.  No  other  surface  exposures  were 
known,  but  a  similar  rock  was  found  in  the  railway  cutting  at 
Bluntisbam,  north-east  of  St.  Ives,  at  Swavesey,  east  of  the  same 

*  Read  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

Noticefi  of  3Iemoii's — W.  Gib.son — Ooal-D/oas/ire-'i.  79 

!j)lace,  and  Bourn,  soutb  of  Elswortli,  and  a  few  other  localities, 
And  like  rock  was  found  in  Wells. 

The  outcrop  can  be  traced  almost  continuously  from  a  mile  west  of 
the  brickyard  at  St.  Ives,  striking  eastwards  along  the  northern  flank 
of  the  Ouse  valley,  and  passing  north  of  St.  Ives  to  Needingworth ; 
here  it  bends  abruptly  southwards  to  Holywell  and  forms  a  gentle 
rise.  The  southern  part  of  the  village  of  Holywell  stands  on 
a  gravel-capped  escarpment  of  the  rock  ;  a  collection  of  fossils  in  the 
Woodwardian  Museum,  Cambridge,  agreeing  closely  with  those  of 
the  Elsworth  and  St.  Ives  Rocks,  was  believed  to  have  come  from 
Holywell.  East  of  Holywell  the  outcrop  must  cross  the  Ouse  valley; 
I  found  traces  of  the  rock  in  a  drain  some  distance  west  of  Swavesey. 
From  here,  south-westwards,  it  is  not  seen  again  till  it  appears  at 
the  surface  between  Hilton  and  Conington,  where  a  rock  was  noted 
by  Mr.  Cameron.  Southwards  from  here  the  outcrop  crosses  a  valley 
to  the  rising  ground  west  of  Elsworth,  through  which  village 
a  narrow  tongue  of  the  rock  runs  still  further  south.  The  main 
outcrop,  however,  flanks  the  northern  slope  of  the  drift-capped  high 
ground  to  the  west,  and  can  be  traced  along  the  slope  through 
Papworth  Everard,  westwards  to  Yelling,  following  the  contour  of 
the  ground.  At  both  of  these  localities  there  are  good  and  highly 
fossiliferous  exposures  in  streams.  Thence  the  outcrop  disappears 
southwards  under  drift,  but  the  rock  maybe  seen  again  to  the  south, 
less  than  two  miles  south  of  Croxton,  in  a  ditch  in  the  valley  of  the 
Abbotsley  Brook. 

To  the  north,  east,  and  south-east  of  the  line  of  outcrop  of  this 
limestone,  the  ground  is  occupied  by  Ampthill  Clay,  to  the  west  by 
'Oxford  Clay.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  Elsworth  and  St.  Ives 
Kocks,  besides  agreeing  closely  in  their  fauna,  outcrop  along  the 
same  line  of  strike,  with  Ampthill  Clay  above  and  O.Kford  Clajj^  below. 
The  dip  is  always  small,  and  the  rock  at  Bluntisham,  if  it  reaches 
the  surface  at  all,  does  so  probably  as  an  inlier,  though  it  may  be 
directly  connected  at  the  surface  with  the  outcrop  east  of  St.  Ives. 

T. — On   Eapid   CnANGEs   in   the   Tiiickness   and   Ciiauactee  of 
THE     Coal-measures     op    Noutji     Staffokdsiiire.'      By     W. 
Gibson,  F.G.S. 
(Communicated  by  permission  of  the  Director- General  of  the  Geological  Survey.) 

YARIABILITY  in  thickness  and  character  of  the  strata  is 
universal  throughout  the  Carboniferous  period,  but  is  nowhere 
■more  marked  in  the  Midlands  than  in  the  coalfield  of  the  North 
Staffordshire  Potteries. 

This  important  coalfield  consists  of  two  portions.  On  the  east 
the  productive  measures  lie  in  a  well-marked  syncline,  while  on  the 
west  the  strata  rise  in  a  sharp  anticline  extending  from  Silverdale 
to  Talke.  The  two  productive  areas  are  separated  by  a  strip  of 
ground  two  and  a  half  miles  broad,  composed  of  barren  upper 

'  Read  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept..  1900. 

80      Notices  of  Memoirs — E.  D.  Wellbiirn — Millstone  Fish. 

A  notable  difference  in  the  thickness  of  the  strata  and  nature  of 
the  coal-seams  characterizes  these  structurally  distinct  areas.  In  the 
centre  of  the  syncline,  near  Shelton,  the  vertical  distance  between 
the  highest  ironstone,  or  summit  of  the  productive  measures,  to  the 
Bullhurst  coal,  or  lowest  workable  seam,  is  about  1,300  yards.  On 
the  anticline  at  Apedale  only  800  yards  of  strata  separate  the  same 
horizons.  This  makes  a  remarkable  decrease  in  thickness  of 
500  yards  of  strata  in  a  distance  of  under  three  miles.  The 
reduction  in  thickness  westward  of  the  productive  measures  is 
continued,  though  in  a  less  degree,  in  the  upper  barren  series,  but 
owing  to  the  absence  of  shaft  sections  the  amount  cannot  be  definitely 
stated.  It  is  known,  however,  that  the  red  marls  forming  the  lower 
portion  of  the  upper  barren  series  are  more  than  1,000  feet  thick 
near  Etruria  station  on  the  Shelton  property,  and  about  850  feet 
thick  near  Silverdale,  on  the  south-eastern  limb  of  the  anticline. 
With  the  decrease  in  thickness  a  change  has  taken  place  in  the 
lower  coals  of  the  productive  series.  The  seams  which  are  house  or 
steam  coals  on  the  east  change  into  gas  and  coking  coals  on  the  west. 

This  great  variability  seems  to  show  that  separate  areas  of  deposit 
were  being  marked  out  by  local  movements  of  elevation  and 
depression,  and  thus  fulfilling  in  North  Staffordshire  the  conditions 
characteristic  of  the  Carboniferous  of  the  Midlands  generally,  as 
pointed  out  by  Professor  Lapworth.^ 

In  North  Staffordshire  it  happens  that  the  areas  of  maximum  and 
minimum  deposit  correspond  with  a  syncline  and  anticline.  If  this 
be  true  generally,  and  not  merely  a  local  coincidence,  we  may  expect 
the  coals  in  the  unexplored  coalfield  which  lies  at  the  surface  to  the 
west  of  the  anticline,  and  which  represents  the  eastern  margin  of 
the  great  synclinal  of  Coal-measures  beneath  the  Cheshire  plain,  to 
be  of  a  different  quality  from  those  in  the  anticline,  while  the 
thickness  of  the  measures  will  be  increased. 

VI. — On   some   Fossil   Fish   from  the  Millstone  Grit  Kocks.- 
By  Edgar  D.  Wellburn,  F.G.S. 

THE  Millstone  Grits  are  naturally  grouped  into  three  divisions, 
viz. :  (1)  Eough  Eock  ;  (2)  Middle  Grits  ;  (3)  Kinder  Grits  at 
base.  The  Middle  Grits,  consisting  of  grits,  sand,  shales,  are  sub- 
divided into  A,  B,  C,  and  D  beds,  A  being  uppermost.  The  Pennine 
Anticline  is  mostly  composed  of  these  rocks,  and  on  the  Lancashire 
side  at  the  head  of  Calder  Valley,  on  the  south  side  in  a  quarry 
at  the  summit,  there  is  a  good  exposure  of  the  D  shales;  in  these 
the  majority  of  fish  remains  were  found  ;  a  few  occurred  at  the  same 
horizon  at  Wadsworth  Moor,  Sowerby,  Kilne  House  Wood,  and 
Eccup,  Yorkshire.  The  majority  are  in  nodular  masses,  few  in 
shales,  and  are  associated  with  a  marine  fauna.  The  fish-bearing 
beds  were  formed  under  marine  estuarine  conditions.  They  are 
of  great  geological   and   zoological  interest,   as  largely  increasing 

1  "  A  Sketch  of  tlie  Geology  of  the  Birmingham  District "  :  Geol.  Assoc,  1898, 
p.  364. 
-  Eead  before  the  British  Association,  Section  C  (Geology),  Bradford,  Sept.,  1900. 

Eevieic8 — Geikie's  Geology  of  Fife  and  Kinross.  81 

our  knowledge  of  the  fish  fauna  in  rocks  whose  yield  of  fish  remains 
has  hitherto  been  extremely  limited  ;  and  zoologically  inasmuch  as 
(1)  one  genus  and  several  species  are  new;  (2)  one  Lower  Old 
Ked  Sandstone  fish  is  present;  (3)  the  occurrence  of  the  Lower 
Carboniferous  types,  Orodus,  Paephodus,  Fristodus.  The  author 
made  some  remarks  on  the  fish  remains,  and  exhibited  a  table  of 
their  stratigraphical  distribution. 

IR  E  AT-  I  E  "W^  S. 

L — The  Geology  of  Central  and  Western  Fife  and  Kinross. 
(Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Scotland.)  By  Sir 
Archibald  Geikie,  F.R.S.,  D.C.L.,  etc.,  Director-General.  With 
Appendix  of  Fossils  by  B.  N.  Peach,  F.R.S.  8vo,  cloth  ;  pp.  x, 
284.  (Glasgow:  printed  for  H.M.  Stationery  Office,  1900. 
Price  5s.  6d.) 

rnmS  well-printed  memoir  is  in  the  main  a  description  of  the 
_L  geological  formations  which  are  represented  in  Sheet  40  of 
the  Geological  Survey  map  of  Scotland,  which  was  published  iu 
1867.  The  ground  was  surveyed  in  part  by  the  author,  and  in  part 
by  Mr.  H.  H.  Howell,  Prof.  John  Young,  Prof.  J.  Geikie,  and 
Mr.  B.  N.  Peach,  when  Murchison  was  Director-General.  It  is  not 
surprising,  therefore,  that  the  nomenclature,  especially  of  the  igneous 
rocks,  has  undergone  considerable  changes,  noticeable  when  we 
compare  the  tablets  on  the  map  with  the  table  on  p.  13  of  the 
memoir.  Much  additional  information  on  the  coalfields  has,  however, 
in  recent  years  been  obtained  by  Mr.  J.  S.  Grant- Wilson,  and  the 
Director-General  has  himself  revisited  the  area  from  time  to  time. 
Consequently  every  effort  has  been  made  to  bring  the  information 
up  to  date  by  personal  observation,  and  with  the  help  of  other 
workers  whose  publications  are  listed  in  the  Appendix.  It  is 
needless  to  add  that  in  point  of  style  the  memoir  bears  the 
most  favourable  comparison  with  any  previously  published  by  the 
Geological  Survey. 

The  country  described  is  a  highly  important  one,  extending  from 
the  Firth  of  Tay  west  of  Tay  bridge  to  the  Firth  of  Forth  at 
Queensferry.  It  is  composed  chiefly  of  Carboniferous  rocks  and 
Old  Red  Sandstone,  with  numerous  interstratified  and  intrusive 
igneous  rocks.  In  the  northern  part  is  the  Ochil  chain,  formed 
mainly  of  hard  lavas  of  Lower  Old  Red  Sandstone  age  ;  the  central 
part,  in  which  lies  Loch  Leven,  is  hollowed  out  of  comparatively  soft 
red  sandstones  forming  the  plains  of  Kinross  and  the  Howe  of  Fife ; 
and  in  the  southern  part  there  is  again  a  belt  of  hilly  ground,  more 
varied  and  broken  than  that  in  the  north,  and  composed  mainly  of 
Carboniferous  rocks  with  hard  eruptive  sheets,  which  form  the 
Lomond  Hills  and  other  prominent  heights. 

While  perusing  the  very  interesting  Introductory  chapter  it  would 
have  been  useful  to  the  reader  to  have  had  a  small  map  depicting 
the  main  outlines  of  the  geology  and  topography,  witli  the  names  of 

DECADE    IV. VOL.  VIII. — NO.   11.  (i 

82     Reviews — -Jukes-Browne  8f  Hill — Gault  and  U.  Greensand. 

the  cliief  hill  ranges,  rivers,  and  lakes.  In  succeeding  chapters 
the  author  gives  a  full  account  of  the  strata,  entering  into  many 
particulars  concerning  the  eruptive  rocks,  and  recording  detailed 
sections  of  the  coal-bearing  strata  in  the  Carboniferous  Limestone 
series  and  Coal-measures.  In  this  great  series  the  highest  division 
is  the  "  Upper  or  Barren  Red  Sandstone  Group,"  composed  of  red, 
purple,  grey,  yellow,  white,  and  variegated  sandstones,  shales,  clays, 
and  marls,  with  some  thin  limestones  and  poor  coals.  Many  fossils 
have  been  obtained  in  this  group  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Kirkby,  including 
fishes  (Diplodus,  Megalichthys,  etc.),  Crustacea  (Bellinurus,  Eurypterus, 
Prestwichin,  etc.),  as  well  as  molluscs  such  as  Antliracomya  and  the 
annelide  Spirorbis  pusillus,  Full  lists  of  them  and  of  fossils  from 
the  other  formations  are  given  by  Mr.  Peach  in  the  Appendix  ; 
special  mention  being  made  of  the  long  and  enthusiastic  labours  of 
Mr.  Kirkby. 

Sir  A.  Geikie  remarks  that  "  The  topogi-aphy  of  the  whole  region 
has  been  profoundly  modified  by  the  geological  events  of  the  Ice 
Age.  So  tliick  was  the  mass  of  ice  which  then  descended  from  the 
Highlands,  that  it  passed  over  the  lofty  ridge  of  the  Ochils  and  the 
other  hills  to  the  south,  and  turned  eastwards  into  what  is  now 
the  Firth  of  Forth  and  the  North  Sea."  Of  the  glacial  deposits, 
and  also  of  Recent  deposits  and  the  latest  changes,  many  interesting 
descriptions  are  given  ;  and  there  is  a  final  chapter  on  the  Economic 
Minerals.  Some  detailed  notes  on  the  petrography  of  the  Igneous 
rocks  are  contributed  by  Mr.  Herbert  Kynaston,  in  an  appendix. 

II. — Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
The  Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Britain.  Vol.  I.  The  Gault  and 
Upper  Greensand  of  England.  By  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  B.A., 
F.G.S. ;  with  contributions  by  William  Hill,  F.G.S.  Royal 
8vo ;  pp.  xiv,  499,  with  85  figures  and  5  plates.  (London : 
Wyman  &  Sons,  1900.     Price  9s.) 

IN  the  preface  Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  the  Director-General  of  the 
Geological  Survey,  states  that  the  present  volume  is  the  first 
of  two  in  which  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Rocks  of  England  will  be 
described  by  Mr.  Jukes -Browne,  who  has  been  collecting  the 
materials  for  the  subject  since  1884.  Owing,  however,  to  his 
unfortunate  ill-health,  he  has  been  unable  to  complete  the  necessary 
field-work,  but  this  obstacle  has  been  overcome  by  the  assistance  of 
his  friend  and  coadjutor  Mr.  William  Hill,  who  has  examined  the 
outcrops  of  the  formations  in  the  South  and  East  of  England,  and 
in  addition  has  carried  out  a  series  of  important  researches  on 
the  mineral  and  organic  constituents  of  the  deposits  by  means  of 
microscopic  sections  and  the  examination  of  I'esidues  after  treatment 
with  acid. 

The  strata  described  in  this  volume  have,  since  early  da3S,  attracted 
the  attention  of  many  of  our  British  geologists,  amongst  whom  may 
be  reckoned  William  Smith,  Thomas  Webster,  William  Phillips, 
Dr.  Mantell,  Dr.  Fitton,  Sir  R.  Murchison,  and  R.  A.  C.  Godwin- 
Austen.     At  a  more  recent  period,  Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Meyer,  Mr.  F.  G.  H. 


Edi-ieus — Jakes-Bfoicnc  ^'  Hill — Gault  and  U.  Greeiiaand.     83 

Price,  Dr.  Charles  Barrois,  ilnd  others  have  studied  their  stratigraphy 
and  fossils  in  more  detail.  They  have  also  been  described  in  some 
of  the  previously  published  memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey,  as  in 
those  on  the  Isle  of  Wight  by  A.  Strahan,  on  the  Isle  of  Purbeck  by 
A.  Stralian,  those  on  West  Suffolk  and  West  Norfolk  by  W.  Whitaker 
and  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  and  that  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cambridge 
by  W.  H.  Penning  and  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne.  Chemical  analyses  of 
the  rocks,  besides  those  already  published,  have  been  made  by 
Professor  J.  B.  Harrison,  Mr.  Berry,  and  Dr.  W.  Pollard.  Mr.  V. 
■Chapman  has  determined  the  foraminifera  of  the  Gault,  whilst  the 
author  and  Mr.  E.  T.  Newton,  assisted  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Allen  and 
Dr.  Kitchin,  have  revised  the  synonymy  of  the  rest  of  the  fauna. 
The  author  has  made  use  of  the  knowledge  to  be  obtained  from  the 
above  and  other  writers  on  the  geology  of  these  rocks  to  add  to  his 
own  observations,  and  thus  render  the  monograph  as  complete  as 

The  first  chapter  contains  the  introduction  to  the  Upper  Cretaceous 
Series,  which  is  regarded  as  consisting  of  the  following  four  stages 
■or  groups  of  strata  : — 

4.  Upper  Chalk. 

3.  Middle  Chalk. 

2.  Lower  Chalk. 

1.   Gault  and  Upper  Greensand  (Selbovnian). 

The  combined  thickness  of  these  stages  where  the  series  is  most 
fully  developed,  as  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  is  about  1,900  feet.  The 
Upper  Series,  on  the  whole,  succeeds  conformably  the  Lower 
Cretaceous  Series,  but  there  is  evidence  of  a  very  general  subsidence 
of  the  region  at  an  early  period  of  the  Upper  Series,  which  produced 
an  overlap  of  the  Low'er  Greensand  by  the  Gault.  In  deep  borings 
in  the  East  of  England,  the  Gault  is  known  to  rest  directly  oa 
PalEeozoic  rocks,  whilst  in  a  westerly  direction  it  is  deposited 
successively  on  Wealden,  Jurassic,  and  Kha^tic  beds,  and  in  the 
Haldon  Hills  Greensand  rests  on  the  lower  part  of  the  New  Red 
Series.  The  general  dip  of  the  Upper  Cretaceous  is  easterly,  but 
this  is  interrupted  by  several  anticlinal  flexures  with  an  east  and 
west  direction,  which  produce  local  dips  to  the  north  and  south. 
The  most  important  of  these  are  (1)  that  traversing  South  Dorset 
and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  which  is  believed  to  be  continuous  with  the 
anticlinal  axis  of  the  Pays  de  Bray;  (2)  a  series  of  local  and 
parallel  flexures  in  a  tract  extending  from  the  Vales  of  Wardour 
and  Warminster  through  Central  Hants  and  the  southern  part  of 
Sussex  ;  and  (3)  the  anticlinal  axis  which  runs  through  the  Vales 
of  Pewsey  and  Kingsclere. 

Chapter  ii,  giving  an  historical  account  of  the  Chalk,  Upper 
Greensand,  and  Gault,  mainly  deals  with  the  origin  of  the  term 
'  Upper  Greensand.*  The  name  '  Greensand '  was  used  by  William 
Smith  and  T.  Webster  for  the  greensands,  including  also  the  Malm 
or  Firestone,  between  the  Chalk  and  the  Gault.  Subsequently, 
W.  Phillips  and  Dr.   Mantell  mistook  the   sands  below  the  Gault 

84     Reineus — Jukes-Broicne  Sf  Hill —  Gault  and  U.  Greensand. 

(Lower  Greensand)  for  the  Greensand  of  William  Smith,  whicb 
gave  rise  to  much  confusion.  The  true  succession  of  the  beds 
was  pointed  out  by  Dr.  Fitton  in  1824,  who  suggested  the  name  of 
Merstham  Beds  for  the  firestone  and  greensand  above  the  Gault  and 
ShanMin  Sands  for  the  sands  below.  The  proposition  of  Webster 
that  the  beds  should  be  respectively  called  *  Upper  Greensand  '  and 
'  Lower  Greensand  '  finally  prevailed,  and  these  terms  were  adopted 
by  the  Geological  Survey  in  1839  and  have  since  continued  in 
general  use. 

It  was  not  until  a  later  date  that  the  accepted  character  of  the 
Gault  and  Upper  Greensand  as  definite  and  distinct  formations  of 
the  Cretaceous  System  was  called  in  question.  Mr.  Godwin-Austen 
stated  in  1850  that  the  Upper  Greensand  was  a  purely  conventional 
name,  and  that  the  diflferences  between  the  fauna  of  the  Devizes  and 
Blackdown  Beds  (Upper  Greensand)  and  that  of  the  Upper  Gault 
of  Folkestone  are  only  such  as  might  be  expected  between  arenaceous 
and  argillaceous  portions  of  the  same  zone.  He  further  added  that 
the  Gault  was  not  an  independent  formation,  but  merely  the  accumu- 
lation of  a  given  condition  of  deep-sea,  synchronous  as  a  whole 
with  that  portion  of  the  Cretaceous  deposits  which  we  call  Upper 
Greensand.  Godwin-Austen's  views  were  supported  and  confirmed 
by  the  investigations  of  Meyer,  Price,  Dr.  Barrois,  and  more  especially 
by  the  author  of  this  memoir,  who  maintained  that  the  Gault  and 
Upper  Greensand  were  merely  difiierent  lithological  facies  of  one 
group  of  deposits.  For  the  new  group  the  name  '  Selbornian '  is 
proposed  by  Jukes-Browne  after  the  well-known  Hampshire  village 
made  famous  by  Gilbert  "White  the  naturalist.  The  name  is  the 
more  appropriate  as  the  village  is  situated  on  the  Malmstone,  and 
the  Gault  clays  are  well  developed  near  by.  The  author  does  not 
propose  that  '  Selbornian '  should  supersede  the  terms  Gault  and 
Greensand,  but  that  it  should  be  employed  in  a  similar  relation  to 
them  as  the  general  term  Wealden  to  the  Weald  Clay  and  Hastings 
Sands.  It  is  strange  that  this  new  term,  though  constantly  used 
throughout  the  memoir,  should  not  have  found  a  place  on  the 
title-page.     In  justification  of  its  introduction  the  author  states — 

"  As  a  matter  of  fact  gaidt  clay  and  greensand  are  only  two  of 
the  different  kinds  of  deposits  that  make  up  the  group  for  which 
the  name  Selbornian  is  now  proposed ;  it  is  only  by  a  stretch  of  the 
imagination  that  malmstone  can  be  called  greensand,  inasmuch  as 
an  ordinary  malm  contains  but  a  small  proportion  of  quartz  sand  and 
still  less  glauconite,  so  that  it  is  not  a  sand  nor  is  its  colour  green. 
There  are  large  areas  over  which  the  formation  is  really  a  tripartite 
one,  and  could  actually  be  mapped  as  consisting  of  Gaidt,  Malmstone, 
and  Greensand ;  there  are  also  areas  where  it  consists  wholly  oif 
Gault,  i.e.  of  grey  clays  and  marls  ;  others,  again,  where  it  consists 
entirely  of  sand  and  sandstone ;  and  finally,  there  is  a  large  area 
where  it  is  neither  the  one  nor  the  other,  but  is  represented  by  red 
chalky  limestone  and  red  marl." 

Chapter  iii,  on  the  value  of  zones  in  the  Cretaceous  System,  comes 
in  here  somewhat  parenthetically,  but,  as  hinted  in  the  preface,  it 

Reviews — Jukes-Browne  8^  Hill — Gault  and  U.  Grcensand.     S-j 

nifiy  be  regarded  as  in  some  measure  introductory  to  the  completed 
monograph  on  the  Cretaceous  System.  In  it  the  author  places  on 
record  some  of  the  conclusions  drawn  from  a  study  of  the  zones  in 
this  system,  "  especially  with  respect  to  the  proper  conception  of 
a  zone,  the  use  of  an  index  species,  and  the  limitations  which  must 
be  placed  to  the  zonal  method."  To  give  a  succinct  explanation  of 
a  zone  is  by  no  means  easy;  the  author  says  that  "perhaps  it  may 
be  defined  as  a  band  of  sedimentai'y  material  within  which  certain 
species  ai-e  either  restricted  or  are  specially  abundant,  and  during  the 
formation  of  which  certain  species  acquired  their  greatest  exuberance 
and  their  greatest  geographical  extension.  More  than  this,  however, 
is  implied  by  the  modern  idea  of  the  term  zone,  for  a  zone  is  only  one 
of  several  successive  zones  ;  it  is  not  merely  a  specially  fossiliferous 
band  in  a  thick  mass  of  sediment,  but  is  a  subdivision  of  such  a  mass 
or  group  of  beds  ;  such  a  group  being  generally  divisible  into  two, 
three,  or  more  zones,  one  succeeding  another."  The  above  definition 
seems  to  us  open  to  much  criticism,  which,  however,  cannot  be 
entered  on  here  ;  we  should  prefer  the  shorter  definition  of  Mr.  J.  E. 
Marr,  here  quoted  :  "  Zones  are  belts  of  strata,  each  of  which  is 
characterized  by  an  assemblage  of  organic  remains,  of  which  one 
abundant  and  characteristic  form  is  chosen  as  an  index." 

A  general  account  of  the  Gault  and  Upper  Greensand  (Selbornian) 
is  given  in  Chapter  iv,  and  it  is  claimed  that  the  clays,  marls,  sands, 
and  sandstones  of  this  Selbornian  stage  fall  naturally  into  three 
groups  or  sub-stages :  (1)  Lower  Gault;  (2)  Upper  Gault  and  Devizes 
Beds  ;  (3)  Warminster  Beds. 

Hitherto  it  has  been  usual  in  England  to  consider  the  clayey  beds 
containing  Ammonites  interruptns  as  the  base  of  the  Gault,  and 
the  underlying  sandy  beds  as  belonging  to  the  Lower  Greensand. 
In  the  uppermost  beds  of  these  lower  sands  at  Folkestone  and  in 
three  other  localities  in  the  South  of  England  Ammonites  mammillatns 
has  been  met  with,  whilst  in  France  the  same  species  occurs  in 
a  zone  of  fossiliferous  sandy  beds  in  association  with  Am.  interruptns, 
and  by  French  geologists  these  beds  are  included  in  the  Albian  as 
part  of  the  basement  bed  of  the  Gault.  The  author  considers  this 
will  justify  placing  the  sands  with  this  fossil  as  the  base  of  the 
Gault  in  this  country,  although  it  has  never  been  found  hero 
associated  with  Am.  interruptns. 

The  zone  of  clays  with  phosphatic  nodules  at  its  base,  containing 
Am.  interruptns,  forming  bed  1  of  Mr.  Price,  is  about  10  feet  iu 
thickness  at  Folkestone  and  from  20  to  50  feet  in  the  Midland 
Counties.  The  upper  part  of  the  Lower  Gault,  which  includes 
Price's  beds  2-7,  is  placed  in  the  zone  of  Am.  lautus.  It  can  be 
distinguished  near  Devizes,  and  is  believed  to  form  the  larger  part 
of  the  Lower  Gault  in  Oxfordshire  and  the  adjoining  counties. 
The  thickness  of  the  Lower  Gault  in  different  parts  of  tlie  country 
varies  between  34:  feet  and  200  feet,  but  there  is  much  difficulty  in 
determining  with  certainty  where  a  line  can  be  drawn  between  the 
Lower  Gault  and  the  Upper  in  many  areas. 

The  next  division  comprises  the  Upper  Gault  and  Upper  Greensand 

86     JRemeu's — JuJies-Browne  /'  Hill — Gcmlt  and  U.  Grcensand. 

(in  part) — the  Merstliam  or  Devizes  Beds,  which  are  placed  in  thd^ 
zone  of  Ammonites  rostratus.  The  lower  portions  of  this  zone  con- 
sists of  marly  clays,  and  above  these  are  the  well-known  beds  of 
Malnistone  or  Firestone,  siliceous  rocks  with  a  considerable  amount 
of  silica  in  the  colloid  state,  which  has  been  derived  from  the 
spicules  of  siliceous  sponges.  This  Malmstone  occupies  a  large  area 
in  the  South  of  England  estimated  at  nearly  4,000  square  miles. 
It  extends  from  near  Westerham,  Kent,  on  the  east,  and  from  its 
thickness  along  the  western  outcrop  the  author  believes  that  it 
stretched  originally  far  to  the  westward  over  the  counties  of  Oxford,^ 
North  Wilts,  and  Gloucestershire.  This  Malmstone  passes  into 
a  fine-grained  micaceous  sandstone. 

In  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  in  the  South- West  of  England,  a  large 
portion  of  this  zone  of  Am.  rostratus  consists  of  fine  soft  sands  with 
intermediate  beds  of  hard  calcareous  sandstone ;  in  some  places  the 
cemented  materials  take  the  form  of  oval  or  rounded  doggers  or 
burr-stones.  Again,  in  the  Blackdown  Hills  of  Devonshire  and 
near  Stourton  in  Wiltshire,  the  sands  of  this  zone  contain  siliceous 
nodular  accretions,  formerly  worked  for  whetstones,  the  silica  in 
which  is  derived  from  sponge  remains. 

The  third  division  of  the  Selbornian  comprises  the  highest  portion 
of  the  Upper  Greensand,  and  as  this  is  most  highly  developed  near 
Warminster  it  is  known  as  the  Warminster  Beds,  and  included  iit 
the  zone  of  Fecten  asper  and  Cardiaster  fossarius.  The  zone  of 
Pecten  asper  near  Warminster  includes  three  sets  of  beds  :  (1)  Green- 
sand  and  sandstone ;  (2)  fine  grey  sand  with  layers  and  nodules 
of  chert ;  and  (3)  a  light  greensand  with  calcareous  concretions, 
which  forms  the  highest  portion  of  the  series  and  contains  the 
well-known  Warminster  fauna.  The  author  states  that  no  Ammonite 
or  other  Cephalopod  has  yet  been  found  in  this  zone  which  does  not 
range  into  the  Chalk  above  or  into  the  beds  below. 

Pecten  asper,  the  principal  index  fossil  of  this  zone,  has  a  wid& 
distribution  both  in  this  country  and  in  France.  In  England  it  has 
been  found  in  the  Malmstone  of  Hampshire,  that  is,  in  the  zone  of 
Am.  rostratus,  and  occasionally  it  occurs  in  the  same  zone  in  France. 
In  the  zone  distinguished  by  its  name  it  is  found  near  Warminster 
and  other  places  in  Wiltshire,  also  in  Dorset,  and  the  Isle  of  Wight. 
It  passes  up  into  the  Chloritic  Marl,  and  occurs  in  the  nodule  bed  at 
the  base  of  the  Chalk  near  Chard,  and  in  certain  beds  of  Cenomanian. 
age  in  Devonshire.  In  France  also  this  species  is  common  in  the 
'  craie  glauconieuse,'  the  equivalent  of  our  Lower  Chalk.  Its  mere 
occurrence,  therefore,  cannot  be  considered  as  proof  that  the  bed 
containing  it  belongs  to  the  Upper  Greensand. 

The  Warminster  or  Pecten  asper  division  of  the  Upper  Greensand 
is  confined  to  the  south-western  and  south-central  counties  from 
the  Isle  of  Wight  to  Buckinghamshire.  Its  maximum  thickness 
is  estimated  at  60  feet,  but  where  the  chert  beds  are  not  present 
it  is  reduced  to  about  12  feet.  The  well-known  chert  beds  of  the 
Undercliff  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  are  included  in  this  division. 

Chapters  v-xxii  give  detailed  descriptions  of  the  varying  features. 


Revieu-fi—Juhcs-Broinic  4"  EilJ — Gault  and  IT.  Greenland,     87 

of  the  zones  of  the  Selbornian  as  they"  are  exposed  in  different 
counties,  beginning  with  the  easterly  exposure  on  the  coast  at 
Folkestone  to  its  most  westerly  extension  on  the  Haldon  Hills,  near 
Exeter,  from  thence  returning  in  a  north-easterly  direction  through 
the  counties  of  Wilts,  HerUs,  Oxford,  Buckingham,  Cambridge, 
Norfolk,  Lincoln,  and  York.  The  changes  in  the  character  of  tlie 
beds  in  areas  not  far  removed  are  somewhat  striking :  we  can  only 
briefly  mention  some  of  them. 

Beginning  at  the  well-known  coast  section  at  Folkestone,  the 
Lower  Gault  (excluding  the  debateable  G  feet  of  sand  of  the  Am.  mnm- 
millatns  zone)  consists  mainly  of  grey  and  dark  fossiliferous  clays, 
about  29  feet  in  thickness.  The  lower  portion  of  the  Upper  Gault 
is  likewise  of  marly  clays,  having  a  thickness  of  50  feet,  and  tiiese 
are  overlaid  by  glauconitic  sands  and  buff  marls  with  but  a  few 
fossils,  27  feet  in  thickness.  Thus  the  total  thickness  of  the 
Selbornian  at  this  spot  is  106  feet,  and  the  materials  are  mostly 
marly  or  clayey. 

In  Surrey  the  Lower  Gault  consists  of  clays  somewhat  similar 
to  those  in  Kent,  but  fossils  are  comparatively  scarce  in  them.  No 
definite  boundary'  between  the  Upper  and  Lower  Gault  is  known : 
the  upper  beds  are  of  a  more  sandy  character,  and  they  are  succeeded 
by  the  ]\Ialm  and  Firestone  (Merstham  Beds),  representing  the  Upper 
Gault  and  Upper  Greensand,  which  are  60-80  feet  in  thickness 
in  the  west  of  the  county.  The  author  considers  that  the  entire 
thickness  of  the  Malmstone  belongs  to  the  zone  of  Am.  voslralns, 
together  with  the  8-10  feet  bed  of  greenish  sand  which  comes  in 
between  the  Malmstone  and  the  base  of  the  Chalk  Marl,  and  that 
the  zone  of  Pecten  asper  is  not  represented.  We  do  not  find  any 
reference  to  the  excellent  section  of  the  Merstham  Beds  exposed 
in  the  last  two  or  three  years  in  the  new  cutting  of  the  London, 
Brighton,  and  South  Coast  Railway  at  Merstham. 

The  Selbornian  is  well  shown  in  the  coast  sections  of  South 
Dorset  and  Devon  from  Golden  Cap  to  Axmouth.  The  lowest  beds 
are,  at  Golden  Cap,  pebbles,  sands,  and  sandy  clays,  resting  on  the 
Lias,  nearly  30  feet  in  thickness;  they  contain  Gault  fossils,  and  are 
referred  to  the  upper  part  of  the  Lower  Gault ;  above  these  is  a  series 
of  greenish  and  yellowish  glauconitic  sands,  about  100  feet  in  thick- 
ness, which  may  represent  the  zone  of  Am.  roslratiis,  and  over  these 
are  some  thin  chert  beds.  Further  westward,  at  Black  Ven,  the 
sandy  beds  representing  the  Gault,  containing  some  obscure  fossils, 
reach  a  thickness  of  about  180  feet,  and  the  overlying  chert  beds, 
belonging  to  the  highest  division  of  the  Upper  Greensand,  are  40  feet 
in  tliickness. 

At  VVhitecliff,  South  Devon,  the  sands  below  the  chert  beds, 
forming  the  lower  division  of  the  Upper  Greensand,  contain  the 
same  fossils  as  occur  in  the  Blackdown  Beds,  and  are  inchnled  in  the 
zone  of  Am.  rostrutns.  They  are  less  than  90  feet  in  thickness.  At 
Hooken  Cliff  and  Whitecliff,  the  chert  beds  of  the  highest  division 
of  the  Upper  Greensand  reach  a  maximum  thickness  of  70-80  leet : 
they  contain  species  of  JExogyra  and   Oibitolina  coucava,  but  Feclen 

88    Meviews — Jukes-Browne  8f  Sill — Gauli  and  IT.  Greensand. 

asper  has  not  been  found  in  them  or  in  the  topmost  bed  of  calcareous 

In  Oxfordshire  and  Buckinghamshire  the  Lower  and  Upper 
Gault  clays  have  been  proved  by  borings  in  various  places  to  reach 
a  thickness  of  14^230  feet.  Fossils  occur  in  the  Lower  Gault 
which  elsewhere  in  the  South-East  of  England  are  only  found  in 
Upper  Gault ;  for  example,  Am.  rostratus,  Am.  varicosus,  and 
Am.  cristatus  ai*e  associated  with  Am.  lautus,  Am.  splendens,  and 
Am.  tuberculatus.  The  Upper  Gault  becomes  marly,  and  passes  into 
a  micaceous  marl  and  malmstone. 

At  Stoke  Ferry  in  West  Norfolk  the  Lower  and  Upper  Gault 
is  represented  by  a  blue  clay  about  56  feet  in  thickness ;  more  than 
half  of  it  probably  belongs  to  the  zone  of  Am.  rostratus.  North- 
wards the  clay  is  replaced  by  calcareous  material  and  gradually 
thins  out,  so  that  at  Hunstanton  there  is  only  about  3^  feet  of 
red  earthy  limestone  between  the  sands  of  the  Lower  Cretaceous 
and  the  Lower  Chalk.  The  author  and  Mr.  Hill  maintain  the  view 
put  forward  by  them  in  1886  that  the  Eed  Chalk  is  the  actual 
stratigraphical  equivalent  of  the  Gault.  They  also  agree  with 
Dr.  Barrois  that  the  zone  of  Peden  asper  is  wanting  in  Norfolk, 
and  that  there  is  a  direct  passage  from  the  Bed  Chalk  to  the 
Chalk  Marl. 

The  Red  Chalk  is  shown  again  in  Lincolnshire  and  in  Yorkshire, 
where  it  gradually  passes  into  a  stiff  red  marl  with  calcareous 
nodules.  Mr.  F.  Chapman  has  recorded  86  species  of  Foraminifera 
from  this  rock  in  Norfolk  and  Yoi-kshire,  and  52  of  these,  or  about 
60  per  cent ,  have  been  found  in  the  Gault  of  Folkestone,  whilst  only 
25  occur  in  bed  2  of  the  Chalk  Marl  of  Eastwear  Bay,  thus  indicating 
that  the  Red  Chalk  has  a  closer  relation  to  the  Upper  Gault  than 
to  the  Chalk  Marl. 

In  Chapters  xxiv  and  xxv  Mr.  W.  Hill  describes  the  microscopical 
structure  and  the  mineral  ingredients  of  the  Gault,  Red  Chalk, 
Greensands,  Malmstones,  etc.  The  Gault  marls  and  clays  consist 
in  part  of  very  finely  divided,  apparently  structureless  material, 
without  reaction  in  polarized  light  between  crossed  nicols ;  in  part 
of  fine  detritus  of  quartz,  mica,  and  glauconite,  with  entire  and 
fragmentary  tests  of  organisms.  Thin  microscopic  sections  of  the 
Gault  do  not  give  good  results,  and  its  characters  were  best 
ascertained  by  washing  and  sifting  different  samples. 

The  coarser  particles  of  quartz,  mica,  and  felspar  fragments  form 
but  a  small  proportion  in  typical  Gault  clays.  Zircon,  rutile, 
tourmaline,  magnetite,  ilmenite,  garnet,  and  cyanite  were  also 
recognized  by  Mr.  Teall.  The  glauconite  occurs  in  irregular 
rounded  and  mammillated  grains,  seldom  more  than  0*5  mm.  in 
diameter,  also  as  minute  cylindrical  rods,  apparently  moulded  in 
the  canals  of  sponge  spicules.  Marcasite  (disulphide  of  iron)  is 
also  present  in  the  form  of  small  spherules,  cylinders,  and  irregular 

Mr.  Chapman  has  determined  265  species  and  varieties  of 
Foraminifera   from   the  Gault  at  Folkestone,    and    66    species    of 

Reviews — E.  Dale's  Peak  of  Derby shwe.  89 

Ostracoda  are  also  present  with  tliem.  The  tests  of  the  Ganlt 
Foraminifera  have  been  but  little  altered  in  fossilization,  and  they 
differ  but  slightly  in  appearance  from  those  in  recent  deep-sea 
deposits.  MoUuscan  shell  fragments  and  prisms  occur  in  all 
Oaults,  but  siliceous  organisms  such  as  sponge  spicules  are  rare. 
Mr.  Chapman  has  estimated  the  mean  depth  of  the  Lower  Gault  sea 
at  830  fathoms  and  that  of  the  Upper  Gault  at  866  fathoms,  basing 
his  conclusions  on  the  Foraminifera,  but  Mr.  Jukes-Browne  considers 
these  estimates  to  be  excessive.  The  Gault,  on  the  whole,  bears  con- 
siderable resemblance  to  the  Blue  and  Green  Muds  of  modern  seas. 

Typical  Malmstone  is  shown  by  Mr.  Hill  to  consist  principally  of 
colloid  silica  with  usually  a  small  proportion — 10-12  per  cent. — 
•of  quartz  sand  ;  other  varieties  are  more  or  less  calcareous.  Besides 
quartz  sand,  mica  and  glauconite  are  present  in  varying  amounts. 

The  characteristic  organic  remains  of  the  Malm  and  Firestone 
(Gaize),  and  also  of  the  beds  and  nodules  of  chert,  are  tlie  detached, 
microscopic  spicules  of  disintegrated  siliceous  sponges,  of  which  these 
rocks  are  mainly  composed.  In  the  Malmstone  the  spicules  are 
mostly  of  colloid  silica,  but  in  the  cherts  they  are  generally  of 
ohalcedonic  and  crystalline  silica.  Frequently  the  spicules  are 
partially  or  entirely  dissolved,  leaving  minute  empty  hollows,  and 
the  rock  is  then  of  a  light  porous  character.  The  dissolved  silica 
«f  the  spicules  is,  in  the  Malm  rock,  often  deposited  in  the  form  of 
very  minute  globules  or  discs,  in  the  cherts  it  forms  a  hard  glassy  rock. 

The  occurrence  of  such  thick  and  widely  extended  masses  of 
Malmstone  in  the  zone  of  Am.  rostrntus  and  of  the  chert  layers  and 
«aodules  in  the  highest  part  of  the  Upper  Greensand  in  the  so-called 
zone  of  Pecten  asper,  both  largely  derived  from  the  remains  of  siliceous 
sponges  (they  have  been  termed  Sponge-beds  by  Hinde),  forms  the 
most  striking  feature  of  the  Selbornian  stage. 

In  Chapters  xxvi-xxix  the  underground  extensions  of  the  Gault 
and  Greensand,  as  shown  by  various  deep  borings  in  the  London 
and  Hampshire  Basins  and  the  Eastern  Counties,  are  referred  to ; 
the  characters  of  the  equivalent  formations  in  Northern  Franco  are 
given,  with  lists  of  fossils  compiled  by  Dr.  Barrois,  Mr.  Price,  and 
M.  Delatour  ;  the  physical  and  geographical  comlitions  under  which 
the  Gault  and  Upper  Greensand  were  deposited  are  discussed,  and 
the  water  supply  and  economic  products  are  enumerated. 

In  an  appendix  critical  remarks  on  some  species  of  fossils  are 
contributed  by  Mr.  E.  T.  Newton  and  Mr.  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne, 
and  these  are  followed  by  an  elaborate  and  exhaustive  list  of  fossils 
of  the  Selbornian,  showing  the  particular  zones  and  indicating  also 
the  localities  where  they  occur. 

III. — The  Scenery  and  Geology  of  the  Peak  of  Dekbyshirb.  ^  By 
Elizabeth  Dale,  pp.  106  and  index,  with  16  plates,  16  views, 
and  a  map.  (London  :  Sampson  Low,  Marston,  &  Co.  Price  Ss.) 
'■pHIS  is  a  tall,  attractive-looking  volume,  with  numerous  illustra- 
X  tions  and  plates ;  the  former,  however,  have  had  scant  justice 
■done  to  them,  and  the  original  photographs  have  suffered  much  in  the 

90  Reviews— E.  Dale*s  Peak  of  Derhyshire. 

process  of  reproduction.  The  plates,  as  is  stated  in  the  preface^ 
are  very  largely  borrowed  from  previous  works ;  but  why  are  they  not 
numbered  in  direct  sequence,  and  why  does  the  map  include  only 
the  southern  escarpment  of  Kinder  Scout,  'the  Peak'?  In  the 
preface  the  authoress  states  that  her  object  has  been  to  make  the 
book  serve  as  an  introduction  to  the  study  of  the  science  of  geology  ; 
consequently  the  book  treats  of  a  much  wider  subject  than  one 
might  judge  from  the  title,  and  we  are  dealing  with  a  work  on 
elementary  theoretical  geology,  with  illustrations  drawn  from  a 
certain  district.  But  even  so,  the  authoress  has  not  stuck  to  her 
text,  for  the  country  illustrated  and  described  is  larger  than  the 
Peak,  and  takes  in  other  parts  of  Derbyshire  and  North  Stafford- 
ahire.  It  had  been  better,  we  think,  to  have  given  the  book  its 
proper  title,  in  the  interests  of  the  possible  purchaser,  who,  misled 
by  the  title,  finds  himself  let  in  for  a  pof  poiirri  of  bygone  and 
current  geological  views  and  speculations,  rather  than  a  description 
of  the  glorious  scenery  of  the  Peak  and  its  geology. 

Chap,  i  (pp.  1-15)  starts,  ah  initio,  with  the  nebular  hypothesis,  and 
then  proceeds  to  explain  vs^hat  is  meant  by  the  order  of  superposition, 
dutifully  reproducing  the  time-honoured  illustration  of  the  pile  of 
books.  Of  course  there  follow  tables  of  sequence  of  strata,  and  a  short 
account  of  the  greater  subdivisions  of  stratified  rocks  and  their 
contents ;  and  the  last  two  pages  conclude  with  a  brief  account  of 
the  1  inch  geological  map  of  the  rocks  round  Buxton,  as  seen  in 
a  bird's-eye  view  of  the  country  from  Grinlow.  This  is  not  perhaps 
the  best  way  of  commencing  the  study  of  geology.  Miss  Dale  is 
eminently  conservative,  and  while  mentioning  recent  views,  prefers^ 
to  take  the  1  inch  map  of  the  Geological  Survey  and  the  corresponding 
memoir  as  the  basis  of  her  work,  many  of  the  illustrations  and 
several  quotations  from  the  latter  publication  being  given. 

Chap,  ii  (pp.  16-39)  treats  of  the  Carboniferous  Limestone,  and 
includes  a  long  account  of  the  swallows  and  underground  streams- 
so  common  in  limestone  districts.  Many  observations  are  open  to 
criticism  ;  for  example,  we  are  told  (p.  17)  that  "it  is  unlikely  that 
such  a  pure  limestone  could  have  been  formed  near  a  land  area  of 
any  size."  The  word  '  near '  is  not  exact ;  but  limestones  are  being 
laid  down  within  distances  of  Continental  coasts,  which  cannot  b& 
said  to  be  far.  Again,  we  learn  that  above  Odin  Fissure  the  shales- 
are  seen  resting  on  the  limestone  with  a  junction  which  is  called  by 
geologists  '  unconformable.'  "We  have  always  regarded  this  section, 
as  evidence  of  a  small  landslip,  for  the  shales  are  certainly  not  in 
place.  At  p.  19  we  are  told  that  carbonate  of  lime  is  soluble  in  water 
containing  carbon  dioxide  or  any  acid.  This  is  not  chemically 
correct,  for  most  acids^decompose  CaCog,  and  do  not  effect  a  simple 
solution.  We  look  in  vain  for  any  account  of  the  stratification  of 
the  limestone  or  the  succession  of  its  beds ;  indeed,  the  amount  of 
stratigraphical  geology  in  this  chapter  is  very  small,  and  palgeontology 
suffers  no  less.  1'he  whole  subject  of  the  fossils  is  scamped ;  the  few 
representations  given  had  been  better  omitted.  But  we  are  informed 
that  figures  have  been  given  "that  the  collector  may  have  some  idea 

Berietrs—E.  Bale's  Peak  of  Derbi/s/iin:  91 

of  their  original  appearance  "  (the  italics  are  ours).  The  figures  are 
somewhat  grotes(j[ue  libels  on  the  fossils.  Of  what  use  can  it  be  to 
depict  Produclns  giganteus  —  Miss  Dale  prefers  to  keep  the  fossil 
feminine — as  a  shell  1^  inch  across?  Or  what  peculiar  characteristics 
oi  Aviculopecten  are  supposed  to  be  demonstrated  hy  tig.  IG,  which  has 
not  seemed  worthy  of  a  specific  name?  An  eri'or  has  arisen  with 
regard  to  the  shell  called  Rhynchouella  pugniis  (fig.  13),  which  is 
evidently  B.  plenrodon,  and  Oiihis  rcsuinnuta  (fig.  14),  which  is  probably 
a  large  example  of  0.  Michelini,  but  is  certainly  not  typical  of  the 
species  it  is  supposed  to  represent.  In  all,  eight  spt^cimens  of  various 
fossils  are  drawn  on  pi.  iii,  but  only  one  has  a  specific  name.  We  meet 
the  curiously  inexact  statement  that  "  of  moUusca  there  are  com- 
pai'atively  few.  The  bivalve  forms  are  represented  by  several 
extinct  species  of  Pecten  and  by  an  extinct  genus  called  Aviculo- 
pecten."  We  have  been  told  on  the  same  page  that  "  all  the 
fossils  are  the  remains  of  animals  now  extinct."  Further  on,  wo  are 
told  that  "a  genus  with  a  straight  shell  has  been  called  Orthoceius." 
We  would  ask  in  all  sincerity,  is  this  the  sort  of  thing  which 
will  help  the  study  of  geology?  Palajontologists,  however,  need 
not  despair,  for  Miss  Dale,  speaking  of  the  Carboniferous  sea, 
tells  us  (p.  39)  that  "  at  the  surface  and  in  the  depths  of  this  sea, 
lived  and  died  countless  numbers  of  animals  such  as  man  has  never 
seen  ";  and  in  the  orthodox  higher  flights  of  imagination  with  which 
certain  authors  have  seen  fit  in  the  past  to  close  their  accounts  of  the 
geology  of  the  Coal-measures,  we  are  told  (p.  104)  that  "  on  the 
ground  beneath  is  a  carpet  of  delicate  green,  composed  of  countless 
smaller  ferns  and  unknown  flowerless  plants,  amongst  which  dart 
lizards  and  now  and  then  a  scorpion."  One  is,  however,  tempted 
to  ask  Miss  Dale  if  the  imperfections  of  the  geological  record  aro 
really  as  great  as  we  are  led  to  infer  from  these  excerpts. 

Miss  Dale  prefers  to  call  the  shales  and  thin  limestones  between 
the  grits  and  the  massif  of  limestone,  Yuredale,  and  to  them  devotes 
chap,  iii  (pp.  40-59).  We  note  that  she  follows  the  old  1  inch 
Survey  map,  and  regards  the  beds  as  of  great  thickness  and  ast^umes 
faults  to  account  for  any  succession  wheie  there  does  not  appear  to 
be  room  for  such  a  mass,  e.g.  along  the  line  of  the  London  and 
North- Western  Railway.  We  are  tempted  to  ask  why  similar  faults 
are  not  necessary  on  the  eastern  limb  of  the  anticline  near  Eyam, 
and  further  south  between  Youlgrave  and  the  Grits  or  belweeu 
the  Grits  and  the  limestone  boundary  at  Matlock  and  W^inster. 
Personally  we  think  that  the  thickness  of  this  series  has  been  greatly 
overestimated.  Is  there  also  a  series  of  Yoredale  sandstones  as  well 
as  Farey's  grit?  We  regret  that  no  continuous  sections  of  these 
beds  from  the  various  brooks  are  given,  but  as  in  the  description 
of  the  limestone,  it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  part  ol  the 
authoress's  plan  to  give  any  original  account  of  the  local  geology. 
The  pakeontology  of  the  shales,  a  subject  of  the  highest  importance, 
is  only  mentioned  to  be  dismissed,  and  only  one  locality  where 
"chiefly  species  of  Gonialites,  Aviculope.cten,  and  plant-remains" 
were  found  is  ^iven.     A  careful  search  will  reward  the  worker  in 

^2  Reviews — E.  Dale's  Peak  of  Berbf/shire. 

these  beds,  and  a  fairly  large  fauna,  very  widely  spread,  is  to  be 
found  in  them. 

Chap,  iv  (pp.  60-84),  on  the  Millstone  Grit,  strikes  us  as  one  of 
the  best  parts  of  the  book,  and  included  in  it  we  find  a  brief  account 
of  the  evolution  of  rivers.  On  p.  83  is  a  statement,  however,  which 
may  cause  misconception  :  "  We  know  that  even  yet  the  Millstone 
Grit  is  of  exceeding  thickness,  although  thousands  of  feet  have  been 
removed  by  denudation."  But  Miss  Dale  surely  does  not  mean  that 
the  Grit  series  was  ever  thicker  than  it  is  at  present,  i.e.  between 
the  limits  of  the  base  of  the  Coal-measures  and  the  top  of  the  Upper 
Limestone  shales,  and  in  the  interest  of  accuracy  one  is  tempted  to 
ask — and  surely  one  has  the  right  to  do  so,  for  the  book  purports  to 
be  an  introduction  to  the  science  of  geology — how  thick  is  an  exceeding 
thickness?  Miss  Dale  is  fond  of  awe-inspiring  superlatives.  We 
are  also  told  that  the  "  Coal-measures  once  extended  over  the 
Pennine  anticline."  Did  they  ?  And  where  is  the  evidence  for  the 
great  volcanoes  which  are  said  to  have  existed  to  the  north-east 
and  on  the  higher  ground,  round  the  swamps  which  became  the 
■coalfields  ? 

Chap,  v  (pp.  85-105)  treats  of  the  Coal-measures  at  length ;  it 
discusses  the  fossil  botany,  various  theories  of  the  origin  of  coal,  and  the 
climate  of  the  Coal  period,  and  ends  with  a  picturesque  description 
of  the  scenery  of  the  period.  By  the  way,  why  are  we  told  "  over 
all  the  land  and  water  hangs  a  thick  pall  of  grey  cloud  "  ?  Did  not 
the  Carboniferous  flora  require  the  aid  of  the  sun  to  fix  carbon? 
One  plate  of  Coal-measure  fossils  is  given ;  fig.  45  is  said  to  be 
Naiadttes,  but  the  drawing  has  no  resemblance  whatever  to  any 
species  of  that  genus  ;  it  may  possibly  belong  to  Carbomcola,  though 
the  drawing  looks  more  like  Nucidana.  Fig.  47,  a  cast  of  the  pith- 
cavity  of  the  stem  of  a  Calamite,  is  not  very  clear,  because  we  do  not 
"tjuite  see  how  the  pith-cavity  should  bear  fairly  large  branches  ;  and 
should  not  the  fish  scale  be  spelled  Ehizodopsis  both  in  the  plate 
and  the  text  ? 

Chap,  vi  (pp.  106-127)  deals  with  the  Glacial  Period,  and  we 
gladly  appreciate  Miss  Dale's  local  work  on  this  subject. 

Chap,  vii  is  devoted  to  post-Glacial  deposits  and  early  Man,  and 
ends  with  an  allusion  to  Pithecanthropus  erectus. 

Chap,  viii  deals  with  the  development  of  geology  and  its  relation 
to  modern  thought,  and  in  our  opinion  is  utterly  out  of  place  in 
a  book  of  the  kind.  It  is  as  equally  unnecessary  to  allude  to  the 
past  struggles  between  knowledge  and  those  who  demanded  a  literal 
interpretation  of  the  Bible,  as  it  is  to  talk  in  a  volume  which 
purports  to  be  a  description  of  local  geology  and  scenery,  of  tran- 
scendental theology.  Timeo  Danaos  et  dona  ferentes ;  somehow  or 
other  we  distrust  textbooks  of  science  which  have  excerpts  from 
religious  books  at  the  commencement. 

The  work  of  the  book  is  unequal,  here  condescending  to  the 
almost  pedantic  explanation  of  terms,  there  dealing  with  theories 
which  have  little  or  no  application  in  the  Peak  district  proper, 
^nd  we  confess  we  cannot  quite  see  for  what  class  of  reader  this 

Reportis  ami  Proceedings — Geoloylcal  Sooieti/  of  London.  OS- 
discursive  book  is  intended.  "  Of  the  making  of  books  there  is  no 
end,"  and  there  is  a  real  need  for  accurate  and  thorough  work 
on  local  geology  and  scenery,  but  a  treatise  of  very  elementary 
theoretical  geology  is  quite  another  thing.  W.  II. 

I^.EI=•OI^Ts    j^isTiD    :F>i?,OG:BEiDiisra-s. 

Geological  Society  of  London. 

I.— December  19, 1900.— J.  J.H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair.     The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "  On  the  Igneous  Eocks  associated  with  the  Cambrian  Beds  of 
the  Malvern  Hills."     By  Prof.  T.  T.  Groom,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  P.G.S. 

The  Cambrian  beds  of  the  Southern  Malverns  are  associated  with 
a  series  of  igneous  rocks  which  have  commonly  been  regarded  as 
volcanic,  but  are  probably  all  intrusive.  They  consist  of  a  series- 
of  bosses,  dykes,  sills,  and  small  laccolites  intruded  into  the  Upper 
Cambrian  Shales  and  into  the  Hollybush  Sandstone.  The  dykes 
appear  to  be  confined  to  the  sandstones,  the  sills  and  laccolites- 
chiefly  to  the  shales,  while  the  bosses  are  found  in  both.  The  rocks 
consist  of  a  series  of  ophitic  olivine-diabases,  a  related  series  of 
porphyrltic  olivine-basalts,  and  a  series  of  porphyritic  amphibole- 
bearing  rocks  of  andesitic  habit,  but  probably  to  be  classed  with 
the  camptonites.  The  three  types  have  a  different  distribution,  and 
do  not  appear  to  be  connected  together  by  intermediate  gradations  ;. 
the  amphibole-bearing  and  the  olivine-bearing  rocks  differ  in  their 
mode  of  occurrence.  According  to  existing  analyses,  the  former 
range  in  chemical  composition  fi'om  sub-basic  to  basic,  and  the  latter 
from  thoroughly  basic  to  ultrabasic.  All  the  rocks  have  a  local 
stamp,  but  are  probably  most  nearly  related  to  the  camptonitie 
rocks  of  the  Central  English  ]\Iidlands.  Intrusion  took  place  at 
a  period  not  earlier  than  the  Tremadoc,  and  probably  not  later 
than  that  of  the  May  Hill  Sandstone. 

2.  "  On  the  Upper  Greensand  and  Chloritic  Marl  of  Mere  and 
Maiden  Bradley  in  Wiltshire."  By  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  Esq.,  B.A., 
F.G.S.,  and  John  Scanes,  Esq. 

The  district  dealt  with  is  on  the  borders  of  AViltshire  and 
Somerset.     The  general  succession  is  as  follows  : — 


Lower  Chalk,  with  Chloritic  Marl  at  the  hasc     "200 

Sands  with  calcareous  coucretions  ...         ...         ...       3  to  8 

Sands  with  siliceous  concretions  (cherts) 20  to  24 

Coarse  Greensand    ...         ...         ...         .-•         ...         ...  l-""' 

Fine  f^rey  and  huff  sands about  120 

Sandy  niarlstone      1& 

Grey  marl  and  clay  (Gault)  90 

The  chert-concretions  and  the  sands  in  which  they  occur  consist 
very  largely  of  spicules  of  lithistid  sponges.  One  of  the  sandstone- 
beds  has  yielded  several  species  of  Necrocarciuns,  and  may  be  the- 

;94       Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

chief  source  of  the  Crustacea  which  hi^ve  been  quoted  from  the 
Warminster  Greensaud.  Above  the  chert-beds,  and  below  the 
horizon  at  which  Stauronema  Carteri  comes  in,  is  a  variable  set  of 
beds  which  include  a  layer  of  concretions  known  as  cornstones  or 
popple-stones.  These  beds  are  very  rich  in  fossils,  and  include  at 
Maiden  Bradley  a  layer  of  phosphatic  nodules.  They  contain  the 
Eye  Hill  fauna  of  the  Warminster  Greensand,  and  it  is  proposed  to 
<3all  them  the  zone  of  Ctdopygns  columharius.  In  Southern  Wiltshire 
there  is  usually  a  complete  passage  from  this  zone  into  the  Chloritic 
Marl  ;  and  as  the  cephalopoda  of  this  zone  are  all  Chalk  Marl 
species,  the  natural  inference  from  the  local  evidence  would  be 
to  place  the  plane  of  separation  between  the  Selbornian  and 
■Cenomanian  stages  at  the  base  of  the  G.  columharius  beds.  In 
Dorset,  however,  the  break  above  these  beds  is  so  very  marked  and 
strong  that  the  authors  think  that  the  beds  with  the  Eye  Hill  fauna 
must  be  retained  in  the  Selbornian.  It  is  one  of  those  cases  in 
which  the  palteontological  and  the  stratigraphical  breaks  do  not 

lL_Jan.  9,  1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair.     The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "  The  Geology  of  South-Central  Ceylon."  By  John  Parkinson, 
Esq.,  P.G.S. 

In  this  communication  the  author  endeavours  to  give  some  account 
of  the  relations  between  the  various  granulitic  rocks  of  Ceylon. 
A  series  of  more  or  less  isolated  sections  were  studied,  the  rocks  in 
each  considered  under  separate  heads,  and  conclusions  put  forward 
relative  to  the  whole.  Two  sections  are  described  to  the  west,  and 
one  to  the  north,  of  Kandy,  in  which  the  rocks  are  of  a  well-marked 
type.  As  a  rule  they  are  strongly,  often  coarsely,  banded ;  and  the 
relation  of  the  light  and  dark  bands  is  such  as  to  leave  the  author  to 
conclude  that  this  structure  arose  "through  the  streaking  together  of 
the  component  parts  of  a  magma  which  had  undergone  differentiation." 
The  darker  parts  are  characterized  by  the  presence  of  green  horn- 
blende in  varying  quantity,  associated  with  brown  mica.  Locally 
garnets  are  abundant,  and  pyroxene  is  found  in  some  slides.  A  fourth 
section,  south  of  Matale,  is  of  importance,  since  it  is  believed  that 
here  a  granulitic  rock  resembling  some  described  under  the  section 
which  follows  (Section  V)  is  intrusive  in  a  crystalline  limestone. 
Modifications  in  the  intruder  are  described,  which  are  supposed  to 
have  arisen  through  the  local  incorporation  of  some  of  the  older  rock. 
Under  Section  V  rocks  from  Newara  Eliya,  Ohiya,  and  Bandarawella 
are  grouped  together.  These  are  often  banded  and  vary  considerably 
in  coarseness,  but  are  distinguished,  with  few  exceptions,  by 
a  greenish  colour  accompanied  by  a  greasy  lustre,  and  usually  by 
the  presence  of  garnet.  Hornblende,  magnetite,  and  biotite  are 
associated  with  this  mineral,  and  a  pleochroic  augite  is  not  uncommon. 
The  structure  of  all  the  rocks  described  is  granulitic ;  that  is, 
characterized  by  the  irregularity  in  the  outlines  of  the  grains  which 


Correspojidcncc—Pt'ofessor  T.  G.  Bonnoij.  9;") 

build  up  the  rock,  and  by  the  inclusion  of  one  mineral  by  another. 
Porphyritic  felspars  are  recorded  from  several  localities. 

The  author  concludes  that  the  rocks  of  Section  V  are  nearly  related 
to  those  described  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  paper,  and  points  out  the 
close  resemblance  of  the  whole  to  the  Charnockite  Series  of  Southern 

2.  "  Note  on  the  Occurrence  of  Corundum  as  a  Contact-Mineral  at 
Pont- Paul,  near  Morlaix  (Finistere)."  By  A.  K.  Cooraara-Svvamy, 
Esq.,  B.Sc,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S. 

The  intrusive  granite  of  Pont-Paul,  near  Morlaix,  contains  highly 
altei'ed  fi-agments  of  sedimentary  rock.  The  minerals  found  in 
them  are  biotite,  muscovite,  corundum  (first  recorded  by  Professor 
Barrois  in  1887),  plagioclase,  andalusite,  pyrite,  magnetite,  silli- 
nianite,  green  spinel,  and  zircon.  The  corundum  forms  sharply 
idiomorphic  tabular  hexagonal  crystals,  striated  and  slightly  stepped 
on  the  basal  plane,  and  blue  in  colour.  Iron-oxide  is  a  constant 
inclusion.  The  inclusions  have  probably  been  to  some  extent 
injected  with  felspathic  material.  The  original  sediment  was 
probably  poor  in  silica  and  rich  in  alumina,  and  there  has  been 
sufficient  molecular  freedom  for  the  formation  of  well-shaped  crystals 
of  corundum,  comparatively  free  from  inclusions.  Sillimanite  and 
zircon  are  the  only  other  minerals  which  exhibit  crystalline  form. 

G  o  12,  s,ESi=>oisrnDEisrc  s . 

Sir, — The  value  of  IVlr.  Stather's  paper  on  the  sources  and  dis- 
tribution of  Yorkshire  boulders  (p.  17),  which  is  very  great,  is  not 
enhanced  by  the  concluding  paragraph.  The  Scandinavian  Ice-sheet 
seems  to  affect  some  geologists  as  King  Charles'  head  did  Mr.  Dick. 
]\Iay  I  then  ask  Mr.  Stather  two  questions  :—(l)  What  route  did 
the  Scandinavian  Ice-sheet  take  when  it  anticipated  the  Norsemen 
by  invading  England?  (2)  What  caused  it  to  retreat  before  the 
advance  of  the  British  Ice-sheet  ?  It  was  no  doubt  very  polite  to 
give  place  to  the  '  weaker  vessel,'  but  as  the  British  hill  districts 
are  smaller  than  and  to  the  south  of  the  Scandinavian,  I  should  have 
thought  nature  would  not  have  allowed  courtesy  to  supersede  law. 

T.    G.    BONNEY. 


Lorn  July  31,  1830.  r>iKi>  January  G,  1!)01. 

Mr.  Egan  was  born  in  Dublin  on  July  31st,  183G,  and  was  the 

third    son   of   the  late  Mr.   W.  J.   Egan,   of  Rockville,   Dundrura. 

Receiving  his  early  education    at  Mr.  Flynn's  school  in  Harcourt 

Street,  he   entered  Trinity  College,  where  in  due  course  he  took 

96  Obituary— F.  W.  Egan. 

his  degree  of  B.A.  and  a  diploma  in  Engineering.  Commencing 
professional  life  as  a  railway  engineer,  be  did  considerable  work  in 
connection  witb  tbe  Great  Nortbern,  Great  Southern,  and  Dublin. 
Wicklow,  and  Wexford  Railways,  then  in  course  of  construction, 
In  1868  be  quitted  tbe  somewhat  desultory  employment  of  railway 
engineer  for  a  more  permanent  position  on  the  staff"  of  tbe  Geological 
Survey  of  Ireland,  being  appointed  assistant  geologist  on  tbe 
nomination  of  tbe  late  Professor  Jukes,  F.E.S.  In  1890  be  was 
promoted  to  tbe  grade  of  geologist  on  tbe  recommendation  of  tbe 
present  Director-General  of  tbe  Survey,  Sir  A.  Geikie,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
His  work  was  always  characterized  by  the  great  care  be  bestowed 
on  it,  no  details  being  too  insignificant  for  his  attention,  and  while 
he  did  not  seek  fame  as  an  independent  essayist,  his  contributions  to 
tbe  Official  Memoirs  and  other  reports  furnish  a  mass  of  information 
which  has  often  proved  of  considerable  economic  value.  In  the 
Summer  of  1899  he  met  witb  an  unfortunate  accident,  being 
violently  thrown  off  a  car  while  travelling  in  tbe  execution  of  his 
duties,  and  sustained  severe  injuries,  from  which  he  never  fully 
recovered.  Some  six  months  ago  bis  complaint  assumed  a  malignant 
form,  which  terminated  in  his  death,  after  a  long  period  of  much 
suffering,  on  tbe  6tb  January.  In  personal  character  Mr.  Egan 
was  one  of  the  kindliest  and  most  lovable  of  men,  and  beyond 
the  circle  of  his  own  family  and  immediate  friends  none  will 
regret  bis  loss  more  than  his  colleagues  of  tbe  Geological  Survey, 
to  whom  he  was  much  endeared  by  bis  unfailing  amiability', 
obligingness,  and  thorough  good-nature. — Irish  Times,  January  11th. 


The  Directok-Genekal  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  the 
United  Kingdobi.— The  announcement  has  just  reached  us  (January 
15tb)  that  Sir  Archibald  Geikie  has  intimated  bis  intention  to  retire 
from  tbe  post  of  Director-General  of  tbe  Geological  Survey  of  tbe 
United  Kingdom,  an  office  which  be  has  so  ably  filled  for  tbe  past 
twenty  years,  on  March  1st  next.  In  1855,  at  tbe  age  of  20,  Sir 
A.  Geikie  became  an  Assistant  on  tbe  Geological  Survey  of  Scotland, 
and  be  was  made  Director  for  Scotland  in  1867.  In  1881  he  was 
appointed  to  succeed  Sir  Andrew  Ramsay  as  Director- General  of  tbe 
Geological  Survey  of  tbe  United  Kingdom.  He  has  seen  forty-six 
years'  service,  but  is  now  only  in  bis  66tb  year.  (See  bis  life, 
Geol.  Mag.  1890,  p.  49.)  Early  in  March  he  will  be  entertained 
by  bis  friends  at  a  complimentary  dinner.  All  who  wish  to  attend 
should  communicate  witb  Mr.  E.  W.  Rudler,  Museum  of  Practical 
Geology,  28,  Jermyn  Street,  London,  S.W. — We  rejoice  to  learn  that 
Sir  A.  Geikie  has  no  intention  of  retiring  from  active  participation 
in  geological  work,  and  that  neither  bis  hammer  nor  his  pen  are  to 
be  laid  aside  for  some  years  to  come. 

Geol.  Mag.,  1901. 

Dec.  IV,  Vol.  VIII,  PI.  VI. 

tlG.    I. 

"^-^o     ' 

^^jj,v     •  ■       ■                •        .     ■_ 

■    ^-^^^:-^-  -•-•^^^■vt: 


Fig.  2. 

1,  LAKE    LOUISE;     2,  MIRROR    LAKE. 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 

No.  III.— MARCH,   190L 

I. — Some  Lake  Basins  in  Alberta  and  British  Columbia. 

By  J.  Parkinson,  F.G.S. 


FOE  several  years  cai'eful  study  has  been  given  to  numerous  lake 
basins  in  England  and  elsewhere,  with  the  result  that  many 
previously  considered  as  rock  basins  have  not  survived  the  ordeal. 
Professor  Bonney,^  who  has  always  opposed  this  hypothesis  in  the 
case  of  large  lakes,  has  described  four  authentic  examples  from  the 
Lepontine  Alps,  three  of  which  I  had  the  advantage  of  visiting  with 
him ;  and  some  few  weeks  before,  Mr.  Brend  -  described  others 
from  Caernarvonshire. 

It  may  therefore  be  of  interest  to  call  attention  to  two  lakes  in 
the  Canadian  Rocky  Mountains  and  one  from  the  Selkirk  Range 
which  may  lay  claim  to  the  rather  rare  distinction  of  being  true 
rock  basins.  We  will  take  the  former  first.  The  country  between 
the  Columbia  River  on  the  west  and  the  infold  of  Cretaceous  rock, 
known  as  the  Cascade  trough,  on  the  east  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Banff,  is  one  of  the  most  delightful  that  a  traveller  can  enjoy.  The 
east-bound  train  on  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  after  leaving 
the  Columbia  River  at  Golden,  the  northern  end  of  the  Columbia 
Kootanie  Valley,  follows  the  course  of  the  Kicking  Horse  River 
until  the  watershed  between  the  Pacific  and  Atlantic  slopes  is 
reached  a  little  to  the  west  of  Laggan.  With  the  exception  of  a  long 
strip  of  country  between  the  Ottertail  Mountains  and  the  Vermilion 
Range  to  the  south  of  the  Kicking  Horse  River,  which  is  mapped  as 
"  igneous  intrusive,"  ^  the  whole  of  the  country  comprised  in  the 
area  specified  above  is  sedimentary.  The  line  of  the  railway  passes 
over  the  Canadian  Quartzite  series  to  Silver  City  on  the  Bow  River, 
some  seventeen  miles  to  the  east  of  Laggan.  To  the  east  of  this, 
again,  lies  the  north-west  Cretaceous  fold. 

'  Geol.  Mag.,  1898,  p.  15. 
2  Geol.  Mag.,  1897,  p.  404. 

'  '*  Reconnaissance  Map  of  a  portion  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  between  49°  and 
61°30""  :  Canada  Geol.  Surv.,  1885. 


98     J.  Parkinson — Lake  Basins  in  Alberta  ^  British  Columbia. 

The  geological  structure  of  this  district  is  described  by  Mr.  E,  G. 
McConnell/  and  it  will  be  sufficient  to  refer  to  the  salient  points. 
Mr.  McConnell  divides  this  region  into  two  nearly  equal  parts, 
taking  the  western  side  of  the  Sawback  Eange  as  the  line  of 
division.  To  the  east  of  this  line  the  dip  is  consistently  to  the 
west,  due  to  the  fact  that  a  thrust  from  that  direction  has  produced 
a  series  of  roughly  parallel  ridges,  which  have  been  "  tilted  and 
shoved  over  one  another  into  the  form  of  a  westerly  dipping 
compound  monocline."  Eundle  and  Cascade  Mountains,  near  Banff, 
are  examples  of  this  type.  On  the  western  side  as  far  as  the 
Columbia  Eiver  no  reversed  faults  are  found,  and  "  ordinary  and 
overturned  folds  play  the  most  important  role,"  The  lakes  which 
form  the  subject  of  the  present  note  lie  in  the  latter  division  some 
two  miles  to  the  west  of  Laggan  (5,008  feet).  They  are  three  in 
number.  Lake  Louise,  the  largest,  a  mile  and  a  quarter  long,  lies 
at  a  height  of  5,645  feet  above  sea-level,  and  Lakes  Mirror  and 
Agnes,  overlooking  their  larger  confrere,  at  heights  of  6,500  feet 
and  6,820  feet  respectively.  They  have  been  described  from  the 
point  of  view  of  the  explorer  and  climber  by  Mr.  Walter  D.  Wilcox, 
in  his  interesting  and  admirably  illustrated  book  "  The  Canadian 
Eockies,"  from  which  the  figures  in  PL  VI  are  taken.  At  the  end  of 
this  work  an  excellent  map  of  this  region  is  given,  and  he  has  also 
recently  published  a  contour  map  and  detailed  study  of  Lake 
Louise.*  Mr.  Wilcox  refers  to  Lake  Agnes  as  being  certainly  a  rock 
basin,  and  remarks  elsewhere  -  that  only  two  rock-basin  lakes  were 
observed  by  him,  "  one  of  which  was  a  typical  cirque  lake,"  no 
doubt  Lake  Agnes.  This  little  lake  is  about  a  third  of  a  mile  long 
and  about  150  yards  across,  and  is  surrounded  on  three  sides  by 
mountains.  The  upper  end  is  a  cirque,  its  terminations  culminating 
in  two  horn-like  peaks.  This  occupies  the  upper  third  of  the  cliff, 
the  middle  third  is  precipitous  rock,  the  lowest  talus.  On  the  left 
bank  the  mountain  slopes  are  steep.  A  peculiar  dome-shaped  hill, 
the  Beehive,  7,350  feet,  and  ridge,  a  continuation  of  the  same,  form 
the  right  bank  of  Lake  Agnes  and  overlook  the  left  bank  of  Lake 
Louise.  The  shape  of  the  lake  is  modified  by  talus,  but  there  is 
no  possibility  of  hidden  outlet,  nor  can  we  find  sign  of  glacial 
deposits.  The  opening  of  this  sack-shaped  valley,  with  its  tiny  lake, 
is  wide,  and  formed  of  thickly  bedded  quartzite.  The  outflow  streara 
is  nearer  the  left  bank  of  the  lake,  and  the  rock  floor  slopes  gently 
down  to  it.  A  shallow  groove  has  been  worn  away  in  the  quartzite, 
and  the  discharge  stream  empties  as  a  small  waterfall  into  Mirror 
Lake  below.  The  latter  is  rather  less  satisfactory  from  the 
geologist's  point  of  view.  It  is  circular  in  shape  and  about 
150  yards  in  diameter  for  the  most  part,  no  doubt  surrounded  by 
live  rock,  but  modified  in  shape  by  talus  and  quite  possibly  by  some 
glacial   deposits.     Whether   the   latter  have   dammed   the   exit   is 

^  Canada  Geol.  Surv.,  1886,  n.s.,  vol.  ii,  p.  310. 

^  "A  Type  of  Lake  Formation  ia  Canada" :  Jonru.  Geol.  Chieaao,  vol.  vii  (18991, 
p.  253. 

'/.  Parlcinson — Lalic  Basins  in  Alberta  if  British  Columbia.     99 

difficult  to  say,  unless  sonndings  were  taken,  but  live  rock  ((jiiartzite) 
outcrops  on  the  trail  leading  down  to  Lake  Louise,  not  far  below  the 
level  of  Mirror  Lake.  No  exit  stream  can  be  found,  and  the  over- 
flow is  said  to  find  its  way  to  Lake  Louise  by  underground  channels  ; 
a  statement  I  see  no  reason  to  doubt,  but  the  fact  is  unfavourable  to 
the  hypothesis  that  Mirror  Lake  is  a  true  rock  basin. 

The  valley  in  which  Lake  Louise  lies,  850  feet  below,  is  clearly 
blocked  at  the  lower  end  of  the  lake  by  drift,  but  Wilcox  states  that 
the  bottom  of  Lake  Louise  is  230  feet  below  the  very  lowest  part  of 
its  dam.  and  the  lower  surface  of  its  glacier  must  have  ascended  this 
slope  upon  entering  the  Bow  Valley.  It  is  possible,  then,  that  the 
lake  is  a  true  rock  basin. 

One  other  example,  also  of  a  dubious  nature,  remains  to  be 
mentioned,  viz.,  that  from  the  Selkirks,  near  the  Great  Glacier, 
and  some  1,500  feet  above  the  station  of  Glacier  on  the  C.P.R., 
directly  overlooking  the  valley.  It  is  called  Lake  Marian.  Moun- 
tains rise  abruptly,  with  talus  strewn  around  their  bases  for  nearly 
half  the  circumference  of  the  lake  ;  in  front,  where  the  pine-clad 
slopes  plunge  down  to  the  valley  beneath,  a  quartzite  outcrops. 
Tiiis,  or  a  crushed  grit,  is  the  common  rock  of  the  ascent  from 
Glacier,  with  some  outcrops  of  broken  silvery  slate.  On  the  re- 
maining (eastern)  side  live  rock,  if  it  exists,  is  concealed  by  surface 
soil  and  undergrowth,  and  the  level  is  low.  At  first  I  thought  Lake 
Marian  to  be  a  true  rock  basin,  but  subsequent  reflection  inclines 
me  to  the  belief  that  glacial  deposits  may  exist.  The  slopes  on  the 
south-eastern  side  of  the  lake  in  the  dii'ection  of  Mount  Abbott  are 
not  precipitous,  and  it  is  possible  that  here  a  glacier  left  material 
sufficient  to  retain  the  water. 

We  are  left,  therefoi-e,  with  but  one  clear  and  certain  example 
of  a  rock  basin,  and  it  remains  but  to  consider  as  briefly  as  may 
be  what  causes  operated  in  its  formation.  And  firstly,  differential 
earth  movements,  as  suggested  by  Mr.  Brend  for  the  Caernarvonshire 
tarns,  may  be  considered.  The  bedding  of  the  rocks  forming  the 
walls  of  the  lake  is  remarkably  well  defined,  and  not  far  removed 
from  the  horizontal,  but  on  looking  at  the  right  bank  from  an 
advantageous  position,  it  becomes  apparent  that  a  slight  dip  up  the 
lake  exists  which  is  greater  at  the  lower  than  at  the  upper  end.  As 
the  change,  though  slight,  is  abrupt,  a  small  fault  probably  exists 
at  this  point. 

The  cirque  is  no  doubt  pre-Glacial,  but  it  is  possible  that  the 
configuration  of  the  country  has  been  altered  in  quite  late  times. 
Dr.  .T.  W.  Spencer,  in  his  well-known  work  on  the  "Origin  of  the 
Basins  of  tlie  Great  Lakes  in  America,'"  has  demonstrated  '  terrestrial 
warpings '  more  recent  tlian  the  episode  of  the  Upper  Till.  On  the 
western  side  of  the  continent  Dr.  G.  M.  Dawson  -  mentions  terraces 

1  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xlvi  (1890),  p.  530. 

•  "The  Superficial  Geology  of  British  Columbia":  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc, 
vol.  xxxiv  (1878),  p.  89.  See  also  Dr.  G.  M.  Dawson.  "  On  the  Plivsioirraphical 
Geology  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  Region  iu  Canada'':  Trans.  Roy.  Sol-.  Canada, 
vol.  vii"i  (1890),  sect.  4,  p.  68. 

100     J.  Parkinson — Lake  Basins  in  Alberta  ^  British  Columbia. 

on  the  Fraser  and  Thompson  Eivers  in  British  Columbia,  from 
2,400  to  3,000  feet.  Of  these  he  says :  "  Many  of  the  higher  are 
accumulations  along  the  shore  of  a  great  sheet  of  water ;  most  of  the 
lower  have  been  carved  out  of  deposits  which  at  one  time  filled 
the  valleys  from  rim  to  rim,  and  more  or  less  completely  levelled 
up  the  broken  surface  of  the  country,  by  the  gradually  receding 
waters  of  a  lake  or  of  the  sea,  and  eventually  by  the  rivers  them- 
selves deepening  their  channels  to  their  old  pre-Glacial  levels " 
(p.  112).  He  concludes  that  the  interior  of  British  Columbia  was 
submerged  4,000  to  5,000  feet  during  the  formation  of  the  Boulder- 
clay  (p.  108). 

The  second  hypothesis  ascribes  sufficient  erosive  power  to  a  glacier 
in  descending  a  sharp  declivity  such  as  the  cirque  at  the  head  of 
Lake  Agnes.  Such  plunging  action  is  appealed  to  by  Professor 
Bonney  to  explain  the  rock  basins  of  Lakes  Cadagno,  Tremorgio, 
and  others  on  the  Lepontine  Alps.  In  the  case  of  Lake  Agnes 
a  glance  at  the  map  shows  that  here  is  ample  gathering-ground  for 
ice.  The  line  of  the  Continental  watershed  lies  a  mile  and  a  half 
to  the  west,  with  summits  ranging,  in  the  case  of  Pope's  Peak,  to 
9,595  feet.  Mount  St.  Piran,  to  the  north,  has  a  height  of  8,580  feet. 
These  between  them  form  the  north  and  north-north-west  walls 
of  the  tarn.  If  any  erosive  action  can  be  ascribed  to  ice,  the 
present  instance  would  afford  an  excellent  opportunity  for  the 
display  of  its  power,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  this  is  the  true^ 

At  the  time  of  my  visit  to  Lake  Agnes  a  third  possibility 
occurred  to  me  which  may  have  some  value,  at  least,  as  a  con- 
tributory cause.  The  quartzite  forms  the  lower  bed  in  the  walls 
of  the  lake,  and  must  also  occupy  its  floor,  for  the  little  waterfall 
of  discharge  passes  over  it  for  some  distance  below  the  level  of  the 
lake  surface.  The  superincumbent  beds  are  of  a  slaty  nature,  rather 
finely  bedded,  and  broken.  This,  taken  in  conjunction  with  the 
dip  of  the  whole  up  the  lake,  seemed  to  me  to  make  it  at  least 
possible  that  the  ordinary  agents  of  denudation  in  working  out  the 
valley  and  its  cirque-like  head  might  form  a  basin  which  would 
retain  water,  simply  from  the  fact  that  there  was  a  greater  thickness 
of  less  resisting  material  at  the  upper  than  at  the  lower  end.  I  put 
this  on  record  merely  as  a  suggestion,  but  we  may  perhaps  suppose 
some  such  process  as  the  following.  In  early  days  the  valley  would 
incline  steeply  down  to  its  lip,  its  bottom  occupied  by  a  stream 
attaining  at  certain  times  of  the  year  to  the  dignity  of  a  torrent  of 
some  dimensions.  When  worn  down  at  its  lower  end  to  the  level 
of  the  more  resisting  quartzite,  the  erosive  action  of  the  water  would 
be  checked  at  that  point,  but  the  constant  freshets  concentrated  on 
its  upper  end  by  reason  of  the  cirque-like  disposition  of  the  clifi' 
would  prevent  the  removing  power  of  the  water  being  materiallj'^ 
lessened  at  the  valley  head.  This  process  would  go  on  possibly 
with  increasing  slowness,  but  with  a  tendency  analogous  to  that 
ascribed  to  a  glacier  in  descending  a  steep  slope. 

My  sincere  thanks  are  due  to  Professor  Bonney  for  his  kindness 

Dorothy  Bate— A  Bone  Cave  on  the  River  W>/r.         101 

in  reading  the  manuscript  of  this  paper,  and  for  many  valuable 



Fig.  1  .—Photograph  taken  from  the  glacial  deposits  at  the  lower  end  of  Lake  Louise, 
and  looking  towards  Lakes  Agnes  and  Mirror.  The  cirque  at  the  head  of  the 
former  is  well  seen.  The  rounded  promontory  in  front  of  the  cirque  is  the 
"Beehive."  To  the  right  of  this  lies  Mirror  Lake,  its  position  concealed  bv 
the  upper  part  of  the  belt  of  forest.    The  point  x  is  the  same  in  both  figures. 

Fig.  2. — Minor  Lake.  The  waterfall  of  discharge  from  Lake  Agnes  is  the  whiti; 
speck  amongst  the  trees  below  the  mark  x  . 

II. — A  SHORT  Account  of  a   Bone  Cave  in  the  Carboniferous 
Limestone  of  the  Wye  Valley. 

By  Dorothy  M.  A.  Bate. 

rPHE  bones  of  Pleistocene  mammals  and  birds,  a  list  of  some  of 
X  which  is  given  below,  were  found  in  a  small  cave  in  an  out- 
lying part  of  the  Forest  of  Dean,  close  to  the  river  Wye,  where  it  is 
flanked  by  steep  and  wooded  hills  that  rise  abruptly  from  either 
bank.  At  short  intervals  along  the  sides  of  these  hills  limestone 
cliffs  and  boulders  stand  out  bare  and  white  among  the  surrounding 
trees.  The  slopes  below  are  strewn,  and  in  places  completely 
covered,  with  pieces  of  rock  of  all  sizes  that  are  continually  becoming 
loosened  and  fall  from  the  outstanding  crags  above,  in  which  are 
numerous  cracks,  holes,  and  caves,  the  last,  as  a  rule,  being  only  of 
small  size. 

The  mouth  of  the  cave  in  which  these  remains  were  found  is 
situated  half-way  up  the  face  of  one  of  the  cliffs.  It  is  completely 
concealed  from  view  by  a  thick  growth  of  trees  and  bushes.  This 
probably  accounts  for  its  being  little  known  and  not  previously 
explored  for  animal  remains,  though,  unfortunately,  several  human 
jaw-bones  lying  on  the  floor  of  the  cave  were  taken  away  by  some 
boys  while  searching  for  jackdaws'  nests.  Some  time  ago  the 
greater  part  of  the  floor  was  dug  up  by  miners  looking  for  iron-ore. 
This  was  a  most  unfortunate  occurrence,  as  in  this  way  the  position 
of  the  upper  layers  of  earth  and  rock  forming  the  floor  of  the  cave 
has  been  considerably  obscured.  At  the  same  time  the  bones 
contained  in  these  deposits  were  mixed,  specimens  undoubtedly 
differing  greatly  in  age  being  found  in  close  proximity  ;  furthermore, 
some  of  the  bones  of  species  now  living  bore  a  very  fresh  appearance. 

The  walls  of  the  cave  have  not  been  disturbed,  for  here  numerous 
minute  bones  are  found  in  a  good  state  of  preservation.  These  were 
lying  even  in  exposed  situations  where  they  might  easily  have  been 
destroyed.  This  is  perhaps  the  most  curious  feature  of  the  cave,  for 
at  its  inner  end  on  every  ledge  and  in  every  crevice  were  found 
small  bones,  most  of  them  belonging  to  one  or  other  of  the  smaller 
species  of  voles  and  mice.  These  remains  have  disappeared  from 
the  ledges  near  the  entrance,  doubtless  on  account  of  exposure  to 
wind  and  wet,  and  to  the  presence  of  jackdaws,  which  nest  in  large 
numbers  in  all  the  cliffs. 

102  Dorothy  Bate — A  Bone  Cave  on  the  Rker  Wye. 

The  cave  consists  of  two  chambers,  the  larger  of  which 
penetrates  the  cliff  for  about  thirty  yards,  only  decreasing  slightly  in 
size  from  the  entrance,  which  is  large.  The  floor  is  partially'  covered 
with  a  layer  of  earth,  which  in  one  place  is  about  a  foot  and  a  half 
thick.  As  already  remarked,  its  original  disposition  has  been  more 
or  less  altered  by  the  workings  of  the  miners.  This  earth  contained 
great  quantities  of  small  skulls  and  bones,  the  commonest  among 
them  belonging  to  Microtus  agrestis  and  If.  amphibius. 

Owing  to  lack  of  time  1  was  unable  to  penetrate  below  this  earth 
except  where  some  of  the  rock  had  alreadj^  been  removed.  Portions 
of  the  walls  several  feet  above  the  present  level  of  the  floor  are 
encrusted  with  numberless  small  bones,  impossible  to  extract  in 
good  condition  owing  to  the  hardness  of  the  limestone.  If  pieces 
of  rock  were  broken  away  similar  bones  were  certain  to  be  found 
loose  in  any  soft  or  crumblj'^  places.  In  fact,  they  were  plentiful 
throughout  the  cave — in  the  earth,  on  the  ledges,  in  the  walls, 
and  even  on  the  surface  of  the  floor.  The  bones  embedded  in 
the  rock,  as  well  as  those  concealed  in  the  earth,  were  found 
extending  right  up  to  the  mouth  of  the  cave.  These  must  have 
accumulated  at  a  time  when  the  cave  was  considerably  larger  than  it 
now  is.  This  it  undoubtedly  was  at  one  time,  for,  as  the  face  of  the 
cliff  has  gradually  been  worn  away,  the  slope  below  has  become 
strewn  with  fragments  of  rock  of  all  sizes.  Another  proof  of  this  is 
that  in  its  present  state  it  would  be  impossible  for  such  animals 
as  sheep  and  deer  to  reach  the  cave.  Yet  the  bones  of  these  animals, 
and  of  others  for  whom  it  would  be  as  difScult  of  access,  are  found 
buried  in  the  earth.  It  is  now  evidently  inaccessible  to  foxes  and 
badgers,  as  there  are  no  holes  used  by  them  here,  although  they 
are  to  be  seen  in  almost  every  other  cave  I  have  visited  in  the 

The  smaller  chamber  opens  into  the  main  cave  near  the  inner  end 
of  the  latter,  and  runs  almost  parallel  with  it  towards  the  face  of  the 
cliff.  It  has  now  no  direct  connection  with  the  outside,  although 
there  is  an  opening  in  the  cliff  with  which  it  was  probably  formerly 
connected.  It  is  possible  that  the  present  entrance  has  only  lately 
been  made.  The  roof  is  very  low,  forcing  one  to  crawl  on  hands 
and  knees.  Part  of  the  floor  has  been  disturbed  in  the  same  way  as 
in  the  outer  chamber,  but,  unlike  it,  there  is  little  of  the  earth  in 
which  the  greater  number  of  the  small  bones  were  found.  Probably 
the  real  mouth  of  this  cave  has  been  closed  up  by  the  roof  at  this  ^^ 
point  giving  way,  the  rock  having  been  loosened  by  water.  At  the  ^Bi 
end  nearest  the  face  of  the  cliff  there  is  always  a  certain  amount  of  ^^ 
water  to  be  seen  dripping  from  the  wall.  The  rock  over  which  it  runs 
down  to  the  level  of  the  floor  has  been  formed  into  a  series  of  ridges, 
somewhat  resembling  those  left  on  the  sand  by  the  receding  tide, 
though  they  differ  in  being  higher  and  sharper  and  closer  together. 
This  has  a  very  striking  appearance  when  a  light  is  thrown  on 
its  ribbed  surface,  which  looks  black  and  highly  polished,  and  is 
always  glistening  with  moisture.  "Wherever  this  water  penetrates 
it  leaves  a  deposit  of  stalagmite,  which  causes  the  rock  to  become 

Dorothy  Bate — A  Bone  Cave  on  the  River  Wye.         103 

extremely  bard,  tlius  making  any  excavation  a  difficult  task,  and  in 
some  places  it  is  impossible  to  detacb  bones  from  the  rock  intact. 

The  cave  contained  the  teeth  and  jaw-bones  of  six  small  mammals 
that  are  now  extinct  in  Great  Britain.  These  are  :  Microtis  ratticeps, 
M.  arvalis,  M. nivalis,  Lemmus  lemmus,  Dicrostonyx  {=iMyodes)  torquatus, 
and  Ochotona  [^Layomijs)  pttsillus.  At  the  present  day  these  species 
are  found  chiefly  in  colder  and  more  northern  countries,  the  pika 
being  confined  to  the  steppe  regions  of  Eastern  Europe  and  Siberia. 
No  remains  of  the  reindeer  or  other  large  northern  forms  were 
found,  though  from  the  presence  of  the  lemmings  and  some  of  the 
voles  this  might  have  been  expected.  Eemains  of  the  reindeer  and 
mammoth  have  been  taken  from  a  somewhat  similar  cave  situated 
not  two  miles  distant.  See  British  Museum  (Natural  History)  Coll. 
Eemains  of  the  following  animals  were  found  in  this  cave : — 
noma. — I  have  already  mentioned  that  some  jaw-bones  were  found 
on  the  floor  of  the  cave,  but  I  have  been  unable  to  secure  one  or  to 
trace  their  present  whereabouts.  I  procured  one  clavicle,  several 
vertebrte,  and  a  number  of  digital  phalanges.  The  only  implements 
found  were  a  bone  needle,  or  hairpin,  and  a  portion  of  a  copper  ring. 

Boae  needle,  one-third  less  than  original  specimen. 

The  needle,  which  Sir  Henry  Ho  worth  considers  belongs  to  the 
Bronze  Age,  is  a  very  fine  specimen  in  a  perfect  state  of  preservation. 
It  is  five  inches  in  length  and  has  a  circular  hole  pierced  through 
its  broader  end,  from  which  it  gradually  tapers  to  a  blunt  point. 
The  larger  end  has  the  appearance  of  having  been  cut  straight  across 
with  some  sharp  instrument. 

Bhinolopkus  hipposideros. — Two  lower  jaw-bones  and  a  portion 
of  one  skull  of  this  bat  were  among  the  remains  found  in  the  cave. 

Talpa  Europcea.— One  upper  jaw  of  this  species  and  two  mandibular 
rami  were  found  in  the  cave  together  with  several  pelvic  bones. 
There  is  a  considerable  difterence  in  the  size  of  these  two  rami,  one 
of  which,  the  larger,  still  retained  a  milk  tooth.  Fossil  remains  of 
this  mole  have  been  found  in  the  Norfolk  Forest  Bed  as  well  as  in 
Pleistocene  deposits.  Mr.  W.  J.  Lewis  Abbot  found  numerous 
bones  belonging  to  this  species  in  the  Ightham  fissure  in  Kent. 

Sorex  araneus.—The  upper  jaws  of  the  common  shrew  were 
fairly  plentiful,  one  or  two  skulls  being  found  in  an  almost  perfect 
state  of  preservation.  They  varied  much  in  size,  a  considerable 
difference  being  noticeable  between  the  largest  and  the  smallest 
specimens  obtained.  The  lower  jaw-bones  were  less  numerous ; 
perhaps  on  account  of  their  small  size  they  were  easily  passed  over 
when  buried  in  the  earth.  Less  than  half  a  dozen  were  secured,  all 
of  them  retaining  ther  full  number  of  teeth.  Kemains  of  this  shrew 
have  been  found  in  the  Forest  Bed  and  in  caves. 

104         Dorothy  Bate — A  Bone  Cave  on  the  River  Wye. 

Neomys  ( =  Crossopus)  fodiens. — One  upper  jaw  of  the  water-shrew 
was  found  which  still  retained  its  full  number  of  teeth.  Its  remains 
have  occurred  in  the  Norfolk  Forest  Bed. 

Microtus  amphibius. — Jaw-bones  and  portions  of  skulls  of  the  water- 
vole  were  numerous  in  the  cave  earth.  Many  of  the  rami  were 
preserved  in  an  almost  perfect  condition.  Its  remains  have  been 
found  in  Pleistocene  deposits  and  in  a  number  of  caves  in  England. 

Microtus  agrestis. — Remains  of  the  field-vole  were  more  plentiful 
than  those  of  any  other  of  the  species  found  in  the  cave.  Similar 
remains  have  been  found  in  many  caves  in  England.  This  vole 
is  still  living  in  Britain  and  extends  over  the  middle  and  north  of 
Europe,  being  commoner  in  the  northern  part  of  its  range. 

Microtus  ratticeps. — One  or  two  portions  of  skulls  and  about 
a  dozen  rami  of  the  northern  vole  were  found  in  this  cave,  and 
agree  with  recent  specimens  in  the  British  Museum.  In  a  few  of 
the  lower  jaw-bones  the  teeth  resemble  the  figure  of  M.  gregalis 
given  by  Dr.  Nehring  in  a  paper  published  in  1875,  but  the  presence 
of  intermediate  forms  between  this  and  the  typical  M.  ratticeps  makes 
it  probable  that  all  in  this  series  ought  to  be  referred  to  the  latter 
species.  Fossil  remains  of  M.  ratticeps  have  been  found  in  England 
in  the  river  deposit  at  Fisherton,  in  caves  in  Somersetshire,  and  in 
the  Ightham  fissure  in  Kent.  It  no  longer  occurs  in  Great  Britain, 
but  is  now  found  in  Northern  Europe  and  Siberia. 

Fig.  1. — Palatal  view  of  skull  of  Ochotona  {Lagomys)  pusillus. 

Fig.  2. — Dorsal  aspect  of  part  of  skull  of  Dicrostonyx  [Myodes]  torquatus. 

Fig.  3. — View  of  upper  molars  of  Dicrostonyx  {Myodes)  torquatus. 

Figs.  4-6. — View  of  lower  molars  of  Dicrostonyx  {Myodes)  torquatus. 

Figs.  7,  8. — View  of  (7)  lower  and  (8)  upper  molars  of  Lemmus  {Myodes)  kmmus. 

Microtus  arvalis. — Several  jaw-bones,  upper  and  lower,  may  be 
referred  to  this  species.  Their  upper  teeth  are  easily  distinguished 
from  those  of  M.  agrestis  by  the  character  of  the  second  molar,  but 
the  lower  teeth  of  these  two  species  resemble  each  other  very  closely. 


Dorothy  Bate — A  Bone  Cave  on  the  River  Wye.         100 

Remains  of  this  field-vole  have  been  found  in  the  Forest  Bed  and  in 
fissures  near  Frome  and  at  Ightham.  It  is  no  longer  living  in  Great 
Britain,  but  is  the  commonest  field-vole  of  Central  Europe,  its  range 
extending  as  far  as  Western  Siberia. 

Microtus  nivalis. — Two  mandibular  rami,  which  I  have  compared 
vkrith  recent  specimens  in  the  British  Museum,  are  referred  to  this 
species.  A  third  might  possibly  also  belong  to  this  vole,  but  is  too 
imperfect  to  admit  of  certain  identification.  At  the  present  day  it 
is  not  found  in  Britain,  but  inhabits  the  Alps  of  Central  Europe, 
where  it  is  not  found  at  a  lower  elevation  than  3,000  feet  above  the 
sea-level.  By  Dr.  Selys  Longchamps  it  is  said  to  occur  in  the 
Pyrenees,  and  may  possibly  also  be  found  elsewhere.  The  only 
record  of  the  fossil  remains  of  this  species  being  found  in  England 
is  that  of  Messrs.  Blackmore  and  Alston,  who  doubtfully  referred 
to  this  species  a  jaw-bone  found  in  the  river  deposit  at  Fisherton, 
near  Salisbury  (P.Z.S.,  June,  1874). 

Evotomys  (  =  Microtus)  glareolus. — Part  of  one  skull  and  several 
mandibular  rami  of  the  bank- vole  were  found  in  the  cave  earth. 
In  one  or  two  of  the  rami,  which  belonged  to  immature  animals, 
the  teeth  had  not  yet  developed  roots.  Its  remains  have  been  found 
in  the  Forest  Bed,  in  many  caves,  and  in  Pleistocene  river  deposits. 
At  the  present  day  its  range  extends  to  the  Arctic  circle. 

Lemnms  (  =  Myodes)  lemmiis. — Portions  of  five  upper  jaws  of  the 
Norwegian  lemming  were  found  in  the  earth  together  with  eight 
lower  jaw-bones,  only  one  of  which  contained  the  full  number  of 
teeth.  This  species  is  no  longer  found  in  Britain,  its  range  at  the 
present  day  being  confined  to  the  Scandinavian  peninsula  and 
Eussian  Lapland.  Its  remains  have  been  found  in  a  cave  in 
Somersetshire  and  in  the  Ightham  fissure  in  Kent. 

Dierostomjx  torquatus. — Nearly  a  dozen  well-preserved  mandibular 
rami  of  this  species  were  found,  but  only  a  portion  of  one  upper 
jaw.  The  Arctic  lemming  occurs  in  the  Pleistocene  of  England 
and  the  Continent,  but  is  now  entirely  confined  to  the  Arctic  regions. 

Ocliotona  (  =  Lagomys)  pusilbis. — Portions  of  eight  or  nine  skulls 
of  this  species  were  found  together  with  nineteen  lower  jaw-bones. 
The  remains  of  this  tailless  hare  are  interesting,  as  no  representative 
of  the  family  is  found  in  the  British  Islands  at  the  present  day. 
This  pika  now  only  inhabits  Eastern  Russia  and  Siberia.  Its  fossil 
remains  have  been  procured  from  several  other  caves  in  England  : 
at  Bleadon,  Brixham,  and  Kent's  Hole. 

Zepus  timidus  (Z.  variabilis). — Portions  of  a  skull  and  lower  jaws, 
both  retaining  teeth,  are  referred  to  this  species.  Remains  of  the 
mountain  hare  have  been  found  in  several  caves,  in  the  Mendip 
Hills,  and  at  Knockninny  and  Shandon  in  Ireland. 

Mus  sylvaticus. — Eighteen  lower  jaw  bones  and  portions  of  about 
seven  or  eight  skulls  are  referred  to  this  species,  which  is  still  found 
widely  distributed  over  temperate  Europe,  and  extending  to  Western 
Siberia  and  the  Caucasus.  Its  remains  have  been  found  in  tlie 
Forest  Bed  and  at  West  Runton,  Norfolk. 

A  great  number  of  small  limb  bones,  most  of  which  probably 

106        F.  R.  Cou'per  Heed — Salter's  Undescrihed  Species. 

belong  to  the  small  rodents,  were  found  scattered  over  the  cave 
and  buried  in  the  earth  with  the  other  remains.  Some  other 
remains  are  referred  to  the  dog,  sheep  (which  appears  to  have  been 
considerably  smaller  than  the  ordinary  domestic  variety),  a  species 
of  small  deer,  several  bones  of  Eana  temporaria,  and  three  snail 
shells,  probably  Helix  hortensis.  Dr.  Andrews  kindly  identified 
the  remains  of  birds  found  in  the  cave.  They  belong  to  five 
species,  remains  of  all  of  which  have  occurred  in  other  caves  in 
Britain.  They  are  Tardus  sp.,  probably  Turdus  viscivorus,  pigeon  sp.. 
Anas  boscJias,  Lagopiis  scoticiis,  and  Perdix  perdix. 

I  wish  to  express  my  thanks  to  Dr.  Andrews  and  Dr.  Forsyth 
Major  for  the  very  kind  and  valuable  help  I  have  received  from 
them,  especially  in  assisting  me  to  determine  the  extinct  forms, 
and  also  for  Dr.  Forsyth  Major's  kind  advice  in  selecting  those 
which  have  been  figured  in  the  text. 


Species.     III. 

By  F.  R.  CowPER  Reed,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 


Phacops  {Odontocheile)  caudatus,  var.  corrugatus,  Salter.      (PL  VII, 

Figs.  1,  2.) 
1873.     Salter :  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  93  {a  461). 

There  are  six  specimens  of  this  variety  in  the  Woodwardian 
Museum,  all  of  which  come  from  the  Woolhope  Limestone,  of 
Littlehope,  and  were  labelled  by  Salter.  Five  of  them  are  more 
or  less  perfect  head-shields,  and  the  other  is  a  pygidium  in  a  good 
state  of  preservation. 

The  head-shield  shows  the  general  characters  of  Ph.  caudatus, 
var.  a,  indgaris,^  but  the  arrangement  of  the  tubercles  on  the  frontal 
lobe  of  the  glabella  is  peculiar,  and  resembles  that  of  Ghasmops,  for 
they  form  a  V-shaped  pattern,  six  or  seven  large  tubercles  com- 
posing each  arm  of  the  V.  The  arms  of  the  V  enclose  an  angle 
of  about  30°  to  40°.  A  few  other  large  tubercles  occur  on  the 
frontal  lobe  close  to  the  V,  and  starting  from  its  apex  show  an 
obscure  radial  arrangement.  The  margin  of  the  head-shield,  where 
the  shell  is  preserved,  exhibits  an  ornamentation  consisting  of 
closely-set,  rather  coarse  granulations.  The  front  margin  is  pro- 
duced into  an  obtuse  point. 

The  main  characters  of  the  pygidium  are  similar  to  those  of  the 
typical  variety  of  Ph.  caudatus.  The  axis,  however,  shows  ten 
distinct  rings  with  a  less  distinct  eleventh  one,  and  a  short,  faintly 
annulated,  terminal  piece.  The  rings  are  less  strongly  defined  in 
the  middle,  owing  to  the  transverse  furrows  being  comparatively 
weak  in  the  middle  while  deeply  impressed  at  the  sides. 

On  the  fourth  and  seventh  axial  rings  is  a  pair  of  small  oval  areas, 
slightly   raised    above    the   general   surface  and  finely  pitted   (the 
so-called  'cutaneous  glands'  of  Salter,  op.  cit.).      There  are  faint 
1  Salter:  Mon.  Brit.  Trilob.  Pal.  Soc.  1864,  p.  51. 


F.  R.  Coxcper  Reed — Salter's  Undescribed  Species.        107 

traces  of  similar  '  glands  '  on  several  of  the  other  rings.  The  whole 
axis,  as  well  as  the  lateral  lobes,  is  also  ornamented  with  minute  pits. 
The  lateral  lobes  show  seven  distinct  pairs  of  pleurae,  ending 
abruptly  on  the  smooth  narrow  margin,  but  separated  by  strongly 
raised  ridges.  The  surface  of  each  pleura  is  excavated,  and  bears 
a  furrow,  in  front  of  which  the  surface  is  shai'ply  ridged  up. 
The  furrow  is  close  to  and  nearly  parallel  to  the  posterior 
edge  of  the  pleura.  On  the  ridge  along  the  anterior  edge  of  the 
furrow  on  each  pleura,  there  is  a  so-called  '  cutaneous  gland ' 
situated  similarly  to  those  figured  by  Salter  ^  for  Ph.  caudatus.  On 
the  first  pleura  this  gland  is  near  the  axis ;  on  the  second  it  is  near 
the  outer  extremity ;  on  the  third  it  is  placed  half-way  along  the 
length  of  the  pleura ;  and  on  the  fourth  it  is  near  the  axis.  Those 
on  the  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  pleurae  repeat  the  arrangement  of 
the  second,  third,  and  fourth.  A  few  tubercles  are  also  found 
scattered  irregularly  over  the  lateral  lobes.  The  pygidial  margin 
was  produced  posteriorly  into  an  aculeate  mucro,  but  it  is  broken 
off  short  in  our  specimen. 



Leugtli  of  pygidium         22-0  (wmws  mucro). 

Width  of  ditto     24-0 

Width  of  axis  of  pygidium  (at  front  end)         ...  8-5 

Length  of  ditto 18-0 

Affinities. — Lindstrom's  species  Fh.  ohlusa,-  from  the  Gotland 
beds,  bears  comparison  with  this  variety  of  Ph.  caudatus,  but 
though  the  furrowing  of  the  glabella  is  closely  similar,  the  V-shaped 
arrangement  of  the  tubercles  seems  to  be  absent  and  also  the 
'cutaneous  glands'  on  the  pygidium.  The  true  significance  and 
function  of  these  so-called  glands  is  at  present  unknown,  but,  if  we 
may  presume  on  our  scanty  knowledge  of  these  structures  to  make 
a  suggestion,  they  appear  to  be  similar  to  the  maculaj  on  the 
hypostomes  of  most  trilobites  which  Lindstrom^  after  a  detailed 
study  has  recently  concluded  had  a  visual  function.  It  may  be 
that  these  pygidial  structures  were  organs  of  phosphorescence. 

Encrinukus  multiplicatus,  Salter.     (PI.  VII,  Fig.  o.) 
1873.     Encrinurus   miiUiplicatuii,   Salter:    Cat.  Camb.   Sil.   Foss.  Woodw.  Mus., 

p.  51  {a  226).  ,       ,^ 

1891.  EnvriHurus  multiplicatus,  Salter  (Woods)  :  Cat.  Type  Foss.  ^^  oodw.  Mus., 
p.  144. 
The  original  specimen  is  very  imperfect,  and  consists  of  only 
a  partially  preserved  pygidium,  so  that  the  description  of  this 
species  must  be  somewhat  incomplete.  It  is  labelled  as  having  been 
found  in  the  Middle  Bala  at  Barking,  Dent,  and  is  preserved  in 
a  tough  dark-grey  limestone.  The  pygidium  has  an  elongated  and 
pointed  form  somewhat  like  E.  miUiiseymeiitatus  (Forth),  and  possesses 

>  Salter  :  Mou.  Brit.  Trilob.  Pal.  Soc,  1864,  p.  52,  woodcuts  11  and  12. 
2  Ofv.  k.  Vet.  Akad.  Forhandl.,  No.  6,  1885,  p.  41,  pi.  xii,  tigs.  3,  4,  7,  8,  and 
pi.  xiii,  lig-.  1. 

^  Kongl.  Svensk.  Vet.  Akad.  Handl.,  B.  34,  No.  8,  1901. 

108        F.  R.  Cowper  Reed — Salter'' s  Undescribed  Species. 

a  long  narrow  axis  tapering  very  gradually  to  its  posterior  extremity. 
There  are  sixteen  complete  axial  rings  of  gradually  decreasing  size, 
extending  for  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  axis,  and  followed 
by  about  twelve  much  narrower  rings  of  equal  size,  interrupted  in 
the  middle  by  a  narrow  smooth  area,  and  extending  to  the  point  of 
the  axis,  which  is  thus  segmented  along  its  whole  length. 

Only  one  of  the  lateral  lobes  is  preserved,  but  this  shows  the 
eleven  pleurae  of  which  it  is  composed,  and  is  bent  down  rather 
strongly  towards  the  posterior  end.  The  anterior  pleurEe  curve 
weakly  backwards,  but  the  posterior  ones  more  strongly,  and  the 
last  one,  which  starts  at  the  level  of  the  sixteenth  axial  ring,  runs 
back  alongside  of  the  axis  to  the  posterior  margin.  Each  pleura 
appears  to  be  provided  with  a  shallow  median  longitudinal  furrow. 

There  are  obscure  traces  of  small  tubercles  on  the  surface,  but 
the  ornamentation  is  very  indistinct. 



Length  of  pygidium       12-0 

Width  of  ditto (estimated  at)         10-0 

Affinities. — The  most  closely  allied  species  might  appear  at  first 
sight  to  be  J^.  multisegmentatus,  Portlock,^  but  the  resemblances  lie 
more  in  the  large  number  of  the  segments  than  in  the  characters  of  the 
parts  of  the  pygidium.  For  the  segmentation  of  the  axis  is  different, 
and  the  course  of  the  pleurae  is  not  the  same.  The  segmentation 
of  the  postei'ior  part  of  the  axis  more  resembles  that  of  J^.  punctatus, 
though  the  anterior  part  with  its  complete  rings  is  quite  different, 
and  is  similar  to  that  in  Portlock's  species.  As  far  as  the  axis  is 
concerned,  it  thus  seems  to  share  the  characters  of  these  two  species. 

Turrilepas  ??  ketleyanus,  Salter. 

1873.     Turrilepas  hetleyanus,  Salter:    MS.  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus., 

p.  129  {h  730). 
1891.     Turrilepas  ketleyanus,  "Woods  :  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  132. 

The  two  original  specimens  are  very  poorly  preserved  and  fi'ag- 
mentary  and  the  plates  seem  to  be  displaced  from  their  original 
position,  and  the  description,  therefore,  is  far  from  satisfactory. 
The  specimens  are  from  the  Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudley,  and 
were  presented  to  the  Woodwardian  Museum  by  Mr.  C.  Ketley. 

Diagnosis. — Two  vertical  rows  of  loosely  arranged,  alternating 
plates  of  regular  (?)  shape,  followed  above  by  a  closely  imbricated 
mass  of  irregular  plates.  There  are  four  or  fi^ve  plates  in  each  of 
the  vertical  rows,  but  their  shape  is  somewhat  doubtful,  as  their 
edges  appear  to  be  broken  in  most  cases,  but  they  seem  to  be 
transversely  oblong  (not  triangular),  with  their  upper  and  lower 
edges  sub-parallel,  and  the  outer  edge  rounded ;  they  are  also 
slightly  arched  from  side  to  side,  and  their  surface  is  marked  by  fine 
strise  parallel  to  the  outer  edge  and  by  minute  pits  and  granulations. 

'  Portlock  :  Geol.  Eep.  Loud.,  1843,  p.  291,  pi.  iii,  fig.  6.  Tornquist :  Undersokn. 
Siljans.  Trilobitf.,  1884,  p.  24,  pi.  i,  figs.  18,  19. 

F.  R.  Coivper  Reed — Salter's  Undescribed  Species.        109 

la  the  upper  mass  of  closely  packed  plates  only  the  minute  pits  and 
granulations  are  visible.  These  upper  plates  appear  to  be  triangular 
and  to  bear  a  carina. 

Remarks. — It  is  extremely  doubtful  if  this  fossil  is  the  remains 
of  a  crustacean,  and  it  has  been  suggested  with  much  probability 
that  it  represents  the  column  of  one  of  the  Anomalocystidaj.'  The 
supposed  shape  of  the  plates  in  the  double  row  cannot  be  regarded  as 
of  much  value,  owing  to  their  imperfect  condition.  It  is  unfortunate 
that  Salter  chose  to  attach  a  specific  name  to  such  exceedingly 
unsatisfactory  specimens. 


SuBULiTES  PUPA,  Salter.     (PI.  VIT,  Fig.  5.) 

1873.     Ilacrochelltis  pupn,   Salter  :  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  156 

(a  869). 
1891.     Macrochiliim pupa,  Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  106. 

There  is  one  specimen  in  the  Woodwardian  Museum  from  the 
Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudley  (Fletcher  Collection),  labelled 
Macrocheiliis  pupa  (a  869)  by  Salter.  Only  the  three  lower 
whorls  are  preserved,  and  these  show  no  ornament ;  the  two  apical 
whorls  are  broken  off.  The  shape  of  the  mouth  is  also  well  seen. 
The  regulai',  elongate,  fusiform  shell,  the  shallow  suture-line,  the 
slight  convexity  of  the  whoi'ls  and  their  want  of  ornamentation, 
the  large  body-whorl,  equal  in  length  to  about  half  the  shell,  and 
the  narrow  elongate  apertui'e,  interiorly  acuminate,  show  that  it  is 
comparable  to  Subidites  ventricosus  (Hall),^  described  and  figured 
also  from  the  Wenlock  of  Sweden  by  Lindstrora.'  It  cannot  be 
assigned  to  the  genus  Macrochilina,  on  account  of  the  shape  and 
characters  of  the  mouth  and  the  shallowness  of  the  suture-line.  This 
species  has  also  been  found  by  Professor  Hughes  in  the  Lower 
Llandovery  of  Blain  y  cwm. 



Length  of  specimen  35'0 

Estimated  length  when  perfect 40-0 

Width  of  body-whorl        18-0 

Trochus  cALYPTRiEA,  Salter.     (PI.  VII,  Fig.  4.) 

1873.     Emmphalus  calyptrcea,  Salter:  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.,  p.  157  («  862). 
1891.     Euomphalm  calyptrcea,  Woods  :  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  103. 

The  one  small  original  specimen  (a  862)  from  the  Wenlock 
Limestone  of  Dudley  is  all  the  material  we  possess.  It  is  imperfect, 
but  the  body-whorl  is  well  preserved  and  shows  the  essential 

Diagnosis.— Shell  small,  trochiform,  obtusely  conical,  of  several 
whorls  (probably  four  or  five),  which  are  sub-ventricose.  The  body- 
whorl  has  an  angulated,  rather  prominent  umbilical  edge,  and  its 
umbilical  surface  is  flattened  at  right  angles  to  the  rest  of  the  whorl, 

1  H.  Woodward:  Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  II,  Vol.  VII  (1880),  p.  193,  PI.  VI,  and 
Woodcut,  Fig.  6,  p.  197. 

2  Hall:  Pal.  N.Y.,  ii  (1852),  p.  347,  pi.  83,  fig.  7. 

»  Lindstrom  :  Sil.  Gastr.  Pter..  Gotl.,  1884,  pp.  193,  194,  pi.  xv,  fig?.  19-21. 

110      Br.  R.  S.  Traquai)' — Fifeshire  Carboniferous  Fishes. 

slightly  raised  in  the  centre  and  more  so  towards  the  aperture,  which 
appears  to  be  subcircular,  with  the  inner  lip  strong  and  thickened. 
Surface  of  whorls  ornamented  by  transverse,  obliquely  curved, 
reo-ular,  and  equidistant  lamellar  ribs.  Umbilicus  small  and 
apparently  closed. 

Kemarks. — This  form  certainly  does  not  belong  to  the  genus 
Enomplialus.  Its  whole  appearance  is  trochiform,  and  it  bears 
a  close  resemblance  to  Trochus  Stiixbergi  (Lindstrom),^  but  differs 
by  the  umbilical  surface  being  flatter,  by  the  marginal  ridge  being 
less  developed,  and  by  the  greater  strength  and  regularity  of  the 
o-rowth-lamellEe  on  the  surface.  Its  ornamentation  is  not  so 
coarse  as  in  Tr.  imdulans  (Lindstrom),-  but  the  shape  of  this  species 
and  its  umbilical  surface  are  very  similar.  The  characters  of  the 
mouth  and  umbilical  surface  distinguish  it  from  Callonema  obesum 
(Lindstrom),^  with  which  at  first  sight  it  bears  some  resemblance  in 
shape  and  ornamentation. 


j'j(j_   1. Phacops  [Odontocheile)    cauclalm,  var.  eorrugatus,   Salter.      Head-shield 

(«481),  X  1^.     Woolhope  Limestone,  Littlehope. 

PiQ.  2. Ditto.     Pygidium  («461),  x  2.     "Woolhope  Limestone,  Littlehope. 

Pifj.   3. — Emrinurus  multiplicatus,    Salter.     Pygidium    [a  226),  x  3.      M.  Bala, 

Barking,  Dent. 
Fig.  4. — Trochus  calyptrcoa,  Salter  sp.  (a  862),  x  2.     "Wenlock  Limestone,  Dudley. 
Fig.  5. — SuhuUtes jnipa ,  Salter  sp.  (^869),  x  If.     "Wenlock  Limestone,  Dudley. 

lY. Notes   on   the   Lower   Carboniferous   Fishes  of  Eastern 


By  Dr.  R.  H.  TaAauAm,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 

(Bead  before  the  Eoyal  Physical  Society  of  Edinburgh,  January  16th,  1901.) 

OT  much  has  as  yet  been  done  in  the  way  of  cataloguing  the 
fossil  fishes  of  the  Lower  Carboniferous  rocks  of  Eastern 
Fifeshire.  A  few  species  and  localities  were  noted  by  the  late 
Eev.  Thomas  Brown  in  I860*  and  by  Mr.  Kirkby  in  1880,^  and 
the  late  Mr.  Eobert  Walker  published  a  paper  in  1872  °  in  which 
he  described  what  he  supposed  to  be  a  new  species  of  Amhlypterus 
(A.  anconoeechmodiis)  from  the  Oil-shale  works  at  Pitcorthy,  near 
Anstruther.  In  this  paper  Mr.  Walker  drew  attention  to  the 
abundance  and  variety  of  fish-remains  in  the  oil-shale  and  ironstone 
worked  at  that  locality,  promising  to  describe  them  in  detail  after- 
wards— a  promise  which  he  was  never  able  to  fulfil.     After  his 

1  Sil.  Gastr.  Pter.  Gotl.,  p.  147,  pi.  xiv,  figs.  59-69  (especially  tig.  62). 

2  Op.  cit.,  p.  148,  pi.  xvi,  figs.  8-10. 

3  Op.  cit.,  p.  189,  pi.  XV,  fig.  27. 

*  "  Notes  on  the  Mountain  Limestone  and  Lower  Carboniferous  Eocks  of  the 
Fifeshire  Coast  from  Burntisland  to  St.  Andrews  "  :  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Edinb., 
vol.  xxii  (1860),  pp.  385-404. 

5  "  On  the  Zones  of  Marine  Fossils  in  the  Calciferous  Sandstones  of  Fife  "  :  Quart. 
Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxxvi  (1880),  pp.  559-590. 

6  "  On  a  new  species  of  Anillyjjterus  and  other  Fossil  Fish-remains  from  Pitcorthy, 
Fife"  :  Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  Edinb.,  vol.  ii,  pt.  1,  pp.  119-124,  with  plate. 


Decade  iV.Vol.Ym.  PI  ni. 






I  - 



2  x2 

W:;i.  . 

3    ^3 

rl . 



5  -VA 

4   >  2 



G.MWoodward  del.  et  3itK.  West.NewroariMap 

Ordovician  and  Silurian  Fossils 

Dr.  R.  H.  Traqunir —Flfcshire  Carhoniferous  Fishes.      Ill 

death  in  1881,  his  important  collection  of  fish-remains  from  tliis 
and  other  localities  in  East  Fife  was  acquired  by  the  Edinbur<'h 
Museum,  and  largely  forms  the  basis  of  the  present  list.  1  myself 
have  also  done  some  collecting  in  this  region  ;  and  a  good  many 
years  ago  the  Museum  acquired  a  number  of  specimens  collected  by 
Mr.  W.  T.  Kinnear  at  Ardross,  some  of  which  are  of  great  interest. 

The  district  in  question  is  comprised  in  sheets  41  and  49  of  the 
Geological  Survey  Map  of  Scotland.  All  the  species  here  noted 
are  from  Lower  Carboniferous  rocks,  the  horizons  represented  being 
the  Upper  part  (Oil-shale  group)  of  the  Calciferous  Sandstone  Series 
and  the  Lower  part  of  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  Series.  Here 
I  may  note  that  in  1890  ^  I  included  the  Teleostomi  and  Dipnoi 
of  the  region  in  a  list  of  the  fishes  of  these  orders  occurring  in  Fife 
and  the  Lothians,  published  by  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh. 
The  present  list,  however,  includes  the  Elasmobranchs  as  well, 
and  also  a  few  additional  species  now  described  as  new. 


1.  Pleuraeanthits  horridnl us,  Traq.     Pitcorthy. 

2.  Diplodiis  parvuliis,  Tmq.     Pitcortliy. 

3.  Cladodus  Knictispidatm,  Traq.,  n.sp.     Near  Rock  and  Spindle. 

4.  CallopristodHs  pcct'matKs  (Ag.).     Rocks  east  of  St.  Andrews  ;  Pitcorthy. 

5.  OracantJiKs  armigerus,  Traq.     Teeth,  at  Ardross. 

6.  Gyracanthns,  sp.     Rocks  east,  of  St.  Andrews  ;  Pittenweem.      Not  sufficiently 

well  preserved  for  specific  determination. 

7.  SpJioiacaiithus  serrulatus  (Ag.).     Pitcorthy. 

8.  Sphcnacajithus  Fifensis,  n.sp.     Rocks  east  of  St.  Andi-ews. 

9.  EiiphijarinithHS  semistriatus,  Traq.     Ardross. 

10.  Trinf>/f/ii/(s  ftrcxatus,  Ag.     Pitcorthy. 

11.  Ti-isti/c/i ins  minor,  Toriloc'k.     Pitcorthy. 

12.  Cynopodius  crcnulatiis,  Traq.     Pitcorthy. 

13.  Acanthodes  sulcatus,  Ag.     Ardross. 


14.  Rhlzodns  Hihberti  (Ag.).     Rocks  on  shore  cast  of  St.  Andrews  ;  Pitcorthy. 

15.  Mhizodifs  ornatns,  Traq.     Pitcorthy  ;  Pittenweem. 

16.  Strepsodm  striatulm,  Traq.     Pittenweem. 

17.  Strepmdus  minor,  Traq.     Pitcorthy. 

18.  Owlacanthopsis  curta,  n.  g.  and  sp. 


19.  Elonivhthys  Hobisoni  (Hibbert).     Pitcorthy. 

20.  Elonichthys  striatum  (Ag.).     Pitcorthy. 

21.  E/onichfhys  pecfAnatKS,  Traq.     Ardross. 

22.  R/iadinic/it/n/.s  oriiai'issimus  (Ag.).     Kiness  Burn,  near  St.  Andrews. 

23.  MddiinchtJnjs  ctriNofn^  (Ag-)-     Pitcorthy  ;  Corn  Ceres,  near  Kilrenny. 

24.  Rhadunchth'ys  hrcvls,  Traq.     Pitcorthy. 

25.  Nematopfy chins  GrecuocJd  (Ag.).     Pitcorthy. 

26.  Gonat()duspunctafus{Ag.).    Pitcorthy.    This  is  the  Amblyptcnts  auconoccchmodK.s 

of  R.  Walker. 

27.  Eurynotits  crenatiis,  Ag.     Pittenweem  ;  Pitcorthy  ;  Corn  Ceres ;  Keidy  Mouth, 

east  of  St.  Andi'ews. 

1  "  List  of  the  Fossil  Ganoidei  and  Dipnoi  ol  Fife  and  the  Lothians  "  :  Proc.  Roy. 
Soc.  Edinb.,  vol.  xvii  (1890),  pp.  385-400. 

112      Dr.  R.  H.  Traquair — Fifeslnre  Carhoniferoiis  Fishes. 


28.  Gtenodiis  interraptus,  Barkas.     Pittenweem. 

Incerta  sedis. 

29,  Eucentrurus  paradoxus,  n.  g.  and  sp.     Ardross. 

Elasmobranchii  . 

1.  Petalodus  acuminatus,  Ag.     Ladedda,  near  St.  Andrews. 

2.  Oraeanthus  armigerus,  Traq.     Largo  Ward. 

3.  Sphenacanthus  serrulatus,  K^.     Denhead  Ironstone,  Denhead,  near  St.  Andrews ► 

4.  Acanthodes,  sp.     Denhead. 


5.  Rhizodus  Hibberti  {A.g.).     Denhead. 

6.  Bhizodus  ornatus,  Traq.     Denhead. 

7.  Megaliehthys,  sp.     Denhead. 

8.  Monichthys  Bobisoni  (Rihhext).     Denhead. 

9.  Hlonichthys  pectinatus,  Traq.     Denhead. 
10.  Eurynotus  crenatus,  Ag.     Denhead. 

The  above  list  contains  all  the  species,  thirty  in  number,  which 
are  contained  in  the  Natural  History  Department  of  the  Edinburgh 
Museum  or  in  my  own  collection.  Mr,  Kirkby,  however,  records 
Ctenacanthus,  sp.,  from  near  the  Eock  and  Spindle,  and  Pcecilodiis 
obliquus,  Ag.,  from  a  marine  limestone  of  Calciferous  Sandstone  ag© 
on  the  coast  near  Randerston  Castle. 

Notes  on  Species. 

Biplodus. — I  have  found  small  Diplodus-teeth.  in  shales  on  the 
shore  at  Pittenweem,  but  which  can  hardly  be  safely  identified 
with  any  known  form  or  considered  as  new. 

Cladodus  unicuspidatus,  n.sp. — Base  flat  below,  depth  from  back 
to  front  about  two-thirds  the  width  from  side  to  side,  contour  more 
convex  in  front  than  behind.  A  single  slender  pointed  cusp  arises 
from  the  middle  of  the  front  of  the  base,  and  is  erect,  straight  when 
seen  from  the  front,  sigmoidally  recurved  when  viewed  laterally, 
covered  with  delicate  raised  ridges,  which  increase  in  number 
downwards  by  intercalation.  No  trace  of  lateral  cusps.  Height  of 
cusp  of  most  perfect  specimen  -j^  inch,  width  of  base  laterally  about 
the  same. 

Under  the  term  Mbnocladodus,  Professor  Claypole  ^  has  separated 
from  Cladodus,  Agassiz,  two  species  from  the  Cleveland  shale,  on 
account  of  the  apparent  want  of  lateral  cusps.  Allied  to  Cladodtis, 
and  also  possessing  only  one  cusp,  are  Lambdodus  and  Hyhocladodus 
of  St.  John  and  Worthen.^  The  present  teeth,  however,  agree  so 
closely  with  Cladodus  in  all  respects,  save  the  want  of  lateral  cusps 
and  the  comparatively  short  lateral  extent  of  the  base,  that  I  prefer 
leaving  them  with  that  genus  for  the  present. 

A  cluster  of  these  teeth  was  found  by  myself  many  years  ago 
in  a  septarian  nodule  on  the  shore  near  the  Eock  and  Spindle,  east 

1  American  Geologist,  vol.  xi  (1893),  p.  329. 
-  Geol.  Surv.  Illinois,  vol.  vi. 

Dr.  R.  H.  Traquair — Fifcs//ire  Caydoniferons  Fishes.      IV* 

of  St.  Andrews.  Owing  to  the  hardness  of  the  matrix  it  was 
impossible  to  work  out  the  superficial  configuration  of  the  teeth, 
except  in  two  instances  where  they  happened  to  be  covered  by 
white  carbonate  of  lime. 

Sphenacantlms  Fifensis,  n.sp.  —  Length  of  the  largest  specimen, 
5f  inches  ;  greatest  antero-posterior  diameter,  |  inch  ;  implanted 
portion  reaching  up  to  1  {;  inches  in  front  and  2£  inches  behind ; 
form  straight  and  tapering ;  posterior  area  slightly  concave,  its 
margins  showing  traces  of  abraded  denticles ;  anterior  margui  of 
exserted  portion  formed  by  a  sharp  median  ridge  ;  sides  ornamented 
by  straight  ribs  or  rounded  ridges,  which  increase  in  number 
proximally  by  bifurcation,  and  are  not  nodose. 

This  spine,  of  which  there  are  several  specimens  in  the  Walker 
Collection,  Edinburgh  Museum,  differs  from  Sph.  serrtdatiis,  Ag., 
by  the  multiplication  of  the  lateral  ribs  by  bifurcation  instead  of 
intercalation.  The  want  of  nodosity'  of  these  ribs  is  of  no  con- 
sequence, as  the  greatest  difference  occurs  in  this  respect  in  different 
individuals  of  Sph.  serrulatus,  and  also  of  the  closely  allied  Coal- 
measure  form  Sph.  hyhodoides  (Egerton).  In  a  hard  calcareous 
sandstone  from  the  coast  east  of  St.  Andrews. 

Coelacanthopsis  curta,  n.  g.  and  sp. — Of  this  interesting  fish  only 
one  specimen  has  been  obtained,  and  that  one  is  unfortunately 
deficient  at  the  caudal  extremity-  What  remains  measures  2  inches 
in  length,  and  in  this  the  length  of  the  head  is  contained  three 
times,  being  also  equal  to  the  greatest  depth.  The  head  bones 
are  crushed  and  scarcely  decipherable.  Vertebral  axis  notochordal ; 
abdominal  region  extending  for  ^  inch  behind  shoulder-girdle ;  no 
ribs  are  seen,  but  there  is  distinct  evidence  of  the  ossified  air-bladder 
characteristic  of  the  Coelacanthidse.  Neural  arches  united  with  the 
neural  spines,  which  are  long,  very  slender,  and  closely  placed  ; 
haemal  arches  and  spines  similar  in  condition  and  configuration. 
On  the  dorsal  aspect  and  just  above  the  termination  of  the  abdominal 
cavity  a  set  of  slender  interspinous  bones  commences,  these  being 
short  at  first  but  rapidly  increasing  in  length,  until  they  are  as  long 
as  the  neural  spines,  and  then  the  fish  suddenly  breaks  up  about 
2  inches  from  the  tip  of  the  snout.  Attached  to  the  distal 
extremities  of  these  interspinous  bones  are  fin-rays,  very  short 
anteriorly,  and  still  short  at  the  point  of  truncation  of  the  specimen. 
It  is  probable  that  similar  elements  existed  on  the  hernial  aspect 
of  the  skeleton,  but  have  been  lost.  Paired  fins  not  preserved, 
except  a  few  imperfect  rays  where  the  ventrals  ought  to  be. 
Indications  of  the  presence  of  scales  feeble. 

Strikingly  new  as  this  little  fish  is  specifically,  a  word  or  two 
must  be  said  as  to  its  family  and  generic  relationships.  The  ossified 
air-bladder  and  the  configuration  of  its  neural  and  hfemal  arches 
and  spines  at  once  indicate  that  its  family  position  is  in  the  Coela- 
canthidfe,  but  its  differences  from  any  known  genus  of  this  famil}- 
are  very  strongly  marked.  We  have,  firstly,  the  abbreviated  form  of 
the  fish,  which  is  certainly  not  entirely  due  to  post-mortem  shortening 
up,  as  the  skeletal  parts  in  front  of  the  place  where  the  specimen 

DECADE    IV. VOL.   VIII. — Xo.   III. 

114      Dr.  R.  H.  Traquair — Fifeshire  Carboniferous  Fishes. 

is  truncated  lie  nearly  quite  undisturbed ;  secondly,  the  great  pro- 
portional length  of  the  neural  and  hgemal  spines ;  thirdly,  ihe 
apparent  absence  of  the  two  separate  dorsal  fins  with  their  compound 
supporting  '  axonosts,'  characteristic  of  the  Coelacanthidce.  These 
may  have  been  lost  in  the  present  specimen,  but  the  tips  of  the 
neural  spines  come  so  close  up  to  the  dorsal  margin  that  there 
would  not  have  been  room  for  the  last-named  elements  if  of  the 
form  prevalent  in  the  genera  of  this  family.  Fourthly,  the  median 
fin  which  we  see  beginning  just  opposite  the  posterior  termination 
of  the  abdominal  cavity  corresponds,  in  its  relation  to  its  supporting 
elements,  to  the  caudal  of  Ccelacanthiis,  but  is  immensely  further 
forward  in  its  commencement.  It  is  unfortunate  that,  owing  to 
the  truncation  of  the  fish  shortly  after  the  commencement  of  this 
fin,  we  cannot  see  the  extremity  of  the  tail,  but  enough  is  shown 
in  the  specimen  to  prove  its  novelty,  both  specific  and  generic. 
The  acquisition  of  more  perfect  specimens  is,  however,  urgently 
to  be  desired,  as  it  is  clear  that  if  the  dorsal  fins  with  their  compound 
axonosts  are  really  wanting  in  this  form  a  change  must  be  made 
in  the  received  definition  of  the  Coelacanthidas,  as  well  as  of  the 
Actinistian  group  of  the  Crossopterygii. 

From  Ardross,  collected  by  Mr.  W.  T.  Kinneai*,  and  now  in  the 
Edinburgh  Museum. 

Eucenlrnrus  ■paradoxus,  n.  g.  and  sp. — This  extraordinary  little 
organism  measures  2f  inches  in  length,  of  which  ^  inch  may  be  allotted 
to  the  head,  f  inch  to  the  body,  and  1^  inch  to  the  tail.  The  head 
is  a  mass  of  calcareous  matter,  in  which  something  suggestive  of 
a  broad  curved  mandible  can  be  seen,  but  admits  of  no  further 
description.  The  body,  f  inch  broad  in  front,  is  composed  of  a  greyish 
film,  which  when  examined  by  a  strong  lens  is  seen  to  consist 
entirely  of  minute,  slender,  slightly  curved,  and  sharply  pointed 
spinelets.  The  tail  is  tapering  in  form,  consisting  of  amorphous- 
looking  calcareous  matter,  but  on  each  side  (assuming  that  the 
creature  is  crushed  vertically)  is  a  conspicuous  row  of  double 
spinelets  arranged  exactly  opposite  each  other.  From  a  common 
base  arise  two  spinelets,  which  ai'e  placed  close  together  and  nearly 
parallel  to  each  other ;  one  of  them,  the  anterior,  being  only  half 
the  length  of  the  posterior  one,  which  just  behind  the  body  may 
attain  a  length  of  -iVinch,  though  towards  the  end  of  the  tail  they 
become  smaller;  both  of  the  spinelets  are  slender,  slightly  curved, 
round  in  transverse  section,  smooth  externally,  sharply  pointed,  and 
traversed  internally  by  a  central  tubular  pulp  cavity.  No  trace 
either  of  internal  skeleton,  or  of  limbs,  or  fins  of  any  sort  can 
be  seen. 

This  strange  organism  is  another  of  the  problems  of  Palseozoic 
ichthyology,  as  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  indicate  its  systematic 
position  with  any  degree  of  certainty.  The  nature  of  its  dermal 
armature  would  incline  us  to  the  belief  that  it  is  a  Selachian,  though 
all  other  evidence  to  that  efi'ect  is  wanting. 

From  Ardross,  collected  by  Mr.  W.  T.  Kinnear,  and  now  in  the 
Edinburgh  Museum. 

Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — Hidory  of  Sarsens.  115 

V. — History  op  the  Sarsens. 

By  Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  etc. 

{f!o)icli(dedfromp.  59.) 

II.  (8)  iTeni.— 1862.  Mr.  W.  H.  Bensted,  in  the  Geologist,  vol.  v 
(1862),  pp.  449,  450,  states  :  "  The  Druid  Sandstone,  of  which 
Kit's  Coty  House,  Stonehenge,  and  many  other  Druidical  remains  are 
composed,  is  found  scattered  in  great  blocks  over  the  surface  of  the 
Chalk  Hills,  or  buried  superficially  in  beds  of  clay  retained  in  the 
hollows  on  the  summits  of  the  escarpments."  These  stones,  he 
added,  are  the  same  as  the  Grey  wethers  of  Berks  and  Wilts ;  and 
are  occasionally  pebbly,  like  the  Hertfordshire  Puddingstones. 

1872.  In  Fergusson's  "Eude  Stone  Monuments,"  1872,  pp.  116- 
120,  some  of  the  best  specimens  of  Sarsens  that  remain  as  relics 
of  prehistoric  monuments  in  Kent  are  noticed,  especially  those  near 
Aylesford,  on  the  Medway. 

1894.  Thomas  Wright,  in  his  "Wanderings  of  an  Antiquary, 
chiefly  in  the  track  of  the  Romans  in  Britain,"  1894,  pp.  17(5-178, 
describes  in  detail  some  large  circular  pits  that  have  been  filled 
with  flints  and  capped  with  broad  Sarsens,  on  Aylesford  Common ; 
these,  he  thought,  were  probably  sepulchral,  and  may  have  had 
a  chamber  opening  out  of  the  side  at  the  bottom. 

1900.  Some  small  Sarsens  from  the  gravel  of  the  Darent  at 
Shoreham,  in  Kent,  show  many  perforations  of  rootlets. — E..  A.  B. 

(9)  Surrey.— 1'&14:.  T.  Webster:  Trans.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  ii, 
pp.  224,  225.  At  Pirbright,  Surrey,  loose  blocks  of  stone  similar  to 
what  have  been  called  Grey  wethers.  Many  loose  masses  of  this  rock 
lie  scattered  on  the  surface  of  the  Chalk  country,  particularly  in 
Berkshire  and  Wiltshire.  Stonehenge  chiefly  composed  of  it,  and 
found  on  the  spot.  No  doubt  close  resemblance  to  the  siliceous 
cement  of  the  Hertfordshire  Puddingstone. 

1847.  J.  Prestwich.  The  position  of  the  Sarsen  Stones  in  the 
Bagshot  Sands :  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iii,  p.  382.  In  the 
Lower  Bagshot  Sands,  "  a  few  concretionary  masses  of  saccharine 
sandstone,  which  are  more  compact  and  harder  than  those  in  the 
Upper  Sands,"  and  by  no  iiieans  so  abundant.  "  Sandstone 
concretions  at  o  "  in  the  diagram,  fig.  3,  of  Frimley  Kidge,  in  the 
UiDper  Sands,  at  p.  382. 

1876.  The  Sarsens  in  the  artificially  picturesque  rockery  of  the 
waterfall  at  the  east  end  of  Virginia  Water  are  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  the  neighbouring  heath  ;  and  those  of  the  adjoining 
cavern  or  grotto  from  a  cromlech  there.  Murray's  "  Handbook  of 
Surrey,"  2nd  ed.,  p.  137. 

1895.  A  Sarsen-stone  footbridge  over  a  streamlet  at  Frimley 
Green,  Surrey,  carries  the  footpath  from  the  fields  on  one  side  of  the 
stream  that  runs  down  a  lane,  to  the  path  along  the  other  side  of 
the  little  stream,  which  runs  beside  the  lane  from  Frimley  Green, 
and  across  some  fields  to  the  border  of  Surrey  and  Hants  near  the 
Farnborough  Station.  The  length  of  the  l)ridge-stone  is  4^^  or 
5  feet;    the  width  is  about  21  feet  equally  all  along;    thickness 

116         Professor  T.  Ruperf  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

varies  from  6  to  9  inches.  The  stones  supporting  the  bridge  and 
bank  are  laid  regularly  ;  they  are  all  Sarsens,  and  others  lie  about 
irregularly.  One  lies  near  the  fence  just  beyond  the  path  on  the 
further  side  of  the  bridge. — C.  T.  E.  Jones. 

1898.  H.  W.  Monckton,  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv, 
pp.  185-193,  treating  of  some  gravels  in  the  Bagshot  district,  notes 
that  Sarsens  occur  at  the  base  of  these  gravels,  which  are  of  the 
Glacial  Period,  and  were  probably  of  fluviatile  origin.  Sarsens 
with  rootlet  marks  occur  at  Easthampstead.  He  doubts  if  any 
Sarsens  occur  in  the  Upper  Bagshots,  and  supposes  that  probably 
most  were  derived  from  the  Woolwich  and  Eeading  Sands.  All  the 
Sarsens  must  have  been  water- worn,  or  weather-worn  before  thej"^ 
were  left  in  the  gravel. 

N.B. — At  Camberley,  in  North  Surrey,  a  Sarsen  having  a  partial 
polish  on  one  of  its  sides  was  noticed,  and  the  polish  is  ascribed  to 
the  contact  and  rubbing  of  the  dried  stems  of  grasses  and  other 
plants  (with  siliceous  tissue)  moved  by  the  wind. — T,  E.  J, 

In  Buckinghamshire  Mr.  Upfield  Green,  F.G.S.,  has  observed  both 
pebbles  and  prominences  on  pudding  stones,  smoothed  and' polished, 
on  the  sides  of  water  holes,  in  the  Brickearth  near  Great  Missenden. 

1900.  Sarsen  at  Ballard's  Farm,  Croydon,  a  white  saccharoidal 
sandstone  with  siliceous  cement.  Dr.  G.  J.  Hinde  has  kindly  given 
me  the  following  notes  on  this  large  typical  Sarsen  near  Croydon, 
which  is  visited  by  geological  classes  from  London.  Its  dimensions 
are:  length  4  ft.  10  ins.  ;  width  at  one  end  2  ft.  9  ins.,  at  the  other 
2  feet ;  thickness  at  one  end  1  ft.  8  ins.,  at  the  other  11  inches,  and  at 
another  place  14  inches.  It  lies  in  a  grass  field  on  Ballard's  Farm, 
on  the  south  side  of  the  bridle-path  leading  from  Ballard's  Lodge  to 
the  Addington  Hills  ;  and  near  to  the  outcrop  of  the  sand-and- 
pebble  beds  of  the  Woolwich  and  Eeading  Series,  of  which  indeed 
it  is  probably  a  concreted  portion,  like  the  similar  blocks  in  the 
Caterham  Valley. 

(10)  Hampshire.— 18Q2.  Captain  H.  Blundell  (Staff  College) 
noticed  a  large  Sarsen  in  a  ploughed  field,  about  4  miles  from 
Winchester  and  1  mile  from  Martyr  Westley  Eectory.  It  is  12  feet 
long,  10  broad,  and  8  deep,  "  and  bears  a  strong  polish  on  a  great 
part  of  one  side,"  glaciated  or  polished  by  the  friction  of  siliciferous 
stems  of  wheat.  "  The  other  side  is  hollowed  out  apparenth^ 
by  water."  ^ 

1898.  Mr.  A.  E.  Salter  has  seen  a  Sarsen  in  the  gravel  at  Lee-on- 
the-Solent  (Stubbington) :    Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv,  p.  194. 

(11)  BerTcshire. — 1787.  Daines  Barrington  made  some  remarks 
on  the  Greywethers  in  Berkshire  {Archoeologia,  iii,  p.  442). 

1813.  In  W.  Mavor's  "  Eeport  on  the  Agriculture  of  Berkshire," 
1813,  at  pp.  34,  35.  The  Sarsen  Stones,  or  Greywethers  as  the 
country  people  call  them,  are  irregularly  scattered  over  the  Berk- 
shire and  Wiltshire  Downs.  They  are  pretty  numerous  in  a  valley 
near  Ashdown  Park  and  on  the  road  from  thence  to  Lambourn. 

1  See  also  Lieut. -Col.  Nicolls  on '*  Sarseus,"  Southampton,  1866:  Geol.  Mag.,. 
Vol.  Ill,  pp.  296-298,  PL  XIII. 

Professor  T.  Rupert  Jonea — Hkfory  of  Sarmis.  117 

1854.  T.  Eupert  Jones,  in  a  lecture  on  the  Geology  of  Newbury, 
treated  of  the  occurrence  of  "the  great  blocks  of  Druiilstone, 
■Grey wethers,  or  Sarsen-stones  as  the  onhj  remaining  wreck  of  the 
Lower  Tertiaries  of  this  area" ;  and  further  broken  up  in  the  gravel 
of  the  vicinity. 

1869.  J.  Adams,  in  a  lecture  on  the  Geology  of  Newbury 
(newspaper,  December,  1869),  referred  to  a  traditional  trace  of  an 
ancient  cromlech  near  Hangmanstone,  for  people  say  that  there 
was  a  cave  made  of  large  stones,  but  it  was  pulled  to  pieces  by 
the  farmer. 

1869.  The  Sarsens  of  Berkshire  now  existing  as  relics  of  pre- 
historic monuments,  especially  in  Wayland  Smith's  Cave,  and  the 
groups  in  Ashdown  Park,  are  the  subject  of  a  paper  by  Mr.  A.  L. 
Lewis  in  the  Trans.  Internat.  Congress  of  Prehistoric  Archseol.  at 
Norwich,  1869,  pp.  37-46.  See  also  Fergusson's  '•  Rude  Stone 
Monuments,"  1872,  pp.  121,  etc. 

1887.  Mr.  Walter  Money,  F.S.A.,  referring  to  Sarsen  Stones 
in  letters,  notes  that  a  writer  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for 
1760  mentions  that  two  Roman  milliaria  or  milestones  were  to  be 
seen  near  Aldworth  ;  and  this  statement  is  confirmed  by  Hearne, 
Rows  Mores,  and  other  authors.  "  These  milliaria  are  now  to  be 
seen"  (says  the  writer  in  the  Gent.  Mag.)  "between  Streteley 
and  Alder,  one  of  which  lies  a  mile  from  Streteley,  and  by  countrj' 
people  is  supposed  to  be  placed  by  the  Giants  (as  they  call  them)  in 
Alder  [Aldworth]  Church."  He  refers  to  the  monumental  effigies  of 
the  De  la  Beche  family.  A  few  years  ago  I  investigated  this  subject 
for  the  late  Mr.  Thompson  Watkin,  of  Liverpool,  and  found  that  one 
of  these  milliaria  stood,  not  so  many  years  ago,  between  Westridge 
Farm  (two  miles  from  Streatley)  and  Aldworth,  in  a  bank,  and 
that  it  was  a  large  Sarsen  Stone ;  and  another  I  heard  of  as  being 
seen  in  Kiddington  Bottom,  one  mile  west  of  Streatley.  One  of 
these,  I  learned,  had  been  broken  up  for  road-metal,  and  the  other 
was  said  to  have  been  taken  away  by  a  gentleman  at  Wallingford 
to  be  placed  on  his  lawn. 

Another  statement  is  that  many  years  ago  the  stone  was  taken 
from  its  original  position  by  the  side  of  the  Roman  via  from 
Westridge  to  Streatley,  and  removed  to  a  more  convenient  spot 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant,  where  probably  it  still  remains. 
This  stone,  of  Kisrantic  size,  was  removed  by  the  occupier  of  the 
farm  at  Westridge  with  a  team  of  eight  horses. 

There  is  still  a  very  large  Sarsen  Stone  by  the  side  of  the  Roman 
way  from  Newbury  to  Streatley,  between  Ilainpstead  Norris  and 
Aldworth,  which  was  probably  used  as  a  milliarium.  It  is  curious 
that  in  Brittany  and  other  places  on  the  Continent,  as  well  as  m 
England,  where  prehistoric  stone  structures  are  found,  that^there 
are  stories  of  the  imprints  of  giants'  hands  or  feet,  as  the  Friar's 
Heel  at  Stonehenge ;  and  there  is  a  story  told  at  Aldworth  at 
the  present  day,  that  one  of  these  milliaria  (that  in  Ki.ldington 
Bottom),  between  Aldworth  and  Streatley,  had  been  thrown  hitlior 
by  one  of  the  Aldworth  giants,  and  that  the  print  of  the  giant  s 

118         Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

.hand,  made  when  he  grasped  the  stone,  may  yet  be  distinctly 
seen.  This  corroborates  the  writer  of  the  account  in  the  Gent.  Mag» 
of  1760. 

Last  year,  on  going  over  the  Lambourn  Downs,  I  was  struck  by 
seeing  a  huge  Sarsen  Stone,  evidently  roughly  squared,  about  5  feet 
out  of  the  ground,  by  the  side  of  the  road.  It  has  every  appearance 
of  a  milestone  of  the  last  century ;  and  on  examining  its  face  next 
to  the  road,  I  found  that  a  flat  face  or  panel  had  been  cut  as  if  to 
receive  a  plate  or  letters ;  but  neither  Mr.  Barnes,  who  was  with 
me,  nor  myself  could  trace  any  letters  at  all.  There  is  little  doubt 
that  this  is  a  Eoman  milestone,  as  this  ancient  road  leads  direct  to 
TJffington  Castle  and  White-horse  Hill.  This  stone  is  called 
'  Hangman's  Stone,'  the  same  story  being  told  about  it  as  of  the 
Haugmanstone  near  Chaddleworth,  and  about  similar  stones  else- 
where in  England.  The  stone  (4'  6"  long,  V  wide,  and  1'  6"  high 
at  each  end)  in  Hangmanstone  Lane  is  lying  down,  but  the  Lambourn 
stone  is  vertical  as  with  ordinary  milestones.  It  is  not  known  as 
a  boundary  stone. 

There  are  a  great  number  of  Sarsen  Stones  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Ashbury,  at  the  western  extremity  of  Berks,  on  the  northern 
slope  of  the  Downs,  where  they  enter  this  county  from  Wiltshire ; 
and  it  is  singular  that  hamlets  in  this  parish  have  the  names  of 
Id-stone,  Od-stone,  and  King  -  stone  Winslow,  and  just  beyond  is 
the  parish  of  Bishop-stone  (Wilts).  Possibly  the  boundaries  of 
these  places  were  indicated  by  stones,  presumably  Sarsens,  from 
their  being  so  abundant  at  hand. 

At  Lambourn  the  boundary  wall  of  the  churchyard  is  built  of 
Sarsens ;  some  of  them  are  5  feet  in  height.  Others  are  used  as 
stepping-stones  and  for  margins  in  the  Bourn  at  Upper  Lambourn. 

Large  Sarsens  are  still  visible  close  to  some  old  churches,  as  at 
Compton  Beauchamp,  East  Shefford,  and  Merlstone,  a  tithing  of 
Bucklebury ;  and  they  may  be  remains  of  material  accumulated 
for  pagan  temples,  at  places  now  occupied  by  Christian  churches. 

"  There  was,  and  probably  is,  a  row  or  avenue  of  Sarsen  Stones 
in  Whiteknights  Park,  Eeading,  leading  to  the  Wilderness,  which 
were  said  to  have  been  supplied  by  the  Kennet  Eiver  Navigation, 
in  early  times,  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Hungerford  and 
Marlborough."— W.  M. 

1887.  J.  E.  Hedges.  There  are  many  Sarsen  Stones  collected 
by  Mr.  Hedges  for  grotto-work  at  Wallingford  Castle.  Some  are 
perforated  by  rootlet  marks. 

1887.  Numei'ous  Sarsens,  small  and  of  irregular  shape  (probabl}' 
from  the  gravel  in  the  neighbourhood),  are  arranged  around  a  flower- 
bed at  Theale  Eailway  Station. — T.  E.  J. 

Dr.  Silas  Palmer  noted  several  large  Sarsens  observable  at  Hill 
Green,  about  1  mile  west  of  Leckhampstead  Street,  which  is  6  miles 
nearly  north  of  Winterbourne,  1  mile  south-west  of  Peasemore, 
and  about  2  miles  north-east  of  Poughley  in  Welford  Wood,  and 
2  miles  north-east  of  the  Hangmanstone  in  Hangmanstone  Lane. 
These  are  cared  for  by  Mr.  Harold  Peake,  of  Westbrook  House,. 


Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — Bistort/  of  Sarsens.         119 

Boxford  ;  and  Mr.  Walter  Money  regards  tliem  as  probablj^  remnants 
of  a  chambered  Long  Room. 

1887.  In  1887  a  buried  or  subterranean  group  of  large  Sarsens 
was  discovered  by  Mr.  liobert  Walker  at  Middle  Hole,  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  north-west  of  Middle  Farm,'  about  2  miles  north  of 
Lambourn.  Mr.  F.  J.  Bennett  (of  the  Geological  Survey)  gives  the 
following  description  in  his  letters  : — 

A  large  leaning  or  nearly  prostrate  stone  at  the  top  of  the  group 
of  stones  had  probably  once  been  vertical,  but  had  fallen  down. 
The  stones  had  been  placed  in  a  round  pit-like  hole,  extending  at 
least  10  feet  north  and  south  of  the  central  stone  (once  upright). 

A  square  excavation,  more  than  20  feet  deep,  was  made,  and  some 
hundred  Sarsens  were  taken  out,  weighing  from  a  quarter  to  six 
hundredweight  each  ;  and  there  were  left  in  the  hole  some  stones  of 
from  3  to  7  tons  weight.  In  the  hole  the  stones  were  iu  three 
irregular  piles.  The  central  heap  rested  on  a  very  large  flat  stone ; 
the  others  were  at  the  two  sides.  The  intervals  were  occupied  by 
a  stiff  reddish  clay  with  pottery,  burnt  and  broken  bones,  wood- 
ashes,  and  burnt  earth.  There  is  a  large  flat  stone  lying  in  the 
valley  not  far  off. 

This  north  and  south  valley,  or  rather  combe,  in  which  this 
accumulation  of  Sarsens  was  found,  has  been  cut  down  by 
denudation  through  the  '  Chalk-rock '  and  the  '  Melbourne  Rock,' 
both  recognizable  in  the  side-slopes,  and  is  floored  with  '  chalk- 

This  does  not  appear  to  be  one  of  the  deep,  well-like  pits,  lined 
with  stones,  tiles,  clay,  or  wood,  excavated  for  the  purpose  of 
marking  boundaries  in  Roman  times.  It  may  have  been  sepulchral ; 
for  Thomas  Wright,  in  his  "Wanderings  of  an  Antiquary,  chiefly  iu 
the  track  of  the  Romans  in  Britain,"  1894,  pp.  176-178,  describes 
in  detail  some  large  circular  pits  that  have  been  filled  with  flints, 
and  capped  with  broad  Sarsens,  on  Aylesford  Common  ;  these,  he 
thought,  were  probably  sepulchral,  and  may  have  had  a  chamber 
opening  out  of  the  side  at  the  bottom.     (See  ante,  p.  115.) 

1892.  "A  trail  of  large  blocks  of  sarseustone  is  prolonged  by 
Hagbourne  village  to  a  line  about  100  feet  lower,  on  to  the  outcrop 
of  the  Upper  Greensand.  Other  slopes  along  these  Downs  exhibit 
similar  trails  of  sarseustone."  (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  xlviii, 
1892,  p.  313.) 

At  Newbury,  Sarsens  are  frequent  in  the  '  pitched  '  crossings  of 
pavements  at  openings  of  yards;  some  are  paved  with  squared  setts. 
Worn,  subangular,  small  Sarsens  are  plentiful  in  the  gravel-pit 
south  of  the  town. — T.  R.  J. 

189G.  W.  Whitaker  refers  to  the  Sarsens  at  Streatley  :  1  roc. 
Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xiv,  p.  175. 

(12)    Wiltshire.— 17(^7.     Sir  Joseph  Banks,  in  his  "Journal  ot  an 
Excursion  to  Eastbury  and  Bristol,  etc.,  in  May  and  June,  17G< 
(reproduced  with  notes  by  S.   G.  Perceval  in  the  rroceedings  ot 

1  Eeferred  to  at  p.  149  of  pt.  i.  1SS6. 

120         Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarseiis. 

the  Bristol  Naturalists'  Society,  new  series,  vol.  ix,  pt.  i,  1898), 
refers  to  the  Sarsen  Stones  as  follows  :  "  Observed  between  Silbury 
and  Marlborough  the  Stones  called  Grey  weathers,  which  in  one 
particular  valley  were  scattered  about  in  great  numbers  on  the 
surface  of  the  ground.  The  people  in  that  neighbourhood  were 
breaking  great  numbers  of  them,  either  to  mend  the  roads  or  build 
houses,  which  gave  me  an  opportunity  of  examining  them  and 
bringing  away  some  pieces,  which  I  found  to  be  of  a  very  hard 
and  fine-grained  Sand  Stone.  Whether  it  is  found  in  beds  in  any 
part  of  this  countrey  I  will  not  venture  to  say,  but  remember  that 
some  time  ago,  in  seeing  General  Conway's  place  near  Henley 
[Oxfordshire],  I  saw  a  large  heap  of  such  stones,  some  of  them  of  an 
immense  size ;  and,  on  asking  where  they  were  got  from,  was  told 
that  they  were  found  scattered  all  over  that  countrey,  lying  on  the 
stratum  over  the  Chalk  at  different  depths,  and  that  those  I  saw  had 
been  got  togethei*,  at  a  large  expence,  for  some  work  to  be  done  in 
the  General's  grounds — I  think  a  bridge." 

N.B. — This  heap  of  large  Sarsens  must  not  be  confused  with  the 
dolmen  from  Jersey  reconstructed  by  General  Conway  in  his 
grounds  in  the  same  locality,  for  the  latter  was  necessarily  only 
of  granitic  and  such  like  rocks,  native  to  Jersey.  See  also  "  The 
Channel  Islands,"  by  W.  T.  Austin  &  E.  G.  Latham,  1862; 
J.  Fergusson's  "Rude  Stone  Monuments,"  1872,  pp.  51,  52;  and 
W.  C.  Lukis  in  the  Trans.  Internat.  Congress  Prehistoric  Archasol. 
Norwich,  1869,  p.  221. 

1833.  In  the  Gentlemari's  Magazine,  vol.  ciii,  p.  542,  is  a  notice 
of  a  paper  read  by  Dr.  G.  T.  Clark  to  the  Bristol  Philosophical 
Society,  in  which  he  alludes  to  the  "  Grey  weathers "  as  being 
"  scattered  over  the  Chalky  Downs  of  Wiltshire." 

1863.  W.  H.  Hudleston,  in  the  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  vii,  p.  138, 
gives  a  succinct  account  of  the  four  kinds  of  stones  that  constitute 
the  concentric  rings  of  Stonehenge.  The  huge  Sarsens  composing 
the  outer  ring  he  described  as  consisting  of  a  compact  quartzose 
rock,  derived  from  the  Tertiary  Sands.  "  These  are,  in  fact,  siliceous 
doggers  or  concretionary  slabs  of  enormous  size,  which  have  hardened 
in  situ  [in  their  original  beds],  and  have  resisted  the  atmospheric 
agencies  of  destruction.  Several  fragments  were  picked  up  of  this 
material,  which  seemed  to  bear  the  marks  of  roots  or  something 
of  the  sort.  It  is  by  no  means  improbable,  therefore,  that  the 
decomposition  of  vegetable  matter,  and  consequent  formation  of 
humus,  and  the  various  organic  acids  which  arise  from  its  gradual 
alteration  into  carbonic  acid,  may  have  had  something  to  do  with 
the  concretionary  action.  The  influence  of  these  organic  acids  on 
silica  has  been  the  subject  of  interesting  investigations  in  America." 

1871.  Dr.  Joseph  Stevens,  "On  the  Geology  of  North  Hamp- 
shire," mentions  the  occurrence  of  a  Greywether  grindstone  at 
St.  Mary  Bourne,  Wilts.  (Trans.  Newbury  District  Field  Club, 
vol.  i,  p.  86.) 

1874.  C.  E.  Davy,  in  a  paper  contributed  to  the  Newbury 
District  Field   Club,    "Letcombe   Castle,"    1874,  p.  23,  describes 


Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — Il'n^fory  of  Sarsen^.  Til 

a  naturally-shaped,   angular,    pyi-amidal,   water-worn  fragment   of 
Sarsen  Stone  as  a  prehistoric  sacred  stone. 

1876.  A  critical  account  of  the  lithology  of  Stonehenge,  by 
N.  Story  Maskelyne,  was  published  in  the  Wilts  Archaiol.  Nat. 
Hist.  Soc,  Mag.,  vol.  xvii,  pp.  149,  etc. 

1881.  With  regard  to  the  carrying  and  raising  large  blocks  of 
stone,  the  late  Dr.  V.  Ball  gave  details  and  an  illustrative  plate  of 
the  method  used  among  the  hill-tribes  of  India.  ("  Economic  Geology 
of  India,"  1881,  p.  544,  pi.  viii ;  see  also  note  in  Pt.  i,  188G,  p.  125.) 

1887.  In  a  Reading  newspaper  (July  29,  1887)  it  was  stated 
that  at  Wardour  Castle  "  the  picturesque  grounds  are  ornamented 
with  a  pretty  grotto  and  rockery,  constructed  from  a  number  of 
curious-shaped  stones,  which  formed  a  prehistoric  circle  at  Totbury," 
said  to  have  been  at  or  near  Place  Farm.  This  circular  work  is 
recorded  as  having  had  a  large  central  stone,  12  feet  high  and  4  feet 
wide.  (Britton's  Topog.  and  Hist.  Descript.  Wilts,  1814 ;  and 
W.  H.  Jones,  Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  vii,  1863.) 

1887.  The  Stones  of  Stonehenge  were  the  subject  of  Mr.  W. 
Whitaker's  remarks  in  the  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  ix,  p.  530. 
'•  Dividing  them  roughly  into  two  sets,  the  natives  and  the  foreigners 
{the  former,  of  course,  being  the  bigger),  the  latter  are  mostly  of 
igneous  rocks,  and  must  have  been  brought  from  a  long  distance ; 
the  largest  of  these,  the  altar  stone,  is  a  sandstone,  but  unlike  any 
sandstone  of  the  neighbourhood.  The  natives  are  all  greywether- 
sandstone,  or  Sarsen  stones  which  have  been  shown  to  be  derived 
from  some  of  the  older  Tertiary  beds,  here  probably  from  the 
Bagshot  Sand,  which  in  these  western  parts  comes  nearer  to  the 
Chalk  than  further  east.  Their  occurrence,  therefore,  points  to 
a  vast  denudation  of  Tertiary  beds,  masses  of  clays  and  sands,  tliat 
once  spread  far  and  wide  over  the  now  bare  plateau  of  Chalk, 
having  been  slowly  swept  away,  leaving  behind  only  those  hardened 
parts  of  the  sands,  that  could  withstand  the  denuding  agents,  as 
witnesses  of  the  former  extension  of  the  beds." 

1890.  Treating  of  some  constructions  by  a  prehistoric  (Neolithic) 
people  in  Wiltshire,  Mr.  F.  J.  Bennet  alludes  to  the  abundant  local 
occurrence  of  Sarsens  ("Sketch  History  of  Marlborough  in  Neolithic 
Times,"  March,  1892,  pp.  4,  8).  He  also  indicates  how  Sarsens  were 
used  by  the  Neolithic  folk  in  the  boundary  walls  of  the  terraces  of 
cultivatable  ground  in  Wiltshire.  That  they  were  used  afterwards 
in  the  building  of  houses,  castles,  churches,  etc.,  is  well  known. 

1894.  Pebbles  and  flint-breccia  in  some  Sarsens  from  Marlborough 
Forest  in  Professor  Prestwich's  collection,  seen  July,  1S94. 

1896.  From  Avebury  a  white  saccharoidal  sandstone,  with 
siliceous  cement,  and  containing  an  irregular,  coarse,  brush-like 
group  of  sub-parallel,  tubular,  and  filamentous  cavities,  probably 
due  to  rootlets,  stained  with  iron  oxide. — F.  Chapman. 

1901.  The  block  that  fell  this  Winter  at  Stonehenge  contains 
a  layer  of  flints.  It  is  No.  17  L  (the  lintel)  of  the  map  of  Stonehenge 
by  the  Archaeological  Society  of  Wiltshire.  —  W.  Cunmugtou, 
January  9,  1901. 

122         Professor  T.  Riiperi  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

(13)  Dorset. — 1842.  J.  Sydenham  :  "  Baal  Durotrigensis  : 
A  Dissertation  on  the  Antient  Colossal  Figure  at  Cerne,.  Dorset- 
shire, etc.,"  1842.  In  a  footnote  at  p.  18,  the  Sarsens  at  Little 
Mayne  (referred  to  at  pp.  136  and  161  of  ray  paper  in  the  Wilts 
Mag.,  1886)  are  recognized  as  relics  of  circles  and  parts  of  avenues. 

1871.  E.  H.  W.  Dukin,  "  Megalithic  Eemains  in  South  Dorset," 
in  the  Eeliq.  Quart.  Archeeol.  Journ.  and  Review,  1871, 
pp.  12-15  (separate  copy),  refers  to  the  stones  at  Little  Mayne. 
Mr.  C.  Warne  also  (1872)  notices  those  old  stones  in  his  "  Antient 
Dorset,"  quoting  Sydenham's  "  Baal  Durotrigensis." 

1871.  Poxwell,  Pogswell,  or  Pockswell,  is  a  village  about 
5  miles  north-east  of  Weymouth,  on  the  Wareham  Road,  and  at 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  south-east  of  the  church  is  a  small  circle 
of  rough  Sarsens,  brown  in  colour,  with  much  quartz-crystals  in 
cavities.  The  stones  are  much  split  on  the  surfaces  in  squarish 
irregular  segments,  with  something  like  gaping  fissures.  (Dukin, 
1871,  and  T.  R.  J.  1887.) 

Amongst  the  Sarsens  of  Dorset,  many  of  them  now  relics  of 
ancient  structures,  but  originally  scattered  over  the  surface  of  the 
country,  there  are  evidently  many  conglomerates.  The  grooved, 
or  probably  holed  and  broken,  stone  at  Tennant  Hill  Circle,  consists 
of  a  "hard  puddingstone  or  conglomerate"  (Dukin,  1871,  p.  12). 
The  circle  at  Winterbourne  Abbas  is  described  (ibid.,  pp.  4  and  5), 
partly  after  Stukeley ;  and  it  is  stated  there  are  "  ten  stones  of 
a  very  hard  sort,  full  of  flints  ;  the  tallest  to  west  eight  feet  high, 
the  north  seven  feet  broad,  six  feet  high  "  (op.  cit.,  p.  5).  The 
usual  ridiculous  belief  in  devil  handiwork  still  exists  in  Dorset 
and  Cornwall  (op.  cit.,  p.  9). 

1887.  At  Fordington  Green,  Dorchester,  at  the  east  end,  at  the 
corner  of  a  house  bearing  the  Ordnance  Survey  Bench-mark,  is 
a  Sarsen ;  the  top  is  three-faced  (4  feet  where  widest,  and  2  ft.  7  ins. 
high),  the  sides  rounded.  This  stone  some  people  removed  not  very 
long  ago,  but  others  had  it  brought  back  and  replaced. — T.  R.  J. 

(14)  Somerset. — 1888.  Many  Sarsens  in  the  country  around 
Taunton  along  the  roads  and  lanes,  and  in  villages  at  corners,  farm- 
gates,  etc. 

In  the  Castle  grounds  at  Taunton,  in  the  gardens  of  the 
Archaeological  Society,  there  is  a  Sarsen  that  has  been  set  up  as 
a  memorial  stone  to  one  of  their  officers.  It  is  somewhat  triangular 
in  outline,  4  ft.  6  ins.  high,  and  6  ft.  2  ins.  at  its  widest  part  near  the 
base.  Smoothly  rounded  and  irregularly  pitted  on  one  face,  and  flat 
(apparently  split)  on  the  other.  It  bears  a  tablet  with  inscription 
to  the  memory  of  W.  A.  Jones,  who  was  Secretary  to  the  Society  for 
20  years.  It  also  refers  to  the  donation  for  buying  the  grounds  for 
the  Society,  made  by  the  friends  of  Mr.  W.  A.  Jones. — W.  Bidgood. 

1888.  Numerous  Sarsens  are  passed  on  the  road  from  Taunton 
for  about  10  miles  to  Staple  Fitzpaine,  where  in  a  hedge-bank  are 
several  such  stones,  one  of  which,  5  feet  long,  and  4  feet  high  or 
thick,  above  ground,  with  its  surface  rounded  and  water-worn,  is 
locally  known  as  the  '  Devil's  Stone  ' ;  for,  having  knowledge  of  the 

Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — Iltsfori/  of  Sarseus.  12'5 

intended  building  of  a  cliuvch  there,  be  gathered  a  few  rocks  as  he 
came  thither,  but,  getting  tired,  slept  on  the  bank,  until  he  awoke 
in  the  morning,  and  to  his  astonishment  saw  the  fine  tower  of  the 
church  already  up  and  finished.  In  his  hurry  to  get  up,  his  satchel 
broke,  the  stones  fell  out,  and  one  in  particular  remains  there  now ! 
This  is  the  most  western  of  the  Sarsens  that  I  know  of. — T.  R.  J. 

The  microscopic  structure  of  a  piece  of  one  of  the  blocks  at  or 
near  Staple  Fitzpaiue,  which  had  the  appearance  of  a  Sarsen,  is  thus 
described  by  Mr.  Fred.  Chapman,  A.L.S. :— "  This  rock  is  largely 
composed  of  angular  and  subangular  chips  of  quartz  and  chert, 
cemented  by  a  kind  of  paste  of  fine  quartz  sand  and  limonite. 
The  included  fragments  are  very  variable  in  size,  the  angular 
predominating  over  the  subangular.  A  fair  proportion  of  the 
fragments  are  of  secondary  quartz ;  some  clear,  others  with  strings 
of  gas-cavities.  There  are  a  few  chips  of  a  somewhat  brecciated 
rock,  not  unlike  a  decomposed  rhyolite  in  character.  There  is  at 
least  one  fragment  of  flint  in  the  section  examined.  The  chert 
fragments,  possibly  of  Cenomanian  age,  contain  a  few  examples  of 
Globigerina  cretacea.  One  of  the  larger  pieces  included  in  this 
Sarsen  (?)  is  a  chert,  crowded  with  Radiolaria,  in  a  generally  good 
state  of  preservation,  some  of  the  organisms  bearing  long  spmes 
beset  with  smaller  spines.  Dr.  G.  J.  Hinde,  who  has  been  good 
enough  to  examine  the  slide,  thinks  that  there  is  not  enough 
evidence  for  the  identification  of  genera,  but  that  the  chert  is  most 
probabl}'  of  Palceozoic  age." 

1888.  In  the  Museum  of  the  Bath  Institute  I  saw  a  somewhat 
water-worn  block  of  light-coloured  saccharoidal  sandstone,  looking 
very  much  like  a  Sarsen;  chips  of  this  stone  show  an  ochreous  tint 
and  siliceous  cement.  The  Rev.  H.  H.  Winwood,  F.G.S.,  Honorary 
Curator  of  the  Museum,  informs  me  that  it  came  from  the  Victoria 
Gravel-pit,  on  the  right  of  the  Somerset  and  Dorset  Railway,  where 
the  road  crosses  the  line  at  South  Hill.  It  measures  33  inches  in 
length,  16  inches  where  it  is  broadest,  and  4  to  7  inches  in  thickness. 
With  other  similar  blocks  it  lay  at  the  base  of  the  gravel  on  the  blue 
Lias  clay.  At  first  he  was  inclined  to  regard  it  as  having  been 
derived  from  the  Millstone  Grit  of  the  Wick  and  Bristol  district ; 
but  he  has  since  seen  sarsenic  pebbles  and  blocks  in  the  Gravel,  and 
he  noticed  a  large  Sarsen  at  the  Westbury  Ironworks.  Near  Uown- 
head,  in  the  Mendips,  he  has  observed  numerous  siliceous  blocks 
having  the  appearance  of  Sarsens;  but  others  just  like  them  lying 
on  the  north  slope  of  the  Mendips  at  Ashwick,  contain  Liassic  fossils. 
Great  caution,  therefore,  is  necessary  in  determining  these  somewhat 
similar  siliceous  blocks  of  Pala30zoic,  Secondary,  and   lertiary  age 

respectively. — H.  H.  W.  ,     ,  •    i  ^  j 

(15)  Devon.— In  1822  Dr.  Buckland  described  the  large,  isolated, 
siliceous  blocks,  scattered  about  on  the  hills  near  Sidmouth,  as  being 
much  like  the  Hertfordshire  Puddingstone,  but  having  the  mcliuiecl 
flint  "mostly  angular"  and  not  rounded.  In  182G  he  referred  to 
these  in  Devon,  and  others  in  Dorset  and  elsewhere,  as  being  tne 
same  as  the  recognized  Greywethers.  (Trans.  Geol.  Soc,  ser.  ii, 
vol.  ii,  pp.  12G,  127.) 

124         Professor  T.  Rupert  Jones — History  of  Sarsens. 

Bibliographic  List  of  Works  treating  of  Sarsens, 
Corrected,    Enlarged,    and    Continued   from   the    Wilts   Mag.,    1886, 

pp.  153,  154:. 

1644.     Richard  Symonds'  Diary  of  the  Marches  Ivcpt  by  the   Royal   Army,  etc. 

Edited  by  C.  E.  Long  for  the  Camdeu  Society,  1859,  p.  151. 
1656-84.     John  Aubrey's  Nat.  Hist.  Wiltshire.    Edited  by  J.  Brittou,  1847,  p.  44. 
1656-84.     John  Aubrey.     The  Topographical  Collections,  etc.,  by  J.  E.  Jackson, 

1862,  p.  314. 
.1673.     Marlborough    Corporation    Accounts,    by    F.   A.    Carriugton.      Wiltshire 

Archasological  and  Natural  History  Society's  Magazine,  vol.  iii  (1857), 

p.  111. 
1787.     Daines  Barrington.     Archa3ologia,  vol.  viii,  p.  442. 

1813.  W.  Mavor.     Report  on  the  Agriculture  of  Berkshire,  pp.  34,  35. 

1814.  T.  Webster.     Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  London,  vol.  ii,  pp.  224,  225. 

1819.     G.  B.  Greenough.     Critical  Examination  of  the  First  Principles  of  Geology, 

pp.  112  and  293. 
1823.     W.  Buckland.     Reliquiae  DiluviansB,  p.  248. 
1833.     W.  D.   Conybeare  and   G.   T.  Clark.      Gentleman's  Magazine,  vol.   ciii, 

pt.  2,  p.  452. 
1833.     G.  A.  Mantell.     Geology  of  the  South-East  of  England,  pp.  48-50. 
1836.     W.  Buckland  and  H.  De  la  Beche.     Trans.  Geol.  Soc,  ser.  ii,  vol.  iv,  p.  4. 
1847.     J.  Prestwich.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iii,  p.  382. 
1852-3.     W.  Cunnington.     Devizes  Gazette,  June,  1852,  and  June,  1853.     Quoted 

by  W.  Long,  Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  iv  (1858),  p.  334,  etc. 
1854.     J.  Prestwich.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.   (paper  read  May,   1853),  vol.  x, 

p.  123,  etc. 
1854.     T.  R.  Jones.     Lecture  on  the  Geological  History  of  the  Vicinity  of  Newbury, 

Berks,  p.  21. 
1858.     W.    Long.     On  Abury.      Wilts    Mag.,    vol.    iv,    p.    334,    etc,    quoting 

W.  Cunuiugton. 

1858.  A.  C.  Ramsay  and  others.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv.,  Explan.  Sheet  34,  p.  41,  etc. 

1859.  A.    C.   Ramsay   and   others.     Catal.    Rock -Specimens,    etc.,    Mus.    Pract. 

Geol.,  2nd  ed.,  p.  288. 
1859.     G.  P.  Scrope.     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  v,  p.  110. 

1859.  J.  L.  Ross  (quoting  R.  Faulkner).     Ibid.,  p.  168. 

1860.  R.  Hunt.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv.  Great  Britain,  Mining  Statistics,  p.  167. 

1861.  E.  Hull,  W.  Whitaker,  aud  others.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv.,  Explan.  Sheet  13, 

p.  47,  etc. 

1862.  H.  W.  Bristow  and  W.  Whitaker.     Ibid.,  Explan.  Sheet  12,  p.  51,  etc. 
1862.     A.    C.   Ramsay  and   others.      Catal.    Rock- Specimens,   etc.,    Mxis.  Pract. 

Geol.,  3rd  ed.,  p.  163. 

1862.  "W.  Whitaker.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xviii,  p.  271,  etc. 

1862.  "W.  H.  Bensted.     Geologist,  vol.  v,  pp.  449,  450. 

1863.  0.  Fisher.     Geologist,  vol.  vi,  p.  30. 

1864.  W.  Whitaker.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv.,  Explan.  Sheet  7,  p.  71,  etc. 

1865.  T.  Codrington.     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  ix,  p.  167,  etc 

1866.  W.  Long  (quoting  W.  Cunnington's  paper  of  1865,  which  was  not  printed 

in  full).     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  x,  p.  71,  etc. 
1866.     A.  C.  Smith.     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  x,  p.  52,  etc 

1866.  W.  T.  Nicolls.     Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  296,  etc. 

1867.  G.  Maw.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxiii,  pp.  110,  112,  113. 

1868.  J.    Adams.      Lecture   on  the   Geology  of  the   Country   around  Newbury. 

JSfeivhurij  Neivs,  December,  1868. 

1869.  A.L.Lewis.     Trans.  Internat.  Congress  Prehist.  Archteol.  for  1868,  p.  43. 
1869.     John  Adams.     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  xi,  pp.  274,  277,  etc. 

1869.  W.  Cunnington.     Ibid.,  p.  348. 

1869.  Anon.     (Stukeley's  notes.)     Ibid.,  p.  344. 

1870.  T.  Codrington.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxv,  p.  535. 

1871.  J.  Adams.      Trans.  Newbury  District  Field  Club,  vol.  i,  pp.  104-107,  151. 

1872.  J.  Fergusson.     Rude  Stone  "Monuments,  pp.  92,  95. 

1872.     W.  Whitaker.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  309,  323,  etc. 

A.  B.  IlHut—Tlic  A<je  of  the  Earth.  120. 

1873.     J.  Adams.     Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  X,  n.  198,  etc. 

1873.  T.  0.  Ward.     Geol.  Mag.,  Vol.  X,  p.  425. 

1874.  Joseph  Stevens.     Twenty-tirst  Auuual  Report,  Brighton  and  Sussex  Nat. 

Hist.  Soc.,  p.  14,  etc.  (read  October  9th,  1874). 
1874.     R.  F[alkner].     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  II,  Vol.  I,  p.  96. 

1874.  Bryan  King.     (Stukeley's  notes.)     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  xiv,  p.  230. 

1875.  Joseph   Stevens.     Jonrn.    Proc.    Winchester'  and   Hampshire   Scient.    Lit. 

Soc,  vol.  i,  pt.  4,  p.  224,  etc.  (read  March  9th,  1874). 
1875.     Joseph  Stevens.     Report  of  the  Marlborough  College  Nat.  Hist.  Soc. 

1875.  T.  Rupert  Jones.     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  II,  Vol.  II,  p.  588. 

1876.  T.  Rupert  Jones.     Ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  523. 

1876.     N.  Story  Maskelvne.     Wilts  Archajol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  Mao-.,  v„i.  ^vii 

p.  149. 
1876.     E.    T.    Stevens.       Jottings     on     Stonehcuge,     etc.     (i)rivatclv     printed). 

pp.  128,  205,  etc.  ^  i  -      i  /. 

1876.     W.  Long  (([uoting  Symonds,  1G44).     Wilts  Mag.,  vol.  xvi,  p.  68,  etc. 
1876.     H.    B.     Woodward.      Geologv   ot    England   and  Wales,    pp.    252,    363 ; 

2nd  ed.  (1887),  p.  449. 
1878.     A.  C.  Ramsay.     Phys.  Geol.  Geogr.  Gt.  Brit.,  5th  ed.,  p.  350. 
1878.     T.  Rupert  Jones,     trans.  Newbury  Dist.  Field  Club,  vol.  ii,  p.  248. 

1880.  A.  Irving.     Nat.  Hist.  Sandhurst,  pp.  80,  87. 

1881.  J.  A.  Phillips.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xxsvii,  p.  18. 

1881.  T.  Rupert  Jones.     Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  vi,  pp.  330,  436-7. 

1882.  A.  Geikie.     Textbook  of  Geologv,  p.  342  ;  2nd  ed.  (1885),  p.  329. 

1883.  W.  H.  Hudleston.     Proc  Geol."  Assoc,  v(d.  vii,  p.  138. 

1884.  A.  C.  Smitli.     Guide  to  the  Antiquities  of  North  Wilts,  pp.  27,  28,  127-9, 

134,  150,  211. 

1885.  W.  Carruthers.     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  Ill,  Vol.  II,  p.  361,  etc. 

1884.  A.  Irving.     Report  Brit.  Assoc.  Meeting  in  1883,  p.  505. 

1885.  A.  Irving.     Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  viii,  pp.  156-160. 

1885.  W.  Whitaker.     Geology  of  the  Country  around  Ipswich,  Hadleigli,   and 

Felixstowe,  pp.  9,  15,  16,  94,  etc.     Mem.  Geol.  Surv. 

1886.  T.  Rupert  Jones.     Historv  of  the  Sarsens.    Wilts  Arclneol.  and  Nat.  Hist. 

Soc.  Mag.,  No.  68,  December,  1886,  vol.  xxiii,  pp.  122-154. 
1887-     A.  Irving.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  voL  xliii,  p.  380. 

1887.  W.  Whitaker.     Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  ix.  p.  53(i. 

1888.  T.  G.  B(mney.     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec  III,  Vol.  V,  p.  UW. 

1891.     H.  B.  Woodward.     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  Ill,  Vol.  VIII,  pp.  101-121. 
1894.     J.    Prestwich's   Collection.     Conglomerate   and   Flint  ]5rcccia  from  Marl- 

1896.  W.  V,''hitaker.     Proc.  GeoL  Assoc,  vol.  xiv,  p.  175. 

1897.  Percy  Richards.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liii,  pp.  421,  426. 

1897.  A.  Irving.     Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xv,  p.  196. 

1898.  A.  Irving.     Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xv,  p.  236. 

1898.  A.  E.  Salter.     Quart.  .lourn.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv,  p.  194. 

1898.  H.  W.  Monckton.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv,  pp.  185-193. 

1898.  W.  Whitaker.     Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv,  j).  193. 

1898.  W.  H.  Shrubsole.     Quart.  Jom-n.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  liv,  p.  194. 

1900.  H.  W.  Monckton.     Proc  Crovdon  ^Micros,  and  Nat.  Hist.  Club,  p.  xv. 

1900.  T.  E.  Lones.     Trans.  Herts  Nat.  Hist.  Soc,  vol.  x,  pp.  160,  162. 

1900.  II.  B.  Woodward.     Geol.  Mao.,  Dec  IV,  Vol.  VII,  p.  543. 

1901.  J.  W.  Judd.     Geol.  Mag.,  Dec  IV,  Vol.  VIII,  p.  1. 

VI. — The  Age  of  the  Earth  and  the  Sodium  of  the  Sea.' 
By  Arthuk  R.  Hunt,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

PROFESSOR  J.  JOLY,  iu  his  interesting  paper  estimating  the 
geological   age   of   the   earth   from    the    amount    of   sodium 
contained  in  the  sea,'  mentions  in  an  appendi.K  seven  possible  errors 
which  may  render  his  estimate  a  minimum,  and  seven  others  which 
may    render    it   a   maximum.     Neither   among    the    former   errors 
'  Trans.  Rov.  Dublin  Soc,  vol.  vii  (1399),  p.  23. 

126  A.  R  Hunt— The  Age  of  the  Earth. 

guarded  against  in  the  appendix,  nor  in  the  body  of  the  paper, 
does  there  appear  any  reference  to  the  possibility  of  sea- water  being 
absorbed  by  the  surface  rocks  of  the  globe,  either  by  capillary 
attraction,  as  maintained  by  Daubree,  or  by  means  of  fissures,  as 
contended  by  De  la  Beche. 

The  possibility — nay,  the  probability — of  sea-water  obtaining 
access  to  the  deep-seated  and  heated  regions  of  the  globe  was 
admitted  by  Lyell,  De  la  Beche,  and  Daubree,  and  by  other 
eminent  geologists ;  and  although  to  a  large  extent  neglected  at  the 
present  time,  the  arguments  in  favour  of  the  hypothesis  seem 
worth  considering. 

My  own  attention  was  attracted  to  the  subject  as  follows  : — From 
1879  to  1889  inclusive,  I  wrote  seven  papers  on  the  detached  blocks 
which  lie  strewn  on  the  bottom  of  the  English  Channel.  The 
primary  object  of  the  enquiry  was  to  ascertain  whether  the  blocks 
represented  a  prolongation  of  the  Dartmoor  granite,  as  commonly 
supposed,  and  whether  they  were  in  any  way  related  to  the  meta- 
morphic  rocks  of  the  neighbouring  headlands  of  the  Start,  the 
Prawle,  and  the  Bolt. 

I  commenced  the  investigation  in  the  full  expectation  that  the 
connection  with  Dartmoor  would  be  proved  at  once. 

I  secured  thirty-four  crystalline  rocks  from  the  Channel,  and 
a  large  collection  from  Dartmoor.  Not  a  single  speck  of  tourmaline 
or  crystal  of  chloride  of  sodium  did  I  detect  in  the  twenty  granites 
and  gneisses  from  the  Channel ;  while  not  a  single  slice  from 
Dartmoor  failed  to  indicate  chlorides,  and  very  few  of  the  Dartmoor 
rocks  from  which  they  were  cut  (if  any)  were  without  tourmaline. 
The  fluid  inclusions  in  the  Channel  rocks  were  of  a  different  type 
from  those  in  the  Dartmoor  rocks.  The  two  series  of  rocks  seemed 
absolutely  distinct. 

This  most  unexpected  result  greatly  excited  my  curiosity,  and 
I  sought  to  find  some  explanation.  Finally,  in  1889,  I  hazarded  the 
suggestion  that  sea-water  had  gained  access  to  the  Dartmoor  granite 
in  Carboniferous  times ;  and  in  1892,  after  an  examination  of  the 
South  Devon  schists,  I,  for  entirely  different  reasons,  threw  out 
the  suggestion  that  they  also  had  been  influenced  by  the  presence  of 
sea- water  during  their  metamorphosis. 

These  suggestions  were  not  only  almost  universally  rejected  by 
geologists,  but  they  caused  considerable  umbrage,  so  I  discontinued 
the  enquiry,  and  put  away  my  microscope. 

However,  before  bringing  my  own  work  to  a  conclusion,  I 
examined  the  older  authorities,  and  found  that  both  Lyell  and 
De  la  Beche  maintained  the  hypothesis  that  sea-water  reached  the 
heated  rocks,  and  that  subsequently  the  late  Mr.  J.  A.  Phillips  and 
M.  Daubree  were  of  the  same  opinion ;  and,  strange  to  say,  they  all 
had  different  reasons  for  their  belief.  My  own  conclusions  were  also 
based  on  entirely  independent  evidence ;  and,  indeed,  so  far  as 
appears  from  the  records,  all  the  observers  thought  out  the  problem 
independently  from  different  points  of  view.  Lyell  relied  on  the 
steam  emitted  by  volcanoes,  De  la  Beche  appealed  to  his  mineral 

A.  E.  Hunt— The  Age  of  the  Earth.  V27 

veins,  Phillips  pointed  to  hot  salt-springs  transforming  the  rocks  at 
considerable  though  accessible  depths,  Daubree  relied  on  experiment, 
while  I  have  been  impressed  by  the  characteristics  of  the  vein  rocks 
of  Dartmoor  with  their  abundant  sodium  (as  chloride  and  silicate), 
and  with  the  chlorite,  amphibole,  and  albite  of  the  green  schists. 

The  conclusions  of  De  la  Beche  seem  the  most  noteworthy,  seeing 
that  he  was  necessarily  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  the  vein  rocks  of 
Devon  and  Cornwall  are  charged  with  salt  and  brine.  In  1839 
that  acute  observer  wrote — "There  is,  therefore,  nothing  imreason- 
able  in  supposing  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  Cornish  and  Devon 
fissures,  now  wholly  or  in  part  filled  up,  were  opened  either  beneath 
the  sea  or  in  such  situations  that  portions  of  them  were  so  placed 
that  it  entered  freely  into  them  "  (Eeport  on  Geology  of  Cornwall 
and  Devon,  p.  378).  Subsequently  De  la  Beche  cites  an  instance 
of  water  filtrating  through  hard  basalt,  filling  its  internal  cavities 
with  liquid,  and  setting  iip  crystallization  of  '  mesot3'pe  '  (loc.  cit., 
p.  392).  In  1851  De  la  Beche  touches  on  the  chemical  combinations 
of  the  chlorides  in  the  fissures  (Geol.  Observer,  p.  770). 

In  January,  1873,  the  late  Mr.  J.  A.  Phillips  read  a  most  interesting 
paper  to  the  Royal  Society,  which  was  subsequently  communicated 
to  the  Philosophical  Magazine.  In  it  the  author  discusses  the 
composition  and  origin  of  the  waters  of  a  salt-spring  at  Hiiel  Seton 
mine,  with  a  chemical  and  microscopical  examination  of  certain 
rocks  in  its  vicinity.  The  water  is  shown  to  be  derived  from  the 
sea,  and  to  enter  into  chemical  combination  with  the  minerals  of 
the  rocks  through  which  it  passes,  producing  brown  hornblende, 
pale-green  actinolite,  and  chlorite.  Another  salt-spring,  in  the  now 
abandoned  Huel  Clifford  mine,  was  1,320  feet  below  the  sea,  and 
issued  at  a  temperature  of  125°  F.  As  Mr.  Phillips  does  not  refer 
to  De  la  Beche,  he  seems  to  have  overlooked  De  la  Becho's  views, 
just  as  I  unfortunately  overlooked  at  first  both  De  la  Beche  and 
Phillips.  The  result,  however,  is  that  all  three  identical  conclusions 
were  arrived  at  independently,  and  all  on  different  grounds.  Had 
De  la  Beche  lived  to  learn  that  the  quartz  in  his  fissures  actually 
contained  brine  and  crystals  of  salt,  and  that  the  felspar  of  his  veins, 
instead  of  being  the  orthoclase  of  the  main  mass,  was  triclinic,  and 
more  or  less  a  soda-felspar,  he  would  have  realized  with  what 
unerring  sagacity  he  had  hit  his  mark. 

In  1880  Daubree  published  his  invaluable  '■  Geologie  Experi- 
nientale,"  of  which  work  the  third  chapter  is  headed—"  Experiences 
sur  la  possibilito  d'une  enfiltration  capillaire  au  travers  des  matiores 

Daubree  shows  experimentally  that  bottom  heat  greatly  accelerates 
the  passage  of  water  through  rocks  in  the  face  of  a  strong  counter- 
pressure  of  steam.  He  incidentally  admits  that  such  water  may 
be  salt  water,  and  that  it  would  be  capable  of  producing  great 
mechanical  and  chemical  effects.  But  this  is  incidental ;  his  object 
is  to  explain  the  origin  of  volcanic  steam,  not  to  follow  up  the  new 
combinations  of  the  sodium  which  the  steam  leaves  behind  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth. 

128         B.  B.  Newton — Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

Lord  Kelvin  '  and  Professor  Joly  agree  in  assuming  that  because 
melted  basalt  is  lighter  than  consolidated  basalt  the  chilled  surface 
of  a  lava  ocean  would  sink  :  Lord  Kelvin  further  assumes  that  all 
minerals  crystallizing  out  of  a  melted  basalt  vrould  also  sink : 
I  would,  however,  venture  to  submit  that  the  gases  imprisoned 
in  the  chilled  surface  layers  would  buoy  them  up,  and  that  a  good 
many  minerals,  lighter  than  the  magma,  on  rising  to  the  surface 
would  form  a  scum  or  slag  which,  by  blanketing  the  glowing  lava, 
would  thereby  check  radiation.  I  have  no  especial  interest  in  the 
controversy  as  to  the  age  of  the  Earth,  and  go  no  further  than  to 
suggest  that  these  points  should  be  allowed  their  due  weight  in 
the  argument. 

The  application  of  the  above  sea- water  hypothesis  to  the  cases 
of  Dartmoor  and  the  schists  is  a  somewhat  intricate  question,  and 
not  worth  discussing  so  long  as  the  main  principle  is  rejected. 

VII. — Notes    on    Literature    bearing    upon    the    Geology   of 
THE    Malay  Peninsula  ;   with   an  account  of  a  Neolithic 
Implement  from  that  country. 
By  E.  BuLLEN  Newton,  F.G.S.,  of  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History). 

IN  view  of  the  interest  lately  shown  by  geologists  and  others 
engaged  in  the  Malay  Peninsula  through  Mr.  H.  F.  Bellamy's 
discovery  of  Triassic  Lamellibranchs  in  that  area,  a  brief  account  of 
the  principal  works  on  the  geology  of  that  portion  of  South-Eastern 
Asia  may  prove  of  service.  More  particular  reference  will  be  made 
to  the  sedimentary  rocks,  purely  mineral  papers  being  excluded 
from  consideration. 

One  of  the  earliest  records  on  this  subject  is  by  William  Jack,^ 
who  in  1822  observed  a  red  sandstone  at  Singapore  which  he  regarded 
as  "  the  chief  secondary  rock  "  of  the  district.  He  further  mentioned 
that  the  Island  of  Penang  was  entirely  of  granitic  structure.  Some- 
what later  the  following  remarks  were  made  by  J.  Crawford :  ^  "At 
Singapore  a  secondary  formation  is  discoverable,  and  varieties  of 
sandstone  and  shale  form  the  principal  rocks,  together  with  con- 
glomerate, argillaceous  sandstone  and  gray  limestone." 

In  1847  Colonel  James  Low,*  speaking  of  the  same  rock  at 
Singapore,  stated  that  "  the  sandstone  lies  immediately  under  the 
Oolitic  beds,  and  would  be  therefore  New  Eed  Sandstone."  The 
discovery  of  a  bituminous  coal  on  the  southern  coasts  of  the  Island  of 
Junk-Ceylon  off  the  Malay  Peninsula  was  reported  by  J.  K.  Logan  ^ 

'  Trans.  Victoria  lust.,  vol.  xxxi,  p.  24. 

2  W.  Jack,  ' '  Notice  respecting  the  Rocks  of  the  Islauds  of  Penang  and  Singapore ' ' : 
Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  London,  ser.  ii,  vol.  i,  pt.  1  (1822),  p.  165. 

^  J.  Crawford,  "  Geological  Observations  made  on  a  Voyage  from  Bengal  to  Siani 
and  Cochin  China"  :  Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  London,  ser.  ii,  vol.  i,  pt.  2  (1824),  p.  406. 

*  Col.  Jas.  Low,  "Notes  on  the  Geological  Features  of  Singapore":  Journ. 
Indian  Archipelago,  vol.  i  (1847),  p.  S3. 

5  J.  R.  Logan,  "Notice  of  the  Discovery  of  Coal  on  one  of  the  Islauds  on  the 
Coast  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  "  :  Quart.  Joiurn.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iv  (1848),  pp.  1,  2. 
"On  the  Local  and  Relative  Geologv  of  Singapore,  etc.":  Journ.  Asiatic  Soc. 
Bengal,   vol.   xvi   (1847),    pp.    519-557,    667-684.      "  Sketch   of  the    Physical 

E.  B.  Nen-ton — Geology  of  the  Malaij  Peninsula.         129 

during  tbc  following  year,  but  no  geological  age  was  assigned  to  the 
material.  This  author  likewise  contributed  a  number  of  papers  between 
1847  and  1851  on  the  geology  of  the  Malay  region,  dealing  more 
particularly  with  that  division  of  it  which  embraces  Singapore  and 
the  adjacent  islands.  He  observed  that  limestone,  sandstone,  and 
clays  are  the  predominating  stratified  rocks  along  the  western  coast 
from  Junk-Ceylon  to  Penang ;  and  that  argillo-micaceous  and  argil- 
laceous schists,  associated  with  sandstones  and  common  clays  and 
shales  of  various  colours,  occur  between  Southern  Selaugor  and  Johore. 

During  1879  Mr.  Patrick  Doyle'  referred  to  the  granitic  rock 
of  the  Malay  Peninsula  as  being  "  overlain  generally  by  sandstone, 
and  frequently  also  by  laterite  or  cellular  ironstone,  and  to  the 
north  by  limestone." 

In  1882  Mr.  D.  D.  Daly-  mentioned  that  "the  alluvial  tin  deposits 
permeate  the  whole  length  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula  "  ;  and  among 
other  items  of  geological  interest,  the  occurrence  of  limestone  caves 
at  Batu  in  Selangor  was  pointed  out.  The  following  year  Mr.  A.  H. 
Keane  ^  remarked  that  "  as  far  as  has  been  ascertained,  the  main 
geological  formations  [of  the  Malay  Peninsula]  would  appear  to 
be  Lower  Devonian  sandstones  and  unfossilized  clay-slates,  with 
a  basis  of  stanniferous  granite  everywhere  cropping  out.  Although 
no  trace  has  been  found  of  recent  volcanic  action,  there  are  several 
isolated  and  unstratified  limestone  masses  from  oOO  to  2,000  feet 
high,  of  a  highly  crystallised  character,  with  no  fossils  of  any  kind." 
In  the  same  year  M.  J.-E.  de  la  Croix'  alluded  to  the  presence  of 
three  groups  of  rocks  in  the  Perak  district  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  : 
(a)  the  eruptive  series,  which  constitute  the  mountain  masses  ;  (6)  the 
sedimentary  beds,  which  occur  at  intervals  in  detached  fragments ; 
(c)  the  alluvium  formation,  which  completely  covers  the  plains. 
The  sedimentary  strata  are  represented  by  sandstone  and  limestone, 
both  of  which  are  unfossiliferous  and  consequently  of  unknown  age, 
although  stated  to  be  anterior  to  the  granites,  which  are  eruptive  and 

In  1884:  the  late  Eev.  J.  E.  Tenison- Woods'^  referred  to  a  "Paleeozoic 

Geography  and  Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  "  :  Journ.  Indian  Archipela^'". 
vol.  ii  (1848),  pp.  83-138.  "  Notices  of  the  Geology  of  the  East  Coast  of  Johore  "  : 
Journ.  Indian  Archipelago,  vol.  ii  (1848),  p.  Q2o.  '  "The  Rocks  of  Pulo  Ubin "' : 
Verhandel.  Bataviaasch  Genootsch.  Kunst,  'Wotcnschap.,  vol.  xxii  (1849) 
[read  1847],  pp.  3-43.  "Five  Days  in  Nauiug"  :  Jouru.  Indian  Archipelago,, 
vol.  iii  (1849),  p.  282.  "Notices  of  the  Geology  of  the  Straits  of  Singapore": 
Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  vii  (1851),  pp.  310-344,  pi.  xviii  (=geological  map). 

1  Patrick  Doyle,  "On  some  Tin-deposits  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula":  Quart. 
Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xx.vv  (1879),  p.  229. 

^  D.  D.  Daly,  "  Surveys  and  Explorations  in  the  Native  States  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula  "  :  Proe.  Roy.  Geogr.  Soc,  n.s.,  vol.  iv  (1882),  pp.  393-412. 

^  A.  II.  Keane:  "  Malay  Peninsula,"  an  article  in  ihi' Encyelopadia  Britannica, 
9th  ed.  (1883),  vol.  xv,  p.  321. 

*  J.-E.  do  la  Croix,  "  Le  Royaumc  dePcrak"  :  Bull.  Soc.  Geogr.  Paris,  scr.  vii, 
vol.  iv  (1883),  pp.  342-348,  with  a  plate  containing  geological  map  and  sections. 

8  J.  E.  Tenison- Woods,  "  Geology  of  the  Malaysan  I'eniusula  "  :  Nature,  vol.  xxx 
(1884),  p.  76.  "  Phy.sical  Geography  of  the  Malaysan  Peninsula":  Naturr, 
vol.  xxxi  (1884),  p.  152.  "The  Geology  of  Malaysia,  Southern  China,  etc.": 
Nature,  vol.  xxxiii  (1886),  p.  231. 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  YIII. — NO.  III.  9 

130        It.  B.  Newton — Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

sandstone  clay-slate"  in  the  Malay  Peninsula  whicli  he  thought  had 
not  been  previously  noticed  ;  and  subsequently  the  same  writer 
described  the  country  as  an  elevated  granitic  axis  with  PalEeozoic 
schists  and  slates  at  its  base,  mentioning  also  the  occurrence  of 
detached  masses  of  weathered  limestone  without  fossils. 

In  speaking  of  the  gold  deposits  of  Pahang,  Mr.  H.  M.  Becher  ^ 
stated  in  18&3  that  "the  gold-quartz  formation  of  Pahang  traverses 
an  extensive  series  of  sedimentary  rocks.  ....  These  rocks, 
probably  of  Paljeozoic  age,  are  for  the  most  part  thinly  bedded 
slates  with  some  sandstones,  and  fewer  dark-coloured,  impure 
limestone  beds."  Alluvial  beds  of  modern  origin  were  also 
referred  to. 

Dr.  Koto-  followed  in  1899  with  a  brief  allusion  to  this  area, 
and,  quoting  from  a  previous  author,  mentioned  the  occurrence  of 
"  granites,  old-looking  sandstones,  and  slates,"  extending  down  to 

Finally,  the  present  writer  ^  described  and  figured  theLamellibranch 
remains  discovered  by  Mr.  H.  F.  Bellamy  in  a  sandstone  obtained  on 
the  Pahang  Trunk  Eoad  near  the  Lipis  Eiver.  A  study  of  this  fauna 
proved  it  to  be  of  Upper  Triassic  age  (  =  Ehaetic),  the  matrix  being 
termed  a  '  Myophorian  Sandstone,'  on  account  of  the  prevalence 
of  the  genus  Myophoria.  These  shells,  the  first  recorded  fossils 
from  the  Malay  Peninsula,  were  determined  as  under : — 

Chlamys  Valomensis,  Leymerie,  sp.  Mytilus  allied  to  M.  minutus,  Goldfuss. 

Fteria  Fahangensis,  E.  B.  Newton.  Mt/opJioria  ornata,  Miinster. 

Gervillia  inflata,  Schafhautl.  Myophoria  incequieostata,  Klipstein. 

Pteroperna  Malayensis,  K.  B.  Newtou.  Myophoria  Malayensis,  R.  B.  Newton. 

Actinodesma  Bellamyi,  K.  B.  Newton.  Myophoria,  sp. 
Pleurophorus  elongatus,  ?  Moore. 

Among  unpublished  observations  it  may  be  of  interest  to  re- 
produce, from  a  letter  of  recent  date,  an  account  of  the  geology 
of  the  Eiver  Tui  District,  situated  in  the  Pahang  division  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  written  by  Mr.  E.  M.  W.  Swan,  F.G.S.,  who  is 
carrying  out  mining  operations  in  that  area.  The  Tui  is  described 
as  a  small  branch  of  the  Eiver  Jelai,  which  joins  the  Lipis  Eiver 
at  Kwala  Lipis,  from  which  place  it  is  about  ten  miles  due  north. 
Thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  Swan's  brother  (Mr.  Archibald  A.  Swan) 
for  permission  to  include  this  new  matter  in  the  present  paper. 

"  In  order  to  explain  the  geology  of  the  place  where  we  are 
working  it  is  necessary  to  say  a  few  words  on  the  geology  of  this 
part  of  Pahang,  The  common  rock  of  the  country  is  a  clay  slate, 
or  perhaps  more  properly  shale,  for  the  cleavage  of  the  rock 
coincides  with  the  original  bedding  planes,  although  these  have  been 

1  H.  M.  Becher,  "The  Gold-quartz  Deposits  of  Pahang  (Malay  Peninsula)"  : 
Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.,  vol.  xlix  (1893),  p.  84. 

*  Dr.  B.  Koto,  "  On  the    Geologic  Structui-e  of  the   Malayan  Archipelago  "  : 
Journ.  Coll.  Sci.  Univ.  Tokyo,  Japan,  vol.  si,  pt.  2  (1899),  p.  85. 
1>V  B,.  B.  Newton,  "On  Marine  Triassic  Lamellibranchs  discovered  in  the  Malay 
Peninsula"  :  Proc.  Malac.  Soc.  London,  vol.  iv  (1900),  pp.  130-135,  pi.  xii. 

R.  B.  Newton — Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninmfa.         131 

accentuated  by  pressure  at  right  angles  to  them.  These  slates  rest 
on  a  basin  in  granite,  and  by  a  movement  of  this  rock  they  have 
been  highly  tilted,  so  that  the  average  dip  is  about  80°.  The 
underlie  here  is  westward,  while  nearer  the  dividing  range  of  the 
Peninsula  it  is  eastward.  The  dip  changes  along  a  line  about 
ij^  miles  westward  from  here.  The  strike  of  the  slates  is  extremely 
regular,  and  is  parallel  to  the  main  dividing  range,  or  8°  to  81°  west 
of  the  magnetic  north.  The  mass  of  slate  rock  is  penetrated  by 
numerous  intrusions,  which  consist  generally  of  granite  or  green- 
stones. All  the  known  mineral  deposits  of  any  value  in  Pahang 
are  either  included  in  these  intersecting  rocks,  or  occur  in  close 
proximity  to  them.  The  intrusions  generally  take  the  form  of  large 
lenticular  masses,  which  are  often  some  miles  in  width.  The 
main  axis  of  these  masses  is  always  parallel  to  the  strike  of  the 
slates,  and  the  intrusive  rocks  sometimes  show  a  cleavage  produced 
by  side  pressure,  parallel  to  the  cleavage  of  the  slates. 

"  These  intrusions  are  highly  developed  in  some  parts  of  the 
country.  There  is  a  granite  intrusion  1^  miles  to  the  westward 
of  the  Tui.  This  is  succeeded  to  the  eastward  by  a  belt  of  slate 
about  a  mile  in  width,  and  then  we  have  a  belt  of  intrusive  rock 
about  a  mile  in  width,  and  it  is  on  this  that  the  Tui  flows. 

"Overlying  all  these  rocks,  and  resting  on  their  upturned  edges, 
is  a  deposit  of  crystalline  limestone,  which  was  originally  very 
extensive,  and  of  great  thickness.  It  certainly  has  been  some 
thousand  feet  thick,  and  there  is  some  evidence  which  seems  to 
show  that  it  has  overlain  even  the  tops  of  the  main  dividing  range. 
But  only  a  few  isolated  patches  of  this  limestone  now  remain, 
the  rest  having  been  eaten  away  by  the  comparatively  rapid  action 
of  denudation.  The  limestone  in  which  we  are  mining  is  a  small 
patch  which  remains  in  the  bottom  of  an  ancient  valley.  Tradition 
indicates  that  the  Chinese  have  exported  much  gold  from  this  part 
of  Pahang,  and  there  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  most  of  this 
gold  has  been  derived  from  the  limestone,  and  has  been  left  on  the 
surface  when  that  rock  has  been  dissolved  away.  I  feel  fairly 
certain  that  such  has  been  the  origin  of  practically  all  the  gold 
exported  from  the  Tui  valley. 

"The  clay  deposit  was  composed  of  fine  yellow  clay,  which 
contained  some  spherical  nodules  of  iron  oxide,  and  rarely  some 
fragments  of  quartz.  The  gold  was  not  distributed  through  the 
mass,  but  occurred  in  occasional  streaks  or  veins,  which  could  not  be 
distinguished  by  the  eye 

"  This  clay  deposit,  which  covers  the  whole  of  the  limestone  in 
the  valley  to  a  depth  of  about  twenty  feet,  is  the  product  of 
decomposition  of  the  greenstone  which  forms  the  sides  of  the  valley, 
and  the  peroxide  of  iron  nodules  which  accompany  it  had  their 
source  in  the  hornblende  of  that  rock." 

Kkmarks.— From  the  foregoing  notices  it  would  appear  that  the 
Malay  Peninsula  is  largely  composed  of  plutonic  rocks  more  or  less 
covered   by   sedimentary    strata,    of  which  sandstone,   slates,   and 

132         B.  B.  Neuion — Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

limestone  form  a  very  considerable  part.  The  fossils  discovered  bj- 
Mr.  Bellamy  have  enabled  the  writer  to  refer  the  sandstone  to 
a  Triassic  age,  but  the  horizon  of  the  limestone  and  slate  deposits 
still  remains  doubtful.  Quite  recently,  some  samples  of  the  lime- 
stone wei'e  submitted  to  the  writer  for  microscopical  examination 
by  Mr.  Archibald  A.  Swan,  which  his  brother,  Mr.  R.  M.  W.  Swan, 
F.G.S.,  had  collected  and  sent  home  from  the  River  Tui  District ;  but 
they,  unfortunately,  exhibit  no  organic  structures,  and  are  therefore 
practically  useless  for  determining  their  period  of  deposition.  This 
limestone^  is  of  blackish  colour,  very  much  fissured  with  calcite 
and  quartz,  and  possessing  slickensided  surfaces ;  a  microscopical 
section  with  the  aid  of  polarized  light  exhibiting  the  brilliant 
coloration  of  its  partial  siliceous  structure.  In  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  quartz  veins,  gold,  blende,  stibnite,  and  galena  are  more  or 
less  observable.  It  occurs  in  a  basin-shaped  area  situated  on  the 
upturned  edges  of  contorted  slates  of  unknown  age,  which  themselves 
rest  on  a  granite  base.  It  is  more  than  probable  that  this  limestone 
may  crop  out  elsewhere  in  the  neighbourhood  of  a  less  crystalline 
character,  and  with  palajontological  features  ;  but  until  such  a  dis- 
covery takes  place  it  is  premature  to  assume  its  definite  geological 
age.  Should  it  ultimately  prove  to  be  of  Carboniferous  age,  then 
it  would  probably  form  a  continuation  of  that  limestone  found  in 
Sumatra  (Padang)  which  has  yielded  to  Brady  ^  and  other  authors 
the  foraminiferal  genus  of  Schwagerina  (  =  Fusulina  of  Brady). 

In  referring  again  to  the  sandstone  rocks  of  the  Malay  Peninsula 
it  may  be  mentioned  that  they  represent  part  of  the  great  Triassic 
development  which  is  such  an  important  feature  in  the  geological 
structure  of  Eastern  Asia,  and  which  extends  through  European 
countries  to  Northern  Africa,  thence  to  Asia  Minor,  the  Himalayas, 
and  to  portions  of  the  Chinese  Empire,  Japan,  and  Siberia.  It  is 
found  also  in  the  East  Indian  Archipelago,  especially  Sumatra, 
Eotti,  and  Timor ;  and,  moreover,  it  is  present  in  New  Caledonia 
and  New  Zealand. '  In  all  these  regions  the  occurrence  of  Triassic 
rocks  has  been  accurately  demonstrated  by  the  palseontological 
investigations  of  Stoliczka,  Griesbach,  Volz,  Koken,  Eugene 
Deslongchamps,  Rothpletz,  Naumann,  Zittel,  Loczy,  and  others. 

Neolithic  Implement. — -Whilst  writing  on  the  geology  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  allude  to  a  Neolithic 
implement  from  that  country  which  was  presented  to  the  Geological 
Department  of  the  British  Museum  by  Mr.  W.  Leonard  Braddon, 
M.R.C.S.,  diiring  the  latter  part  of  1896.     Two  examples  exist  of 

1  Specimens  of  the  limestoue  have  been  presented  to  the  Mineral  Department 
of  the  British  Museum  (Nat.  Hist.)  by  Mr.  A.  A.  Swan,  a  few  examples  being 
retained  for  reference  in  the  Geological  Department. 

2  H.  B.  Brady,  "  On  some  Fossil  Foraminifera  from  the  West  Coast  District, 
Sumatra"  :  Geol.  Mag.,  1875,  p.  537,  pi.  xiii,  fig.  6. 

^  See  Lapparent's  map  illustrating  the  Triassic  distribution,  "  Traite  de  Geologie." 
4th  ed.  (1900),  p.  1042. 

a.  B.  Neictoa — Geologi/  of  the  Malay  Feninsii/a.         13:j 

this  implement  celt,  both  of  which  were  found  in  a  clisnsed  mine  at 
Tras,  Pahang,  having  probably  been  utilized  for  mining  purposes 
in  connection  with  the  production  of  tin,  which  largely  abounds  in 
this  region. 

They  are  similar  in  shape,  being  long,  narrow,  and  of  rectangular 
section,  with  an  inclination  to  a  convex  upper  surface  caused  by 
a  gentle  declivity  at  each  end  ;  widening  vei'y  gradually  to  the 
cutting  end,  which  thins  off  into  a  moderately  sharp,  chisel-shaped 
edge.  The  opposite  and  rather  narrower  extremity  is  more  or  less 
of  a  wedge  pattern,  and  somewhat  tapering  thereby,  suggestive  of 
the  implement  having  been  fixed  to  a  wooden  handle  to  carry  out 
the  functions  of  a  '  pick  '  or  similar  instrument,  an  idea  further 
strengthened  by  the  fact  that  near  the  same  end  are  some  coarse 
scoring  marks  which  run  in  various  directions,  resembling  furrows, 
most  probably  produced  by  the  process  of  shafting  with  a  strong 
vegetable  fibre.  Similar  scored  lines  are  observable  on  some 
Malay  implements  in  the  British  Museum  Collection  at  Bloomsbury. 

The  rock  composing  these  implements  outwardly  resembles 
a  material  of  igneous  origin,  but  Mr.  G.  T.  Prior,  M.A.,  of  the 
Mineral  Department,  British  Museum,  assures  the  writer  that  such 
is  not  the  case.  It  is  more  probably  a  mudstone  or  an  indurated 
slate,  which  under  the  microscope  is  seen  to  exhibit  a  fragmentary 
structure  with  occasional  crystals  of  felspar.  Nor  can  any  organisms 
be  traced  in  it  such  as  the  minuter  forms  of  life,  Eadiolarians  or 
Foraminifera.  It  is  a  rock  of  extreme  hardness,  very  closely 
grained,  and  of  a  densely  dull,  black  colour  where  fractured,  and 
having  a  clear  metallic  ring  when  struck. 

Externally,  the  implements  are  partially  coated  with  a  thin  layer 
of  light  colour,  which  is  easily  powdered  away  by  scraping,  and 
which  has  possibly  been  produced  by  entombment  in  an  alluvial 
deposit ;  in  other  places  smooth,  polished  surfaces  are  seen,  evidently 
the  result  of  former  handling  and  usage. 

According  to  Sir  John  Evans,  F.R.S.,  similar  chisel-like  implements, 
but  of  various  rock  structures,  occur  very  rarely  in  Britain  and 
Ireland,  more  commonly  in  Denmark  and  North  America,  and 
sometimes  in  Siam  and  the  Malay  Peninsula.  (Vide  "  The  Ancient 
Stone  Implements,  Weapons,  and  Ornaments  of  Great  Britain," 
2nd  ed.,  1897,  p.  121.) 

Beyond  the  occurrence  of  these  implements  nothing  further 
appears  to  be  known  of  the  Neolithic  period  as  affecting  the  Malay 
Peninsula.  The  cave  explorations  undertaken  by  Mr.  H.  N.  Ridley 
yielded  no  other  relics  connected  with  man's  history  at  that  time,  for 
we  read  in  his  report :  ''  It  was  to  be  hoped  that  remains  throwing 
light  on  the  Stone-age  men  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  might  have  been 
found  in  the  caves,  but  as  yet  nothing  has  been  found  anywhere  in 
the  Peninsula  except  the  axes  themselves"  ("  Caves  in  the  ^lalay 
Peninsula":  Rep.  Brit.  Assoc.  Bristol,  1898,  pp.  571-582,  1899). 
Although  the  literature  on  this  subject  is  apparently  very  restricted, 
the  writer  would  gladly  welcome  any  additional  references  known 
to  students  of  Ethnography. 

134        R.  B.  Newton — Geology  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

Dimensions  of  best  example :  Length,  12  inches  ;  width  of 
chisel  end,  If  inches ;  width  of  narrower  end,  li  inches  ;  central 
depth,  ^  inches. 


Illustrations  of  a  Neolithic  Implement  obtained  by  Mr.  "W.  L.  Braddon  from 
a  disused  mine  at  Tras,  Pahang,  Malay  Peninsula.  Figures  drawn  one-third 
natural  size, 

A. — Lower  surface,  showing  scored  markings. 
B. — Side  view  showing  slight  convexity  of  upper  surface. 

C. — Eectangular  section  of  the  less  perfect  specimen,  which  measures  1  inch  iu 
central  depth. 

Reviews— Geology  of  South  Wales  Coalfield.  135 

VIII. — Origin  of  Coal. 
By  J.  E.  Dakyns,  Esq. 

IN  his  interesting  paper  on  "  The  Origin  of  Coal,"  published  in 
the  Geological  Magazine  for  January,  1901,  p.  29,  Mr.  Strahan 
says  :  "  the  Limestone  Series  generally  consists  of  repetitions  of  small 
groups  of  strata,  each  group  being  composed  of  sandstone,  followed 
by  shale,  shale  followed  by  limestone."  It  is  not  stated  whether 
this  is  intended  to  be  an  upward  or  downward  succession ;  but 
if  the  former  is  meant,  as  it  seems  to  be,  the  sequence  is  very 
different  from  that  which  exists  in  many  parts  of  the  country. 
Amongst  the  Yoredale  Kocks  proper — by  which  I  mean  the  beds 
in  the  valley  of  the  Yore  and  in  such  parts  of  the  neighbourhood 
as  contain  rocks  of  a  similar  type — the  usual  upward  succession 
is  sandstone  followed  by  limestone  overlaid  by  shale.  That  is  to 
say,  the  limestones  very  often  have  basement  sandstones,  and  are 
nearly  always  immediately  overlaid  by  shale.  There  are  some 
cases  in  which  limestone  is  overlaid  by  sandstone,  but  these  are 
quite  exceptional. 

As  it  seems  from  recent  discussions  at  Bradford  to  be  not  generally 
known,  I  may  as  well  state  that  the  Yoredale  type  of  beds  does  not 
exist  south  of  the  Craven  fault ;  as  a  matter  of  fact,  it  dies  out 
between  Kettlewell  and  Grassington. 

Mr.  Strahan  also  says  that  "  underclays  do  not  resemble  soils, 
inasmuch  as  they  are  perfectly  homogeneous."  Now  on  many  parts 
of  the  Millstone  Grit  moorlands  in  Yorkshire,  the  hill  peat  rests 
on  yellowish  clay,  formed  by  the  decomposition  of  the  underlying 
rocks.  This  clay  (which  may  be  called  the  peat  underclay)  looks 
BO  like  a  Coal-measure  underclay,  that  one  is  led  to  think  that  both 
had  a  similar  origin,  however  different  may  have  been  the  circum- 
stances. Of  course,  when  an  underclay  occurs  in  the  midst  of  a  coal, 
or  on  top  of  coal,  it  cannot  have  been  formed  by  decomposition  of 
underlying  rock.  In  such  cases,  which  are  exceptional,  it  must  have 
been  drifted  somewhat.  But  even  if  all  underclays  were  drifted, 
that  would  not  prevent  their  having  been  the  seats  on  which  coal- 
forming  plants  grew,  and  the  striking  resemblance  of  peat  underclays 
to  coal  underclays  makes  me  think  that  the  latter  clays  were  the 
seats  on  which  the  coal  plants  grew. 

IS,  IE  V  I  E  ^W  S. 

I.— Geology     of    the     South    Wales     Coalfield.       Part     II  : 

The  Country   around    Abergavenny.      By  Aubrey   Strahan, 

M.A.,  F.G.S.,  and  Walcot  Gibson,  F.G.S.  ;  with  Notes  by  J.  K. 

Pakyns,  M.A.,  and  Prof.  W.  W.  Watts,  M.A.,  F.G.S.     Memoirs 

of  the  Geological  Survey.     8vo  ;  pp.  103.     (London  :  printed  for 

H.M.  Stationery  Office,  1900.     Price  2s.) 

rnmS  memoir  is   written   in  explanation  of  the  New  Series  map 

JL      sheet  232.     It  includes  a  brief  account  of  the  Silurian  rocks 

of  part  of  the  Usk  iulier,  and  a  fuller  account  of  the  Old  Bed 

136  Revieios — Geological  8urvey  of  Canada. 

Sandstone  which  stands  out  boldly  in  the  '  Sugar  Loaf.'  The  result 
of  the  resurvey  of  these  rocks  has  been  to  show  that  there  is  a  well- 
defined  plane  up  to  which  a  Ludlow  fauna  and  a  Ludlow  type 
of  sediment  extend,  while  above  it  the  Old  Eed  type  with  Lower 
Old  Eed  fossils  only  have  been  recognized.  Locally  there  is  no 
gradation  from  Silurian  to  Old  Eed  Sandstone.  On  the  other  hand, 
no  break  has  been  found  in  the  Old  Eed  Sandstone,  although  the 
fossils  show  that  both  Lower  and  Upper  divisions  are  present.  It 
is  remarked  that  the  formation  is  "  not  necessarily  purely  lacustrine 
or  fluviatile." 

From  the  Old  Eed  Sandstone  upwards  there  is  perfect  conformity 
with  the  Carboniferous  strata.  The  Carboniferous  Limestone  with 
its  base  of  Lower  Limestone  shales  is  a  variable  group,  500  feet 
thick  in  the  western  part  of  the  district  and  about  100  feet  in  the 
eastern  part.  Professor  Watts  describes  some  of  the  oolitic  bands 
of  limestone,  and  also  an  interesting  mass  of  dolomite.  Mr.  Strahan 
found  that  the  white  oolitic  limestone  in  one  area  underwent  a  con- 
siderable change  in  mineral  character,  and  this  proved  to  take  place 
both  along  the  outcrop  and  vertically.  Analyses  showed  that  the 
change  was  due  to  the  replacement  of  a  portion  of  the  carbonate 
of  lime  (about  30  per  cent.)  by  carbonate  of  magnesia,  and  to  a  re- 
crystallization  of  the  whole  rock,  whereby  all  organic  structure, 
even  the  oolitic  grains,  were  obliterated,  and  the  rock  became  a  true 
crj^stalline  dolomite.  Eeference  is  made  to  the  probable  connection 
between  the  dolomitization  and  faults  which  would  have  afforded 
means  for  the  circulation  of  mineral  waters.  Full  accounts  are  given 
of  the  Millstone  Grit  and  Coal-measures,  including  the  iron -ores, 
which  are  now  but  little  worked.  The  coals  are  more  extensively 
worked  now  than  formerly,  and  are  being  followed  southwards 
under  the  deeper  parts  of  the  basin. 

In  the  account  of  the  Glacial  Drifts  a  description  is  given  by 
Mr.  Gibson  of  a  transported  mass  of  Millstone  Grit  which  forms 
a  small  hill  upwards  of  200  yards  in  length,  and  was  found  to  be 
based  on  stiff  glacial  till.  "  The  hill,  therefore,  is  merely  a  huge 
bouldei',  bearing  witness  to  the  great  carrying  power  of  the  ice." 


11. — The  Geological  Survey  of  Canada. 

1. — Eeport  on  the  Geology  and  Natural  Eesources  of  the 
Country  traversed  by  the  Yellow  Head  Pass  Eoute  from 
Edmonton  to  Tete  Jaune  Cache,  comprising  Portions  of 
Alberta  and  British  Columbia.  By  James  MoEvoy,  B.A.Sc. 
Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Annual  Eeport,  Vol.  XI,  Part  D. 
8vo;    pp.  Id-Md,  with  map.     (Ottawa:   S.  E.Dawson,  1900.) 

THIS  report  is  descriptive  of  an  exploration  which  extended  from 
Edmonton  westward  through  the  Yellow  Head  Pass  in  the 
Eocky  Mountains,  down  the  Eraser  Eiver  to  Tete  Jaune  Cache, 
and  thence  to  the  head-waters  of  Canoe  Eiver,  a  tributary  of  the 
Columbia.  A  map  on  a  scale  of  8  miles  to  1  inch  accompanies  the 
report ;  it  embraces  the  whole  of  the  area  traversed,  and  extends  in 

Reviews — Geologiad  Snrvei/  of  Canuibf.  l;"*)? 

latitude  from  52°  36'  to  53°  45'  N.  and  in  longitude  from  113°  L»0' 
to  119°  35'  W.  There  are  also  views  of  the  mountainous  scenery 
characteristic  of  parts  of  the  Athabasca  and  Fraser  Rivers. 

The  writer  enumerates  the  various  expeditions  that  have  penetrated 
this  region,  including  those  of  the  Hector-Palliser  expedition  (1859), 
and  the  better  known  journey  of  Lord  Milton  and  Dr.  Cheadle 
(1863,  "The  North- West  Passage  by  Laud"),  as  well  as  the  later 
one  undertaken  by  Dr.  A.  R.  C.  Selwyn  in  1871. 

The  formations  met  with  in  tlie  district  explored  were  as  follows  : — 

Tertiary  ...         Paskapoo  Beds.    )  ^ 

t?A        i      Tt  A      \  Laramie. 
^     ,  I  Edmonton  ceds.   \ 

Cretaceous        ...       |  pi^rre  and  Fox  Hill. 


ri      ■>    '  S  Castle  Mountain  Group. 

Cambrian  ...         t>       -d-        cj    • 

(  Bow  Kiver  Series. 

ArchtBan  ,..  Shuswap  Series. 

The  Upper  Laramie  (Paskapoo  Beds)  were  identified  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Pembina  Eiver,  and  consisted  of  about  50  feet  or  more 
of  thick  beds  of  yellowish-grey  sandstones.  The  Lower  Laramie, 
as  distinguished  %  its  fossils,  was  met  with  on  Sandstone  Creek, 
a  small  tributary  of  the  Athabasca  River,  where  a  section  showed 
that  the  rocks  consisted  of  clayey  sandstones,  associated  with  coarser 
sandstones,  carbonaceous  shales,  and  seams  of  coal. 

Cretaceous  rocks  were  represented  by  rather  coarse  green  sand- 
stone, interbedded  near  the  mountains  with  greenish  conglomerate, 
with  (further  eastward)  black  argillaceous  shale,  including  thin 
seams  of  lignite.  These  rocks  were  seen  in  ascending  Prairie 
Creek,  a  tributary  of  the  Athabasca,  the  mouth  of  which  is  about 
ten  miles  from  that  of  Sandstone  Creek. 

Owing  apparently  to  the  imperfect  evidence  afforded  by  the 
fossils  the  succeeding  group  of  rocks  bears  the  dual  title  Bevono- 
Carhoniferous.  These  were  seen  in  three  sections  : — (1)  2,160  feet 
thick  in  Folding  Mountain,  the  first  foot-hill  of  the  Rockies,  where 
limestones,  siliceous  shales,  and  quartzites  are  brought  up  in 
a  "  sharply  folded,  slightly  overturned  anticline."  (2)  In_  Roche 
Miette,  described  as  a  notable  landmark  in  view  at  a  great  distance, 
standing  on  the  east  side  of  the  Athabasca  River,  a  few  miles  below 
Jasper  Lake.  Here,  in  a  section  3,300  feet  in  thickness,  limestones 
and  shales  occur,  the  former  holding  the  few  and  seemingly  not 
very  characteristic  fossils  which  served  to  indicate  the  horizon  of 
the' beds,  viz.  Devonian.  The  following  were  the  fossils  obtained: 
Atrijpa  reticularis;  Diphyphijllum,  sp. ;  Cyrtina,  sp. ;  Spirifer  (or 
Spirifei-ina),  sp. ;  cast  of  elongated  spiral  Gasteropod.  (3)  Carboni- 
ferous rocks  were  met  with  near  Henry  House  on  the  Atliabasca 
River,  some  15  miles  south  of  Jasper  Lake.  Here,  again,  the 
evidence  upon  which  the  age  of  the  rocks  is  based  is  somewhat 
scanty,  judging  by  the  few  fossils  enumerated,  as  follows  :  Eeticnlana 
setigera?  ;  Productus  (very  finely  ribbed)  ;  Spirifer,  sp. ;  Dielasma 
(cf.  D.  formosa,  Hall).      These  were  obtained  in  an  exposure  ot 

138  Revieivs — Geological  Survey  of  Canada. 

"black  shales  and  flaggy  cream- weathering  limestone,"  three  miles 
below  Henry  House. 

Eocks  of  undoubted  Cambrian  age  were  met  with  on  the  north- 
east side  of  the  valley  between  Tete  Jaune  Cache  and  Canoe  Kiver. 
"The  squeezed  conglomerate  of  the  lower  part  of  the  series  may 
be  without  much  hesitation  assigned  to  the  horizon  of  the  Bow 
Eiver  Series  [Lower  Cambrian'],  while  the  overlying  schists  and 
argillites  probably  belong  to  the  same  series,  but  may  include, 
towards  the  top,  beds  of  the  upper  division  of  the  Cambrian  or 
Castle  Mountain  group."  No  granite  or  other  plutonic  rocks  were 
met  with  in  the  vicinity  of  the  route  traversed. 

A  great  series  of  mica-schists  were  seen  on  the  south-west  side  of 
the  valley  opposite  Tete  Jaune  Cache,  on  Mica  Mountain.  The 
whole  series,  though  differing  somewhat  from  the  Shuswap  Series 
of  the  southern  interior  of  British  Columbia,  shows  the  main 
characteristics  of  that  series,  and  may  be  classed  as  such.  The 
age  of  this  series,  as  given  by  Dr.  Dawson,  is  Arclicean.  The  line 
of  contact  between  these  rocks  and  those  of  Cambrian  age  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  valley  is  hidden  by  superficial  deposits. 

The  glaciation  of  the  mountainous  part  of  the  region  surveyed  is 
briefly  described,  and  evidence  is  found  for  the  statement  that  the 
valley  of  the  Athabasca  contained  a  large  glacier  flowing  north- 
ward down  the  stream.  After  the  glacier  had  disappeared  the 
valley  was  occupied  by  a  large  lake  standing  at  a  level  of  550  to 
600  feet  above  that  of  Jasper  Lake,  or  3,260  feet  above  sea-level. 
A  long,  distinct  terrace,  composed  of  silt  and  sand  on  the  west  side 
of  Jasper  Lake,  marks  this  level. 

The  report  concludes  with  a  brief  account  of  the  distribution  of 
the  principal  trees  and  of  the  game,  large  and  small. 

2. — On  some  Additional  or  Impeefectly  Understood  Fossils 
FROM  THE  Cretaceous  Eocks  of  the  Queen  Charlotte 
Islands,  with  a  Eevised  List  of  the  Species  from  these 
Eocks.  By  J.  F.  Whiteaves,  LL.D.,  F.G.S.,  F.E.C.S.  Mesozoic 
Fossils,  Vol.  I,  Part  IV,  pp.  263-307,  pis.  xxxiii  to  xlix. 
(Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Ottawa,  November,  1900.) 

AS  explained  in  the  Prefatory  Note  by  the  Director,  Dr.  G.  M. 
Dawson,  the  present  memoir  is  an  illustrated  description  of 
two  collections  of  fossils  from  the  Cretaceous  rocks  of  the  Queen 
Charlotte  Islands,  made  by  Dr.  C.  F.  Newcombe,  of  Victoria,  British 
Columbia,  in  1895  and  1897.  It  contains  also  a  revision  of  the 
nomenclature  of  some  of  the  fossils  previously  collected  from  the 
same  rocks  by  Mr.  James  Eichardson  in  1872  and  Dr.  G.  M.  Dawson 
in  1878.  A  brief  summary  of  its  contents  will  suffice,  and  this  may 
be  taken  from  Dr.  Whiteaves'  prefatory  remarks.  The  revised  list 
of  species  at  the  end  of  the  memoir  shows  that  89  species  of  marine 
invertebrates  are  now  known  from  the  Lower  Shales  of  the  coal- 
bearing  rocks  of  the  Cretaceous  system  in  the  Queen  Charlotte 
Islands.     Of  these  one  is  a  Coral  [Astroccenia) ,ihxQQ  are  Brachiopods; 

Reviews — Geological  Surre;/  of  Canada.  139 

representing  the  genera  Terehratula  and  Ehynclionella,  one  is  a 
Crustacean  (Homolopsis),  and  the  rest  are  MoUusca.  The  Cephalo- 
poda are  much  more  numerous,  both  in  species  and  individuals,  than 
the  Gasteropoda,  and  the  Ammonites  are  specially  abundant.  The 
latter  seem  to  be  remarkable  for  the  presence  of  several  species  of 
Desmoceras  (inclusive  of  Puzozia),  and  for  the  absence  of  Baculites, 
and  of  the  numerous  species  of  Pachydiscus  which  are  so  character- 
istic of  the  Vancouver  Cretaceous.  The  number  of  species  ot 
Pelecypoda  appears  to  be  much  larger  even  than  that  of  the 

The  Canadian  species  have  been  in  many  instances  compared 
with  the  original  types  contained  in  museums  in  the  United  States 
and  in  Europe.  Thus  every  effort  seems  to  have  been  made  to 
ensure  the  utmost  degree  of  accuracy  in  the  identification  of  the 
fossils  described  in  this  work,  which,  it  may  be  mentioned,  appears 
fourteen  years  after  the  previous  (third)  part.  The  new  species  are 
well  illustrated  in  the  seven  lithographic  plates  by  Mr.  L.  M.  Lambe. 

3. — Genekal  Index  to  the  Eeports  op  Progress,  1863  to  1884. 
Compiled  by  D.  B.  Dowling,  B.A.Sc.  Svo  ;  pp.  475.  (Geological 
Survey  of  Canada,  Ottawa  :  S.  E.  Dawson,  1900.) 

THOSE  who  have  researches  to  undertake  in  any  subject  having 
a  voluminous  literature  know  well  the  value  of  that  time-saving 
adjunct,  a  good  index.  The  arrangement  of  the  one  before  us  is  as 
follows  : — Part  I  (pp.  5-20)  contains  the  Eeports,  so  classified  that 
any  country  or  district  in  a  province  can  be  found  in  its  chronological 
order,  the  counties  being  set  alphabetically  under  their  respective 
provinces.  The  reports  indexed  date  from  1863  (a  summary  from 
the  commencement  of  the  Survey)  to  1884. 

Part  11  (pp.  21-34)  contains  an  alphabetical  list  of  the  "  special 
examinations  "  of  ores,  minerals,  or  fossils  that  have  been  subjected 
to  assay,  analysis,  microscopical  examination,  or  scientific  description. 

Part  III  (pp.  35-475)  forms  the  great  bulk  of  the  volume,  and 
is  termed  "General  Index  to  Reports,  1863-84."  The  arrangement 
in  this  part  under  reference  to  a  place  is  usually  chronological, 
commencing  with  the  earliest,  while  under  a  subject  the  references 
are  alphabetical,  or  in  the  case  of  substances  of  frequent  occurrence, 
as  gold,  iron-ores,  coal,  etc.,  the  localities  may  be  grouped  under 

Special  publications  on  palfeontology  and  botany,  which  are  issued 
by  the  Survey  from  time  to  time,  are  not  included  in  this  Index, 
but  the  "  List  of  Publications  "  brought  out  at  intervals  supplies 
this  deficiency. 

We  doubt  not  that  the  present  Index  will  prove  of  great  use  to 
all  who  require  to  consult  the  publications  of  the  Geological  Survey 
of  Canada,  and  they  will  not  be  chary  of  their  commendation  of  the 
compiler  whose  zeal  and  industry  made  its  completion  possible. 
May  his  example  be  followed  by  many  ! 

Arthur  H.  Fookd. 

140      Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

Geological  Society  of  London. 

I.  — January  23,  1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S., 

President,  in  the  Chair. 

After  the  formal  business  had  been  taken,  the  President, 
having  requested  all  those  present  to  rise  from  their  seats,  said : 

"  I  feel  sure  that  the  Fellows  will  desire  to  express  their 
deep  sense  of  the  grievous  loss  which  this  nation  has  sustained 
in  the  death  of  our  late  beloved  and  most  gracious  Sovereign, 
by  assenting  to  the  immediate  adjournment  of  the  meeting." 

The  meeting  was  accordingly  adjourned. 

II.— February  6,  1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.  A.,  F.E.S.,  President, 

in  the  Chair. 

Dr.  P.  A.  Bather,  in  exhibiting  rock  specimens,  microscope 
sections,  and  photographs  illustrating  blavierite,  ophitic  diabase, 
falsi  tic  porphyry,  petro-siliceous  breccia,  and  other  igneous  and 
metamorphic  rocks  of  the  Mayenne,  said  that  the  specimens  had 
been  collected  by  him  in  the  course  of  an  excursion  of  the  Eighth 
International  Geological  Congress,  under  the  guidance  of  M.  D.  P. 
Oehlert.  In  the  basins  of  Laval  and  Coevrons  were  many  peculiar 
rocks  due  to  the  folding  and  crushing  of  stratified  rocks  penetrated 
by  eruptive  dykes.  The  tectonic  features  were  illustrated  by  the 
maps  of  M.  Oehlert  and  by  the  photographs.  The  slides  were 
prepared  in  the  Mineralogical  Department  of  the  Natural  History 
Museum,  where  all  the  specimens  would  be  preserved. 

Mr.  E.  T.  Newton  exhibited  some  graptolites,  which  had  been 
obtained  by  Mr.  Herbert  J.  Jessop  in  the  course  of  a  prospecting 
expedition  in  Eastern  Peru.  The  locality  was  in  lat.  13°  40'  S.  and 
long.  72°  20'  W. ;  Limbani,  near  Crucero,  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Eio  Inambari.  The  graptolites  are  closely  related  to 
Diplogj-aptus  foliaceus,  and  indicate  deposits  of  late  Ordovician  age. 

Mr.  A.  K.  Coomara-Swamy  exhibited  and  commented  on  a  lantern 
slide  showing  spherulitic  structure  in  sulphanilic  acid.  This  had 
been  described  and  figured  by  Mr.  Henry  Bassett,  Jun.,  in  the 
Geological  Magazine  for  January,  1901,  pp.  14-16. 

The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "  On  the  Structure  and  Affinitiesof  the  Ehjetic  Vlant  JVaiadita." 
By  Miss  Igerna  B.  J.  Sollas,  B.Sc,  Newnham  College,  Cambridge. 
(Communicated  by  Professor  W.  J.  Sollas,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  LL.D., 
F.E.S.,  V.P.G.S.) 

This  plant,  the  remains  of  which  are  found  in  Gloucestershire, 
was  considered  to  be  a  monocotyledon  by  Buckman,  but  a  moss  by 
Starkie  Gardner.  Material  supplied  by  Mr.  Seward  and  Mr.  Wickes 
has  given  the  authoress  ground  for  the  belief  that  Naiadita  is  an 
aquatic   lycopod,   and   that   it   is  the  earliest  recorded  example  of 

Heporta  and  Proceedings — Geolocjical  Society  of  London.       141 

a  fossil  member  of  the  Lycopodiacece,  resembling  in  proportions  and 
outward  morphology  the  existing  representatives  of  the  group. 
The  specimens  described  show  stems,  leaves,  and  sporangia  whicli 
appear  to  be  borne  laterally  on  the  stem  and  to  be  embraced  by  the 
bases  of  the  leaves.  Stomata  do  not  appear  to  occur,  and  the 
association  of  leaves  of  different  types  leads  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  three  described  species  are  in  reality  but  one.  The  stems 
consist  mainly  of  long,  thin-walled  tubes  covered  with  an  epidermis 
of  long  rectangular  cells  ;  the  leaves,  in  vertical  section,  show  only 
a  single  layer  of  complete  cells.  The  absence  of  stomata  and 
cortical  tissue  may  be  explained,  if  the  plant  was  submerged  when 
living ;  but  it  is  possible  that  the  lower  tissues  of  the  leaf  are  lost, 
together  with  any  stomata  which  may  have  been  present. 

2.  "  On  the  Origin  of  the  Dunmail  Raise  (Lake  District)."  By 
Eichard  D.  Oldham,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

The  author  considers  that  the  gap  through  the  Cumberland  hills 
is  a  natural  feature  whose  remarkable  character  has  not  attracted 
the  attention  which  it  deserves.  In  form  it  is  an  old  river-valle}', 
now  occupied  hy  much  smaller  streams  than  that  which  formed  it. 
A  windgap  of  this  character  cannot  have  been  formed  hy  recession 
of  watersheds  or  capture  through  erosion,  for  in  such  a  case  the 
stream  on  one  side  or  the  other  of  the  watershed  must  necessarily 
fit  its  valley,  while  in  the  Dunmail  Raise  there  is  a  misfit  on  both 
sides.  The  gap  was  in  existence  before  the  Glacial  Period,  and 
consequently  cannot  have  been  formed  by  ice.  So,  by  a  process 
of  exclusion,  the  explanation  is  arrived  at,  which  fits  in  with  the 
surface  forms,  that  the  gap  of  the  Dunmail  Raise  was  formed  by 
a  river,  which  flowed  across  the  hills  from  north  to  south,  and  cut 
down  its  channel  -pari  passu  with  the  elevation  of  the  hills.  The 
final  victory  of  upheaval  over  erosion,  whereby  this  river  was  divided 
into  two  separate  drainage  systems  and  the  barrier  of  the  Dunmail 
Raise  upheaved,  may  have  synchronized  with  a  diversion  of  the 
head-waters  and  consequent  diminution  of  volume  and  erosive 
power.  It  is  pointed  out  that  this  explanation  comes  into  conflict 
with  previously  published  theories  of  the  origin  of  the  drainage 
system  of  the  Lake  District,  inasmuch  as  the  elevation  postulated 
seems  too  slow  to  be  explicable  by  the  intrusion  of  a  laccolite ;  and 
that  the  existence  of  a  large  river  crossing  the  area  of  upheaval, 
and  the  maintenance  of  its  character  as  an  antecedent  river-valley 
for  a  long  period,  show  that  the  surface  was  originally  a  penei)lain 
of  subaerial  denudation,  and  not  a  plain  of  marine  sedimentation  or 
erosion.  From  this  it  follows  tliat  the  course  of  the  main  drainage 
valleys  may  not  have  been  determined  by  the  original  uplift,  but, 
with  the  exception  of  those  which  are  old  river-valleys,  whose 
direction  of  flow  has  been  reversed  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
uplift,  may  have  been  formed  by  the  cutting  back  by  erosion  into 
the  rising  mass  of  high  ground — in  other  wonls,  that  the  principal 
valleys  of  the  Lake  District  may  be  subsequent,  not  consequent 
in  origin. 

142  Correspondence — G.  W.  Lamplugh. 



Sib, — It  has  often  occurred  to  me  that  the  discussion  of  our 
British  Glacial  phenomena  would  be  facilitated  by  the  adoption  of 
regional  names,  such  as  have  been  found  so  useful  in  this  respect  in 
North  America,  for  the  different  portions  of  the  confluent  ice-sheets 
by  which  our  Islands  were  partly  surrounded  and  covered  at  the 
period  of  maximum  glaciation.  I  have  especially  felt  the  want 
of  such  names  in  describing  the  supposed  condition  of  the  basins 
of  the  North  Sea  and  of  the  Irish  Sea  in  Glacial  times.  The  term 
'  Scandinavian  Ice-sheet '  often  applied  to  the  North  Sea  ice-field 
appears  to  me  to  be  misleading,  since  it  seems  to  imply  that  the  basin 
was  occupied  solely  by  the  outflow  of  glaciers  from  Scandinavia, 
whereas  it  is  far  more  probable  that  it  was  maintained  and 
augmented  principally  by  the  snowfall  upon  its  own  surface.  The 
term  'Irish  Sea  Ice,'  sometimes  used  to  denote  the  ice-sheet  filling 
that  sea-basin,  is  likewise  objectionable,  as  I  found  in  a  recent 
discussion  where  it  was  understood  to  imply  the  marine  ice  of 
a  frozen  sea. 

After  due  consideration  and  discussion  with  colleagues  interested 
in  the  subject,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  term  '  East  British 
Ice-sheet '  will  be  found  suitable  for  the  mass  which  occupied  the 
bed  of  the  North  Sea  off  our  eastern  coasts,  and  spread  thence,  in 
places,  inland.  This  will  then  find  its  complement  in  the  term 
'  West  British  Ice-sheet '  for  the  land-ice  which  filled  the  basin 
of  the  Irish  Sea,  and  encroached  upon  our  north-western  lowlands. 

We  already  speak  of  the  '  Pennine  Ice '  for  the  great  confluent 
glaciers  which  covered  the  greater  part  of  the  Pennine  region, 
and  of  the  '  Lake  District  Ice '  for  the  masses  of  that  region,  and 
these  terms  need  no  revision. 

Then,  for  the  ice  which  overspread  the  greater  part  of  Scotland  to 
the  exclusion  of  the  '  East  British '  and  '  West  British '  sheets,  we 
might  apply  the  general  term  '  Caledonian,'  with  such  local  sub- 
division as  may  be  hereafter  found  convenient.  Aud,  similarly,  the 
'  Hibernian '  (or  '  Ivernian  ' )  would  be  that  which  covered  Central 
Ireland,  and  the  'Cambrian'  that  which  shielded  the  greater  part  of 

More  restricted  local  terms  might  still  be  introduced  to  distinguish 
well-defined  portions  of  these  sheets,  and  the  lobes  into  which  they 
probably  split  towards  their  termination. 

I  shall  be  glad  to  learn  whether  the  terms  above  suggested  are 
likely  to  be  approved  of  by  glacialists  who  hold  the  'land-ice 
theory  '  in  regard  to  our  drifts.  G.  W.  Lamplugh. 


January  20,  1901. 

Obituary — James  Bennie,  143 


Sir, — I  can  confirm  Mr.  Stather's  opinion '  (expressed  in  the 
Oeological  Magazine  for  January,  1901)  that  the  porphyrites  of 
the  East  Yorkshire  Boukler-clay  were  probably  derived  from  the 
Cheviots,  When  I  was  stationed  at  Bridlington  Quay  on  the 
Geological  Survey,  Mr.  C.  T.  Clough,  who  mapped  the  Cheviots, 
came  to  the  Quay  in  order  to  identify,  if  possible,  the  far-travelled 
erratics  in  the  Boulder-clay.  We  examined  the  shore  and  cliffs 
from  Bridlington  Quay  to  Filey,  and  found  a  large  number  of 
porphyritic  rocks,  which  Mr.  Clough  said  might  very  well  have 
come  from  the  Cheviots.  J.  R.  Dakyns. 

Snowdon  View,  Nant  Gwynnan,  Bkddgelert,  Carnarvon. 
February  11,  1901. 


Sir, — The  new  Geological  Museum  now  being  erected  here  will 
have  high  windows  aud  a  long  south  aspect.  The  effect  of  this 
will  be  that  the  sun  will  fall  suddenly  on  glazed  cases  and  as 
suddenly  pass  off  them,  thus  by  the  expansion  and  contraction  of 
the  air  causing  dust-carrying  currents  to  force  themselves  through 
every  chink.  From  this  cause  it  costs  about  three  times  as  much  to 
keep  cases  and  specimens  clean  on  the  side  exposed  to  the  sun  as 
it  does  in  the  shaded  part  of  a  museum.  This  may  be  obviated  by 
elastic  diaphragms  (which  would  hardly  allow  sufficient  movement 
for  such  large  cases  as  ours)  or  by  small  sliding  shutters  packed 
with  cotton-wool  something  like  Tyndall's  respirators. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  refer  us  to  museums  in  which  such 
a  system  has  been  tried  or  give  us  any  advice  on  the  subject  before 
our  cases  have  been  built  ?  T.  McKenny  Hughes. 


Fehrmri)  19.  1901.  


Born  September  23,  1821.  Died  .Tanvary  28,   1901. 

We  regret  to  record  the  death  of  Mr.  James  Bennie,  at  the 
age  of  79  years.  For  many  years  he  was  one  of  the  fossil 
collectors  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  and  was  well  known  to 
local  geologists  in  the  west  of  Scotland.  In  early  life,  before  he 
joined  the  Survey,  he  was  employed  in  a  paper  manufactory  in 
Glasgow,  where  he  devoted  his  leisure  hours  to  the  examination 
of  the  glacial,  interglacial,  and  post-glacial  deposits  of  the  west  of 
Scotland.  He  likewise  collected  fossils  from  the  various  Carboniferous 
horizons  in  that  region.  The  results  of  his  labours  were  published 
in  the  Transactions  of  the  Glasgow  Geological  ^Society,  and^  his 
glacial  researches  were  communicated  to  Dr.  CroU  in  1867,  as 
acknowledged  in  the  '^  Life  and  Work"  of  that  investigator.  His 
Survey  career,  which  commenced  in  1869,  was  marked  by  his  great 

>  See  "The  Sources  and  Distribution  oi  the  Far-Travelled  Boulders  ol  East 
Yorkshire,"  by  J.  W.  Stather. 

144  Miscellaneous. 

knowledge  of  the  fossiliferous  bands  in  the  Carboniferous  rocks  of 
Central  Scotland.  He  paid  special  attention  to  the  occurrence  of 
micro-organisms  in  the  weathered  shales  of  that  series,  which  resulted 
in  the  discovery  of  many  forms  new  to  science,  described  and  figured 
by  various  specialists.  He  was  the  first  to  record  the  occurrence 
of  Holothurians  in  the  Carboniferous  rocks  of  Scotland,  and  was 
likewise  the  first  to  obtain  the  remains  of  Arctic  plants  in  the  silt 
and  peat  of  vanished  lakes  that  formerly  occupied  hollows  in  the 
Boulder-clay.  With  the  remains  of  Arctic  plants  he  discovered 
fragments  of  a  phyllopod  Crustacean,  which  is  now  found  living  only 
in  fresh-water  lakes  in  Greenland  and  Spitzbergen.  Two  years  ago 
he  received  the  Murchison  Fund  from  the  Geological  Society  of 
London,  in  recognition  of  his  work.  Quiet  and  unobtrusive  in 
manner,  and  fond  of  literature,  he  showed  throughout  his  life  a  keen 
love  of  nature. — Scotsman,  January  30. 


The  New  Director  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  the  United 
Kingdom  and  of  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology,  Jermyn 
Street,  London. — We  have  just  been  informed  that  J.  J.  H.  Teall, 
Esq.,  M.A.,  Vice-President  of  the  Royal  Society,  President  of  the 
Geological  Society  of  London,  has  been  appointed  to  succeed 
Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  F.R.S.,  as  head  of  the  Geological  Survey. 
Mr.  Teall  is  an  eminent  Petrologist  and  the  author  of  many 
important  papers  on  geology  ;  he  has  published  a  most  valuable 
monograph  on  British  Petrography,  with  which  special  branch  of 
the  science  his  name  will  always  be  connected.  He  is  universally 
esteemed  amongst  geologists,  and  especially  by  the  members  of  the 
staff  of  the  Geological  Survey,  for  his  geniality  and  urbanity  to  all 
his  fellow-workers.  As  President  of  the  Geological  Society  he  has 
also  won  golden  opinions. 

The  New  Professor  of  Geology  at  University  College, 
GowER  Street. — The  Eev.  Professor  Thomas  George  Bonney,  D.Sc, 
LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  who  succeeded  Professor  John  Morris,  F.G.S., 
in  the  chair  of  Geology  at  University  College,  in  June,  1877,  and 
has  occupied  that  post  with  such  eminent  success  for  24  years, 
retires  this  month  and  is  succeeded  by  Mr.  Edmund  Johnstoner 
Garwood,  M.A.,  F.G.S.,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  a  gentleman 
already  distinguished  by  his  geological  observations  and  writings 
in  the  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Geological  Society,  the  Geological 
Magazine,  the  Royal  Geographical  Society's  and  other  scientific 
journals.  Mr.  Garwood  has  done  excellent  field  work  in  the  Alps, 
the  Himalayas,  in  Spitzbergen  ;  and  in  writing  upon  the  Magnesian 
Limestone  and  the  '  Great  Whin  Sill,'  and  the  Life-zones  of  the 
British  Carboniferous  Rocks.  He  has  been  for  some  years  a  Lecturer 
at  Harrow,  and  as  a  University  Extension  Lecturer  is  well  known 
and  esteemed  by  the  scientific  public. 

Although  Professor  Bonney  is  relinquishing  the  Chair  of  Geology 
at  University  College,  he  intends  still  to  pursue  his  scientific  and 
literary  work  and  will  continue  his  clerical  duties  as  heretofore. 


Decade  IVVolVIIIPMl. 







GM-lVb  odward  del,  et  litli. 

8     1;^'^ 

"West, Newman  imp. 

Gimp  e  des  arid  TnlolDites . 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 
No.   IV.— APRIL,    190L 

I. On     '  PvHGOilA    CRETACEA,''      A     CiRRIPEDE,     FKOM     THE      TJPl'KK 

CiiALK  OF  Norwich  and  Makg.\te. 

By  Hexky  AVoomvARD,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  V.P.Z.S.,  F.G.S. 

(PLATE   VIII,  Fics.    1-,).) 

IN  the  year  18G5  I  noticed  the  occurrence  of  what  appeared  to  be 
a  sessile  Cirripede  from  the  Upper  Chalk  of  Norwich,  and 
referred  it  to  Leach's  genus  Pijrgoma.  For  this  unique  example  the 
name  of  Pyrgoma  cretacea  was  then  proposed/  and  afterwards,  in 
1868,  it  was  more  fully  described  and  figured  by  me  in  the 
Geological  Magazine.-  I  also  pointed  out  that  Charles  Darwin, 
in  bis  Monograph  on  the  Fossil  Cirrepedia,'  had  described  a  fossil 
form  belonging  to  this  genus  under  the  name  of  Pijnjoma  anglicum, 
from  the  Coralline  Crag  of  Ramsholt,  Sufiolk,  a  species  found  living 
off  the  south  coast  of  England  and  of  Ireland,  Sicily,  Madeira,  Cape 
de  V^erde  Islands,  etc.  ;  while  Michelotti  had  named,  but  not 
described,  a  species  (^Pyrgoma  iindata)  from  the  North  Italian 
Tertiary  strata. 

The  only  other  form  of  sessile  Cirripede  known,  which  extends 
back  in  time  to  the  Chalk  formation,  is  the  genus  Verruca,  which 
M.  Bosquet  of  Maestricht  first  described  in  185o  from  the  Chalk  of 
Limbourg  under  the  name  of  Verruca  prisca.*  This  species  was 
likewise  discovered  by  J.  de  C.  Sowerby  in  the  Upper  Chalk  of 
Norwich,  and  described  under  the  same  name  by  Charles  Darwin.'' 
Like  the  genus  Pyrgoma,  Verruca  occurs  fossil  (Verruca  StrOmia)  in 
the  Glacial  beds  of  Scotland,  the  Ked  and  Coralline  Crag  of  Suffolk, 
and  recent  on  the  shores  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  etc. 

'  Brit.  Assoc.  Birmiiigli;ini  (18U.3),  Reports,  p.  321. 
^  Geot..  Mag.,  Dec.  I.  Vol.  V  (1868),  pp.  258-9,  PI.  XIV,  Fi?:s.  1,  2. 
=*  "  The  Fossil  Balanick-  aud  Verrucithe  "  :    Pal.  Soc,  1854,  p.  30,  tab.  ii,  liir.  7. 
*  J.  Bosquet:   "  Mou.  Crustaccs  toss.  terr.  Cret.  Diiche  de  Liinbourj,'."'  p.  14, 
fii^s.  1-7.     Darwin  makes  a  distinct  family  for  this  c^emis— the  Vkku  ucid.v;. 
^^  Men.  Pal.  Soc,  18.54,  p.  43,  tab.  ii,  ds;.  10. 

nECAUE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — NO.  IV.  !<• 

146     Dr.  H.  Woodward — A  Neio  Ciry'i'pede from  the  Chalk. 

Darwin,  in  describing  the  genus  Pyrgoma,^  says: — "The  shell 
consists  of  a  single  piece,  generally  without  suture,  even  on  the 
internal  surface  ;  and  this  is  the  case,  at  least,  in  P.  anglicum,  in 
extremely  young  colourless  examples  :  nevertheless,  in  some  speci- 
mens of  this  very  species,  and  of  P.  conjngatmn,  there  were  traces  of 
two,  but  only  tivo,  sutures  on  the  sheath,  one  on  each  side  towards  its 
carinal  end.  The  shell  is  often  much  depressed  or  actually  flat ;  in 
P.  anglicum,  however,  the  shell  is  steeply  conical.  The  outline  is 
rather  oval.  The  surface  is  furnished  with  more  or  less  prominent 
ridges,  radiating  from  the  orifice,  which  is  oval  and  small."  (See 
PI.  VIII,  Fig.  5.)     '-The  shell,"  he  adds,  "  is  unusually  thick." 

"The  basis,  in  all  the  species,  is  more  or  less  regularly  cup-formed 
or  sub-cylindrical.  In  P.  grande  it  penetrates  the  coral  (on  which 
it  is  fixed)  to  a  surprising  depth ;  but  this  is  not  the  case  with 
P.  anglicum,  in  which  the  basis  is  generally  exserted,  as  it  is  in 
a  slight  degree  in  P.  grande." 

Of  the  opercular  valves  in  the  Chalk  species,  so  important  and 
essential  in  the  study  of  any  of  the  Cirripedia,  we  still  remain  in 
ignorance.  I  should  not,  therefore,  have  ventured  to  reopen  the 
previous  description  of  the  so-called  '  Pyrgoma  cretacea,'  had  it  not 
happened  that  a  new  and  important  light  has  been  thrown  upon  it, 
quite  unexpectedly,  through  the  discovery  in  the  Chalk  of  Thanet  of 
a  second  specimen  by  my  friend  Dr.  Arthur  Eowe,  M.S.,  M.E.C.S., 
F.G.S.,  of  Margate.  This  gentleman's  admirable  researches  on  the 
zones  of  the  English  Chalk  have  greatly  added  to  our  knowledge  of 
its  detailed  stratigraphy,  whilst,  by  the  application  of  the  dental 
engine  for  the  development  of  minute  and  delicate  organisms 
preserved  in  the  Chalk,  he  has  made  geologists  acquainted  with 
a  host  of  beautiful  and  novel  organisms,  among  which  the  present 
addition  to  our  knowledge  of  the  form  hitherto  known  as  '  Pyrgoma 
cretacea  '  is  not,  as  I  hope  to  be  able  to  show  in  the  sequel,  the  least 
interesting  and  instructive  contribution. 

Towards  the  close  of  last  year.  Dr.  Eowe  brought  me  the  specimen 
which  is  the  subject  of  the  present  communication,  and  which  is  figui'ed 
(enlarged  three  times)  on  PI.  VIII,  Fig.  4a.  The  original  specimen 
obtained  from  the  Chalk  of  Norwich,  and  described  by  me  in  1865 
(see  PL  VIII,  Fig.  3),  consists  of  nearly  half  the  circumference  of 
the  conical  walls  of  the  shell,  the  opercular  valves  and  the  basis 
being  absent. 

I  attributed  the  absence  in  the  Norwich  specimen  of  the  character- 
istic cup-formed  basis,  usually  seen  in  Pyrgoma  anglicum  and  other 
species  of  that  genus,  to  the  readiness  with  which  the  conical  walls 
of  the  shell  separate  from  the  basis,  owing  to  a  cleft  covered  by 
a  membrane  which  may  be  observed  all  round  between  the  lower 
edge  of  the  shell  and  the  basis  in  many  of  the  species.  In  referring 
this  Cretaceous  Balanid  to  Pyrgoma,  I  was  influenced  by  the 
following  considerations,  namely  :  (1)  the  steeply  conical  form  of 
the  shell-wall  (see  PL  VIII,  Fig.  3) ;    (2)  the  rounded  approximate 

^  A  Monograph  of  the  Subclass  Cirripedia,  etc.  :  The  Balanidre  aud  Verrucidse, 
p.  3.55.     Eay  Society,  1854. 

Dr.  H.  Woodward— A  New  Cirripede  from  the  Chalk.     147 

rafliating  ribs  which  ornament  the  surface;    (.3)  the  thickness  of  the 
shell-wall  ;  (4)  the  absence  of  sutures. 

On  turning  to  Dr.  Rowe'.s  specimen  from  the  Margate  Chalk,  we 
notice  the  close  reseml)lance  of  the  shell-walls  (PI.  VIII,  Fig.  4rt, 
c.  and  r.)  with  the  Norwich  example,  the  external  surface  in*both 
being  marked  by  strong  radiating  vertical  costa3,  crossed  at  regular 
intervals  by  well-marked  transverse  rings,  forming  with  the  costse 
a  delicate  reticulated  ornamentation  like  basket-work  on  the  surface. 
In  Dr.  Rowe's  specimen  the  opposite  curved  portions  (r.  and  c.)  appear 

,'    / 

Fig.  1. — T'oHicipes  pohjiiwrHx,  G.  B.  SowerLy.  Living-:  Upper  Califoruia,  Pacific, 
etc.  (Alter  C.  Daiwiu's  figure,  op.  cit.,  pi.  vii,  fig.  2.)  "  f'a])itulum  with 
two,  tliree,  or  more  whorls  of  valves  under  the  rostrum ;  latira  regularly 
graduated  in  size  from  the  uppermost  to  the  lowest ;  scales  of  the  peduncle 
arranged  in  close  whorls."  The  range  of  the  genus  extends  from  the  Rhnctic 
beds  ;  the  Great  Oolite,  Stonesfield  and  Eyeford  ;  the  Oxford  Clay,  the  Gault, 
Upper  Greensand,  Upper  Chalk,  the  Eocene  Tertiary,  Isle  of  Wight ;  the 
Tertiary  of  Messina  ;  and  living  in  tlu;  seas  of  Europe,  etc.,  at  the  present  day. 

Fig.  2. — Cntnphraf/miift  pobjmcrHs,  Darwin.  Living:  Australian  Coast.  (.\ftcr 
C.  Darwin's  figure,  op.  cit.,  j)!.  xx,  figs.  An-Ae.)  ''  Interior  compart nu'nts 
eight,  with  several  exterior  whorls  of  small  supplemental  compartments ; 
basis  membranous."  "  In  large  old  specimens  there  arc  ten,  or  even  more, 
whorls  of  compartments,  but  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  count  them  with  any 
accuracy."     This  genus  does  not  occur  in  a  fossil  state. 

Fig.  2a. — External  view  of  one  of  the  imbricated  scales  or  valves,  from  the  second 
whorl,  counting  from  the  inside. 

at  first  sight  to  have  been  forced  apart,  or  else  that  two  additional 
lateral  compartments  of  the  shell-wall  have  fallen  out  and  been  lost ; 
but  this  does  not  seem  to  have  been  the  case.  Tlio  important 
difference  lies  in  the  fact  that,  whereas  in  the  Norwich  specimen 
(PI.  VIII,  Fig.  3)  the  shell-wall  is  exposed  and  bare  to  its  basis,  in 
the  Margate  specimen  the  base  is  concealed  by  a  fpiite  undisturl)ed 
semicircular  quadruple  row  of  shelly  imbricated  scales  (PI.  VIII, 
Fig,  4a,  i.s.,  i.s.),  analogous  to  those  at  the  base  of  the  capitulum  of 

148     Dr.  II.  Woodward — A  New  Cirripede  from  the  Challx. 

Pedunculated  Civripedes  (LepadidjB),  such  as  PolUcipes  mitella 
(PL  VIII,  Figs.  2a,  2b)  and  F.  pobjmerns  (Woodcut,  Fig.  1),  but 
which  are  absent  in  ordinary  sessile  forms  (Balanidee). 

Thus,  in  Dr.  Eowe's  specimen  we  have  presented  to  us  a  Cirripede 
of  the  greatest  interest,  offering  a  most  important  connecting  link 
between  the  more  ancient  Pedunculata  or  Lepadidje  and  the  more 
modern  Opekculata  or  Balanid^. 

Turning  to  the  genus  Catophragmiis  of  Sowerby  (Woodcut,  Fig.  2), 
we  find  a  sessile  Balanid  which  assists  us  in  the  interpretation  of 
Dr.  Rowe's  most  interesting  Chalk  Cirripede,  and  also  that  Charles 
Darwin  had,  in  1854,  already  pointed  out  the  significance  of  the 
structure  of  the  shell  in  Catophragmiis  as  a  means  of  bridging  over 
the  interval  between  the  sessile  and  pedunculated  forms  of  Cirripedia 
which  Dr.  Eowe's  specimen  had  suggested  to  my  mind  Avhen  he  first 
placed  it  in  my  hands  at  the  end  of  last  year.  "  This  genus  of 
Catophragmiis,"  writes  Darwin,^  "  is  very  remarkable  among  sessile 
Cirripedes,  from  the  eight  normal  compartments  of  the  shell  being 
surrounded  by  several  whorls  of  supplemental  compartments  or 
scales  :  these  are  arranged  symmetrically,  and  decrease  in  size,  but 
increase  in  number  towards  the  circumference  and  basal  margin. 
A  well-preserved  specimen  has  a  very  elegant  appearance,  like 
certain  compound  flowers,  which  when  half  open  are  surrounded 
by  imbricated  and  graduated  scales.  The  Chthamalin^,  in  the 
structure  of  the  mouth  and  cirri,  and  to  a  certain  extent  in  that 
of  the  shell,  fill  up  the  interval  between  the  Balaninee  and 
Lepadida? ;  and  Catophragmus  forms,  in  a  very  remarkable  manner, 
the  transitional  link,  for  it  is  impossible  not  to  be  struck  with  the 
resemblance  of  its  shell  with  the  capitulum  of  Pollieipes  (see 
Fig.  1).  In  Pollieipes,  at  least  in  certain  species,  the  scuta  and 
terga  are  articulated  together;  the  carina,  rostrum,  and  three  pairs 
of  latera,  making  altogether  eight  inner  valves,  are  considerably 
larger  than  those  in  the  outer  whorls  ;  the  arrangement  of  the  latter, 
their  manner  of  growth,  and  union,  all  are  as  in  Catophragmus.  If 
we  in  imagination  unite  some  of  the  characters  found  in  the 
different  species  of  Pollieipes,  and  then  make  the  peduncle  so 
short  (and  it  sometimes  is  very  short  in  P.  mitella)  that  the  valves 
of  the  capitulum  should  touch  the  surface  of  attachment,  it  would  be 
impossible  to  point  out  a  single  external  character  by  which  the  two 
genera  in  these  two  distinct  families  could  be  distinguished  :  but 
the  more  important  differences  in  the  arrangement  and  nature  of  the 
muscles,  which  are  attached  either  to  the  opercular  valves  or  surround 
the  inside  of  the  peduncle,  would  yet  remain." 

Although  Dr.  Eowe's  Cretaceous  Cirripede  lacks  the  opercular 
valves,  it  enables  us  to  conclude,  from  the  presence  of  the  thi'ee  or 
four  rows  of  imbricated  scales  around  the  base  of  the  capitulum,  that 
this  form  must  at  once  be  removed  from  the  genus  Pyrgoma,  with 
which,  as  one  of  the  Balanina?,  it  has  onl}'  a  very  remote  affinity. 

1  A  Monograph  of  the  Subclass  Ch-ripedia  :  The  Balauida',  etc.,  pp.  48-5-7, 
pi.  XX,  fig.  4.     Ray  Society,  1854. 

Dr.  H.  Woodtcai'd — A  New  Cirn'pede  from  the  ChaJk.     149 

Nor  can  we  place  it.  as  I  at  first  couceived  to  be  possible,  in 
Darwin's  subfamily  ChthamalinEe,  which  embraces  Chthamalus, 
Chamccsiylio,  Pachylasma,  Octomeris,  and  Catophragmns,  all  of 
which  are  very  irregular  and  aberrant  forms  of  lialaninge,  of 
which  the  same  author  observes  that  they  differ  in  many  important 
respects  from  the  Balaninai  proper  and  approach  the  Lepadidaj, 
as,  for  instance,  in  the  supplemental  whorls  of  imbricated  scales  or 
compartments  in  Catophragimts,  etc. 

We  should,  I  think,  rather  regard  this  Cretaceous  type  as  an 
ancient  pedunculated  Cirripede,  which,  judging  from  the  form  and 
thickness  of  its  carina  and  rostrum,  appears  to  be  assuming  a  more 
sessile  condition  of  growth,  and  by  a  later  and  further  modification 
may  have  become  completely  so. 

From  the  undisturbed  triple  or  quadruple  arrangement  of  imbri- 
cated scales  enclosing  the  base  it  is  quite  certain  that  the  carina  (c.) 
and  rostrum  (r.)  (PI.  VllT,  Fig.  4a)  could  not  have  united  to  form 
a  conical  shell-wall  like  that  in  Fijrgoma  anglicim  (PI.  VIII,  Fig.  5), 
as  I  originally  supposed,  nor  do  I  think  it  could  have  had  other 
lateral  compartments  between  r.  and  c.  to  complete  the  shell-wall 
on  the  Bfdnmis  type  of  structure,  the  large  size  of  the  scales  in  the 
centre  suggesting  rather  that  they  were  the  sub-latera,  as  in  the 
capitulum  of  Follicipes.  It  seems  much  more  probable  that  the 
scuta  and  terga  and  perhaps  a  small  and  narrow  latus  took  part,  as 
in  PolUcipes,  in  building  up  the  capitulum,  the  basis  of  which  was 
protected  by  a  series  of  imbricated  shelly  plates.  In  point  of  fact 
we  have  here  a  Follicipes  which  has  abandoned  its  peduncle,  and 
whilst  still  retaining  the  rows  of  imbricated  scales  at  the  base  of  its 
capitulum,  has  settled  down  into  the  preliminary  stage  of  becoming 
a  permanently  sessile  form. 

.    =  rostrum. 

.s.  =  imbricated  scales. 

.1.  =  sub-latera. 

=  carma. 

=  imbricated  scales  at 
base  of  capitulum. 

Fig.  Z.—Bmchyh'pa.vyetacca,  geu.  nov.  (capitidum  restored).     Tlicori-inal  figure 
of  Dr.  Rowe's  specimen  is  here  reproduced  aud  restored  by  tlie  ;«ddit.ou  ot 
/    latus  •    «.  scutum  ;    t.  tergum.      The  rostrum  {r.)  and  caruia  (c.)  aud  the 
imbricated  scales  [\.s.,  i.s.)  are  copied  from  the  origmal  figure. 

As  Lepas  was  the  name  originally  given  by  Linnaeus  to  embrace 
both  the  pedunculated  and  sessile  species,  the  designation  Brachjhpas 
may  serve  to  express  the  present  type,  which  embraces  characters 
apparently  common  to  botli  divisions  of  Cirripedia.  The  trivial 
name  cretacea  is  of  course  retained. 

,    The  new  form  should,  I  think,  be  placed  in  a  separate  family, 
intermediate  between  the  Pedunculata  and  Operculata,  as— 

150     Dr.  H.  Woodward — A  New  Cirripede  from  the  Chalk. 

BEACHYLEPAS,  gen.  nov.,  1901. 
Non  Pyrgoma  (as  applied  by  H.  "Woochv.,  1865,  Brit.  Assoc.  Eep.,  p.  321). 
Valves  about  100  in  number ;  latera  of  lower  whorl  numerous ; 
lines  of  growtb  directed  downwards  ;  peduncle  absent. 

Braohylepas  cketacba,  H.  Woodw.     (PI.  VIII,  Figs,  'ka,  h.) 

Capitulum  with  three  or  four  whorls  of  valves  under  the  rostrum ; 
apparently  only  three  rows  under  the  carina ;  snb-latera  larger  than 
the  rest.  The  base  on  the  side  figured  shows  about  fifty-four ' 
shelly  imbricated  plates  or  scales  forming  eighteen  vertical  rows, 
arranged  partly  in  three  and  partly  in  four  rows ;  they  are  smaller, 
narrower,  and  more  pointed  under  the  rostrum  (r.),  and  largest  and 
broadest  in  the  centre  below  the  latus  (see  restoration,  Fig.  3,  I.), 
as  we  see  is  the  case  in  PoUicipes  polymeriis  (Woodcut,  Fig.  1), 
where  the  latera  are  regularly  graduated  in  size  from  the  upjDermost 
to  the  lowest  of  the  series.  The  scales  under  the  carina  (c.)  are 
larger  than  those  beneath  the  rostrum  (r.)  ;  but  they  are  narrower 
and  more  pointed  than  those  of  the  lateral  series  (which  are 
reproduced  enlarged  on  PI.  VIII,  Fig.  46).  The  scales  have 
a  strong  median  ridge  with  lateral  divaricating  lines,  giving  the 
free-edges  a  delicately  plicated  border.  The  median  ridge  is  narrower 
and  sharper  in  the  scales  beneath  the  rostrum,  and  broadest  on  the 
lateral  scales. 

The  carina  (c.)  is  marked  by  strong  vertical  ridges,  which  ai'e 
crossed  by  numerous  finer  encircling  bands,  running  parallel  to  the 
base,  giving  to  both  the  carina  and  rostrum  a  delicate  reticulated 
surface.  The  walls  of  both  are  thick,  and  so  far  as  can  be  seen 
quite  smooth  on  the  inner  surface.  On  the  opposite  aspect  of  the 
carina  to  that  drawn,  the  base  of  the  capitulum  is  seen  to  be  nearly 
wholly  exposed  and  bare,  save  for  the  presence  of  three  of  the 
shelly  scales  which  remain  in  situ  adhering  to  the  carina,  the 
largest  of  which  is  4  mm,  in  length.  The  semicircular  wall  of 
the  carina  measures  about  17  mm.  near  its  base  around  its  outer 
face,  and  its  height  on  the  side  not  covered  by  the  sheath  of 
imbricated  scales  is  8^  mm.  The  I'ostrum  is  considerably  smaller 
than  the  carina;  it  measures  15mm.  around  the  outer  surface  near 
the  base,  and  is  6  mm.  in  height. 

The  sheath  of  imbricated  scales  covers  the  base  of  the  rostrum,  on 
the  side  drawn  in  the  Plate,  2  mm.  deep,  and  extends  also  2  mm. 
below  the  base  of  the  rostrum,  the  whole  series  of  scales  being 
a  little  over  4  mm.  deep. 

Viewed  from  above,  the  body-cavity,  enclosed  in  the  convexities 
of  the  carina  and  rostrum,  is  seen  to  be  oval,  being  8  mm.  long  by 
6  mm.  broad.  The  walls  of  the  capitulum  are  very  steep,  the  carina, 
which  is  also  much  the  highest,  seeming  almost  to  overhang  at  its 

1  That  is,  54  plates  on  the  side  figured  ;  if  perfect,  there  would  have  been  an  equal 
number  on  the  other  side,  or  about  108  in  all. 

Dr.  II.   Woodicard — A  Neir  C impede  from  the  Chalh.     101 

The  imbricated  scales  or  plates,  which  extend  below  the  base  of 
the  rostrum  and  carina,  spread  outwards  at  a  considerably  wider 
angle  than  the  capitulura.  The  attached  valve  of  some  small  mollusc 
is  seen  adhering  to  the  imbricated  scales  below  the  rostrum. 

From  the  disparity  in  the  proportions  of  the  rostrum  and  carina, 
and  the  absence  of  alas,  we  arrive  at  the  conclusion  that  the  terga 
and  scuta  were  not  mere  opercular  valves,  but  formed  a  part  of  the 
capitulum  ;  that  latera  were  also  present  is  proved  by  the  increase 
in  size  of  the  sub-lateral  scales,  which  are  much  larger  than  those  of 
the  rostral  or  carinal  series  (see  PI.  VIII,  Figs.  4a,  h). 

There  can,  I  think,  be  no  reasonable  doubt  that  Brachjlepas  forms 
a  distinct  family,  from  which  at  a  later  period  probably  the  modern 
Operculata  have  arisen. 

The  place  of  Brachjlepas  in  the  phylogeny  of  the  subclass  may  be 
indicated  as  follows  : — 



Lepas       Scalpeihon       rulUcipes 


{Balanida;  etc.,  etc.). 
Catophraymiis  Balanus,  etc.,  etc. 

SealpcUitiii  (Gault) 

Bkachylepas  (Chalk) 

PoUicipes  (Rb;i.'tic) 

Tiirr'ibpds  (Sihiiiiin) 

Fig.  l.-BaJanusncmen,K...    Recent :  British     (^d  nat.) -}.    (See  also  Darw^^^^^^ 

"  Balanidtc  "  p.  277,  pl.  vii,  fij?-  5.     r.  rostrum  ;  c.  car  ma  ;  r.l.  rostro- lateral 

compart^ut;^.    lateral   con^artmeat  ;  I.e.   earino  -  h.teral  compartment. 

i.  basis  ;  Oi'.  opercular  valves.  /tj„,*\j       /.   ,..,rin'i  • 

YiG.^2a.-Follic\pesmitcUa,Unn.     Recent:  East  Indies      (Ad  nat.)  ..     '' •  ™  ; 

/  ter-ura    s  scutum  ;  r.  rostrum  ;  /.  latus ;  s.r.  sub-rostrum ;  s.c.  .ub-cauna  . 

belween  ;.>•.■  and  L'-  the  valves  ot  the  lower  latera  are  seen ;  p..  pednneular 

Fig   2r-F;ur  of  the  lower  latera,  with  some  of  the  peduncular  scales  onlar.q:ed. 

fU'OT  Map  Dec  I  Vol.  V,  1868,  p.  'iJ^S,  PI.  XI\  ,  tigs.  1,2).  t  r  >m  tlie 
Chalk  '1  Norwich/'  Preserved  in' the  British  Museum  (Natural  History). 
Enlarsred  twice  natural  size. 


152  Dr.  H.  JFoodivard — Carboniferous  Trilohites. 

Fig.  4:a.—Brachylepas  cretacea.  Specimen  obtained  and  developed  by  Dr.  Arthur 
Rowe,  M.S.,  M.R.C.S.,  F.G.S.,  from  the  Chalk  of  Margate.  Enlarged 
three  times  natnral  size.  Original  preserved  in  Dr.  Eowe's  cabinet,  c.  carina ; 
r.  rostrum;  i.s.,  i.s.  imbricated  scales  at  base  of  capitulum. 

Pig.  4i. — Sub-lateral  scales,  enlarged  six  times  natural  size.  From  the  centre  of 
series  just  below  the  latus  (see  restoration  in  text,  Fig.  3,  /). 

Fig.  5. — Pyrgoma  angUcum,  Leach  (viewed  from  above).  From  the  Coralline  Crag, 
Eamsholt,  Suffolk.  Enlarged  four  times  natural  size.  Eecent :  Great  Britain, 
Europe,  Cape  de  Yerde.  (Copied  from  Darwin's  "  Balauidie  " :  Pal.  Soc. 
Moil.,  1854,  tab.  ii,  fig.  la.) 

II. — Note  on  some  Carboniferous  Trilobites. 

By  Henry  Woodward,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 

(PLATE  VIII,  Figs.  6-S.) 

THE  problems  of  life  which  the  biologist  is  called  upon  to  solve 
present  so  many  and  such  varied  aspects  that  they  are  never 
likely  to  become  exhausted,  or  to  weary  by  reason  of  their  monotony. 
Among  these  the  appearances  and  disappearances  of  groups  in  time 
(like  the  players  on  Shakespeare's  mimic  stage)  are  certainly  not  the 
least  interesting  questions  awaiting  solution. 

In  the  case  of  the  Trilobita,  we  are  indebted  to  Walcott  in 
America,  Hicks  in  Wales,  Lapworth  in  England,  Peach  and  Horns 
in  Scotland,  Nathorst  in  Sweden,  Mickwitz  in  Russia,  and  Holm  in 
Lapland  for  extending  the  Olenellus  zone  back  in  time  to  the  Lower 
Cambrian,  thus  giving  to  the  Trilobites  a  vast  increase  in  antiquity, 
without  by  any  means  reaching  the  dawn  of  life  of  this  group. 

The  existence  of  Trilobites  in  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  wasl 
made  known  as  early  as  1809,  but  no  upward  extension  has  occurred! 
during  the  lapse  of  nearly  one  hundred  years,  save  their  discovery 
in  the  Culm  of  Waddon-Barton,  Chudleigh,  and  Barnstaple,  Devon- 
shire,^ still  within  the  Lower  Carboniferous  series.  One  is  tempted 
to  ask,  did  they  survive  beyond  the  seas  of  the  Lower  Carboniferous 
period,  and,  if  not,  what  was  the  cause  of  their  extermination  ?  To 
these  inquiries  our  researches  have  at  present  yielded  no  reply. 

It  seems  difficult  to  understand  why  the  conditions  which  pre- 
vailed in  the  seas  during  the  slow  building  up  of  the  vegetable 
deposits  of  the  Coal-period  on  the  adjacent  low-lying  lands  were 
inimical  to  the  life  of  the  Trilobita,  seeing  that  near  those  old  lands 
several  species  of  small  king-crabs  (Limidi)  were  living,  larger 
Eurypterus  -  like  Crustaceans,  small  aquatic  forms  of  Cyclus, 
numerous  Brachyurans  (the  first  lobsters),  Antlirapalcemon,  Pygo- 
cepJialus  (a  Stomapod),  with  Phyllopod  and  Ostracod  Crustaceans 
in  great  abundance :  apparently  offering  an  undoubted  cei'tificate  as 
to  the  salubrity  of  this  marine  resort.    Yet  the  Trilobites  disappeared. 

Although  limited  in  the  number  of  genera  and  species,  the 
Carboniferous  and  Culm  Trilobites  form  a  most  elegant  and  attrac- 
tive group,  but  they  do  not  display  that  great  variety  of  form  or 
ornamentation  which  characterized  their  predecessors  in  Silurian 

1  H.  Woodward,  "Trilobites  from  the  Culm  of  Devon"  :  Pal.  Soc.  Mou.,  1884, 
Carboniferous  Trilobites,  pp.  59-70,  pi.  x.  Also  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  li 
(1895),  pp.  646-9. 

Dr.  II.   Woodtcard — Carboiiiferoii.'i  Tri/olj/ies.  lo-"} 

Since  I  published  my  monograph  on  Carboniterous  Trilobites 
(1883-1884,  Pal.  Soc.  Men.,  pp.  1-SG,  pis.  i-x),  I  have  given  in  this 
Magazine  for  1894  (Dee.  IV,  Vol.  I,  pp.  481-489,  PI.  XlV) 
descriptions  of  two  new  species,  namely,  IViillipsia  Vau-der-GrachtIi 
and  P.  Folleni,  from  the  Carbonaceous  shale,  banks  of  the  Kiver 
Hodder,  Stonyhurst,  Lancashire. 

In  November,  1895,  I  examined  a  number  of  specimens  sulimitted 
to  me  by  Dr.  G.  J.  Hinde  and  I\Ir.  Howard  Fox.  from  the  Culm  of 
Devonshire  and  from  a  white  siliceous  rock  at  Ilannaford  Quarry, 
near  Barnstaple.  These  represented  forms  already  described  as 
Ph'llipsia  Leei,  Ph.  minor,  Ph.  Cllffordi,  Phillipsia'?  (a  larval  form), 
Grifjitltides  acanfhiceps,  G.  lov/jispiims,  Proetns  sp.  A,  Proetus  sp.  b 
(Q."J.G.S.,  vol.  li,  1895,  pp.  646-649,  pi.  xxviii,  figs.  1-8). 
Mr.  J.  G.  Handing,  Miss  Partridge,  and  Mr.  A.  K.  Coomara- 
tSwamy,  F.G.S.,  have  also  sent  me  specimens  from  Barnstaple  for 
examination,  some  of  which  I  hope  to  figure  and  notice  shortly. 

Last  year,  when  visiting  my  friend  Mv.  E.  Howarth,  F.K.A.S., 
F.Z.S.,  the  energetic  Curator  of  the  Public  Museum,  Weston  Park, 
Sheffield,  I  discovered  that  this  museum  possesses  a  most  excellent 
series  of  Trilobites  from  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  of  Derbyshire, 
of  the  existence  of  which  I  was  previously  unaware. 

The  collection  was  derived  from  two  sources: — (1)  Pui'chased 
with  the  geological  collection  of  the  Rev.  Urban  Smith,  vicar  of 
Stoney  Middleboro'  (near  to  Eyam),  Derbyshire,  an  ardent  geologist 
who  during  many  years'  residence  in  this  district  formed  a  large 
collection  chiefly  obtained  from  the  Carboniferous  Limestoue  of  his 
own  immediate  neighbourhood.  The  specimen  H.  88.  1103, 
Griffithides  longiceps,  Portlock,  figured  on  our  PI.  VIII,  Fig.  6, 
enlarged  three  times  nat.  size,  is  from  this  collection.  (2)  The 
second  collection  was  purchased  as  a  part  of  the  museum  of  Thomas 
Bateman,  Esq.,  of  Middleton  Plall,  near  Bakewell,  Derbyshire. 
Mr.  Bateman  wrote  several  books  on  the  antiquities  of  Derbyshire 
and  Yorkshire,  and  his  archaeological  and  geological  collections  were 
purchased  for  the  Sheffield  Museum  (see  lieview  of  Mr.  Howarth's 
Catalogue  of  Bateman  Collection,  Geol.  Mag.,  1901,  p.  37).  The 
specimen  H.  93.  118,  of  G.  longiceps,  figured  on  our  Plate  (PI.  VIII, 
Figs.  7,  S,  enlarged  three  times  nat.  size),  is  from  the  Bateman 
Collection.  From  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  of  Wettin  Hill, 

It  is  most  rare  to  meet  with  specimens  from  the  Carboniferous 
Limestone,  such  as  the  two  here  figured,  in  which  the  head,  thorax, 
and  abdomen  (or  pygidium)  are  preserved  united  in  the  same 
individual ;  the  thoracic  segments  are  very  commonly  absent,  and 
the  head-shield  and  pygidium  are  usually  luund  separately,  so  that 
their  description  is  often  attended  with  considerable  difficulty  and 

I  set  out  with  the  full  conviction  that  the  above  exanq)les,  the 
details  of  which  are  so  remarkably  well  preserved,  entitled  them  to 
specific  distinction  ;  but  after  more  careful  study  1  can  only  conclude 
them  to  represent  a  more  slender  variety  of  G.  lowjicrps.  the  axis  ot 

154      Messrs.  Barron  8f  Hume — Eastern  Desert  of  Egypt. 

wliich  is  distinctly  narrower  than  that  figured  by  me  in  1883  (Pal, 
Soc.  Mon.,  pi.  vi,  figs.  7  and  8). 

The  description  given  at  pp.  33-34  closelj'  agrees  with  our  present 
specimens,  save  in  one  particulai',  namely,  the  axis  is  there  stated 
to  be  equal  to  half  the  entire  breadth  of  the  thorax,  whereas  in 
Fig.  6  of  our  Plate  VIJI  it  is  shown  to  be  exactly  one-third  the 
entire  breadth  of  the  thorax.  This  form  might  therefore  be 
recognized  as  Griffithides  longiceps,  var.  angusta,  H.  W. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Trilobites  from  the  Carboniferous 
Limestone  in  the  Sheffield  Museum,  all  from  Derbyshire  :  — 
Phillipsia  Derbiensis,  Martin,  sp.,  1809. 
,,         gemmuUfera,  Phillips,  sp.,  1836. 
,,         JEichwaldi,  Fisher,  sp.,  1825. 
Griffithides  globiceps,  Phillips,  sp.,  1836. 

,,  Carringtonensis,  Etheridge  MS.  (H.  W.,  1884). 

,,  longispinus,  Portlock,  1843. 

,,         seminiferus    (a  very   good    specimen   in   'Rotten    stone'), 

Phillips,  sp.,  1836. 
,,  longiceps,  Portlock,  1843. 

,,  ,,  var.  angusta.     (PL  VIII,  Figs.  6-8.) 

Bracliymetopus  Ouralicus,  De  Verneuil,  1845   (a  large  series  of  very 

good  detached  head-shields  and  pygidia). 
Proetus,  sp.  ind.  (some  small  detached  pygidia). 

Some  large  detached  pygidia  in  this  collection  may  be  new. 


Fig.  6. — Griffithides  longiceps,  Portlock,  var.  angusta,  H.  "W.    Carboniferous  Lime- 
stone:  Stoney  Middleboro'. 

Figs.  7,  8. — G.  longiceps,  var.  angusta.     Carboniferous  Limestone:    "Wettin  Hill, 

Figures  enlarged  three  times  natural  size.     Original  specimens  preserved  in 
the  Sheffield  Museum. 

III. — Notes  on  the  Geology  of  the  Eastern  Desert  of  Egypt, 
By  T.  Barron-,  A.E.C.S.,  F.G.S.,  etc.,  and  W.  F.  Hume,  D.Sc,  A.E.S.M.,  etc... 

(By  permission  of  the  Under-Secretary  of  State  for  Public  Works,  and  the 
Director- General  of  the  Survey  Department.) 

The  paper  is  divided  into  two  parts,  viz. : — 

1.  Sedimentary  Rocks. 

2.  Igneous  and  Metamorphic  Rocks. 

Part     I. — 1.  Pleistocene  and  Eecent.     («)  Igneous  Gravel  and  Conglomerates. 

[b]  Newer  and  older  Beach  Deposits. 

2.  Pliocene.     Nile  Valley  Limestones  and  Conglomerates. 

3.  Miocene  Beds. 

4.  Eocene  Limestones  and  Shales. 

5.  Cretaceous  Limestones. 

6.  Nubian  Shales  and  Sandstones. 

1.  (a)  Igneous  Gravels,  etc. — These  consist  of  granite,  gneiss,  and 
many  other  igneous  and  metamorphic  rocks  similar  to  those  met 
with  in  the  Red  Sea  Hills,  and  occur  up  Wadi  Qena  and  spread 


Mentis.  Barron  ^'  Ilionc — Eastrvn  Desert  of  E<ji/iit. 


out  in  a  fan-shaped  delta  at  its  mouth.  Although  ahundant  in 
this  wadi,  the^'^  are  unknown  in  the  side-valleys,  even  where  they 
are  now  connected  with  the  igneous  hills.  Tiie  explanation  of  this 
is  as  follows  : — East  of  Qena  the  Eocene  plateau  has  heen  hrokeu 
up  into  a  series  of  outliers,  which  until  quite  recently  were  connected 
by  a  long  ridge,  the  sole  break  being  that  where  Wadi  Qena  passes 
between  the  main  plateau  and  the  outlier  of  Abu  Had.  Previous 
to  the  formation  of  the  latter  fracture,  the  southern  end  of  Wadi 
Qena  was  a  bay,  in  which  flint  containing  conglomerates  and  Pliocene 
limestones  were  being  deposited,  but  when  the  above-mentioned  gaj* 
was  formed,  the  drainage  from  the  Red  Sea  Hills  passed  through  to 
the  Nile  Valley.  Similar  gravels  cover  the  Red  Sea  Coast-plahi. 
The  age  of  these  beds  has  now  been  shown  to  be  Post-Pliocene, 
as  there  is  a  marked  unconformity  between  theui  and  the  latter, 
and  also  because  on  the  Coast-plain  they  are  found  underlying  and 
overlying  limestones  containing  Pleistocene  fossils. 

This  throws  a  strong  light  on  the  age  of  the  Nile.  Mr.  Beadnell 
found  these  gravels  on  the  western  side  of  the  valley,  and  they  are 
apparently  continuous  under  the  Nile  alluvium,  thus  showing  that 
the  Nile  as  a  river  is  later  than  these  gravels,  and  could  not  have 
begun  to  flow  until  late  Pleistocene  times.  These  gravels  are  alsa 
suggested  as  the  origin  of  the  igneous  pebbles  reported  by  Professor 
Judd  in  the  Royal  Society's  boring  at  Zaqaziq.  All  the  rocks 
mentioned  can  be  matched  from  the  gravels  near  Qena.  (Since  thi;' 
paper  was  read  similar  pebbles,  but  worn  thin  as  by  long  rolling,^ 
have  been  found  in  cuttings  in  the  lake  deposits  to  the  north  of 
Heluan.)  The  theory  of  the  derivation  of  the  pebbles  from  the 
northern  part  of  the  Red  Sea  Hills  is  untenable,  as  it  is  known  that 
Wadi  Qena  received  all  the  drainage  from  that  area  in  early 
Pliocene  times. 

These  gravels  are  believed  to  have  been  deposited  in  a  fresh-water 
lake,  a  series  of  which  were  formed  as  the  sea  retreated  down  the 
Nile  Valley. 

1.  (6)  Baised  Beaches  and  Coral  Reefs.— Five  series  are  recognized, 
of  which  the  youngest  is  below  sea-level,  their  succession  being  as 
follows : — 

(1)  The  coral  reefs  at  present  forming  in  the  Red  Sea. 

(2)  The  raised  beaches  and  lower  coral  reefs  which  flank  the  coast, 

varying  in  height  from  near  sea-level  to  2o  metres  above 
the  sea.  .  .. 

(3)  A  higher  coral  reef  series  on  an  average  four  to  seven  kilo- 

metres from  the  sea,  and  at  various  levels  between  Ho  and 
170  metres. 

(4)  A    disturbed    coral    reef  dipping  20  degrees  eastward,  closely 

related  to  the  previous  one. 

(5)  An    old    coral     reef    in    which    the    affinities    are    as    mucli 

Mediterranean  as  Erythranvn,  regarded  at  present  as  Miocene. 

Along  the  shore  '  storm-beaches '  are  common ;  in  some  places  the 

shells  form  well-marked  zones;    while  the  higher  beaches  and  reels 

156       Messrs.  Barro)i  (^'  Hume — EasteDi  Desert  of  Egypt. 

are  distinguished  more  or  less  from  the  lower  by  a  different  fauna. 
The  disturbed  reef  has  been  formed  previous  to  the  formation  of  the 
parallel  ranges  of  Jebel  Esh  and  Zeit,  thus  bringing  up  the  fault- 
movement  to  very  recent  times. 

In  this  area  there  is  an  inversion  of  the  stratigraphical  arrangement, 
the  higher  beds  being  the  older,  the  reefs  being  formed  during 
-a  period  of  secular  elevation.  There  is  also  apparently  a  long  break 
between  the  two  reefs,  the  explanation  suggested  being  as  follows  : — 

The  first  great  Tertiary  earth-movement  in  the  Ked  Sea  region 
was  previous  to  the  Upper  Miocene  and  subsequent  to  the  Eocene, 
•the  latter  being  faulted,  and  beds  of  the  former  deposited  in  the 
troughs  produced.  Later,  as  the  result  of  further  movements,  coral 
reefs  were  formed  on  the  sides  of  the  igneous  hills,  but  as  soon  as 
(owing  to  continued  elevation  and  denudation)  valleys  had  formed, 
down  which  torrents  carried  masses  of  pebbles,  etc.,  the  conditions 
became  unfavourable  for  the  formation  of  true  reefs,  and  only  gravels 
were  deposited.  This  view  assumes  the  existence  of  marked  pluvial 
conditions,  as  maintained  by  previous  writers,  and  it  was  only  when, 
the  present  desert  conditions  set  in  that  the  reefs  again  began 
to  grow. 

2.  Pliocene, — Mayer-Eymar  and  Dawson  have  both  regarded  the 
Nile  Valley  as  an  arm  of  the  sea  in  recent  times  as  far  up  as  Assuan. 
A  foraminiferal  limestone,  found  by  Mr.  Barron  near  Erment  and 
which  has  been  described  hy  Mr.  F.  Chapman,  contained  two  out  of 
:five  species  described  not  older  than  Miocene,  while  one  is  not 
known  before  Pliocene  times,  thus  proving  the  above  theory.  Beds 
of  the  same  age  are  found  in  Wadi  Qena.  They  form  a  plateau 
consisting  of  flint  conglomerates,  white  limestone,  and  at  the  base 
marls  and  fissile  sandstones  which  vary  greatly,  the  limestones 
being  lenticular  and  thinning  out  to  the  east.  The  conglomerates 
are  formed  by  the  denudation  of  the  Eocene  limestone.  The 
succession  of  these  beds  is  as  follov^^s  : — 

(1)  On  the  boundai'y-line  with  the  Eocene  rocks,  breccias  of  flinty 

and  cherty  limestone  with  lenticles  of  limestone  interbedded. 

(2)  Conglomerates  of  well-rounded  pebbles. 

{3)   Pure  white  limestones,  perhaps  partly  siliceous. 
(4)   Marls  and  clays. 
(o)   Sandy  clays. 

These  beds  are  regarded  as  Pliocene  on  three  grounds — (1)  They 
have  no  resemblance  to  known  Miocene  beds  in  Egypt ;  (2)  they 
are  identical  in  all  essential  particulars  with  the  foraminiferal  series 
of  the  Nile  Valley;  and  (3)  the  Pleistocene  gravels  are  younger  and 
unconformable  to  them. 

These  beds  owe  their  origin  to  the  faulting  which  produced  the 
Nile  Valley  and  Wadi  Qena,  and  there  must  have  been  a  subsidence 
of  at  least  400  metres  to  allow  of  their  deposition. 

The  Pliocene  has  been  a  period  of  great  movement  marked  by  the 
formation  of  the  great  rifts  such  as  the  Eed  Sea,  with  the  invasion 
of  the  fauna  of  the  southern  seas,  the  Grulf  of  Suez,  the  great  scarp 
of  the  Ked  Sea  Hills  and  its  parallel  ranges,  and  the  main  trend  of 

J/cix/'.s.  Barron  ^'  Ilxmc — Eastern  Desert  of  Eijupt.       157 

the  Nile  Valley  and  Wadi  Qena,  the  two  latter  being  in  part  arms  of 
tlie  sea  extending  far  into  the  land. 

3.  Miocene  Beds. — There  are  no  new  facts  to  be  added  to  the 
results  obtained  by  Mitchell  and  Mayer-Eymar  in  this  area. 

4.  Eocene  Beds. — These  can  be  divided  into  two  main  series  — 
(a)  a  thick  group  of  limestones  which  are  locally  named  Serrai 
Limestones,  and  (b)  a  thick  group  of  shales,  marls,  and  marly 
limestones  termed  by  the  Survey  the  '  Esna  Shales.' 

(a)  The  summit  of  the  plateau  is  a  bed  containing  a  small 
nnmmulite,  underlying  which  is  a  nodular  limestone  forming 
a  distinct,  precipitous,  undercut  cliif  3  metres  high.  Beneath  this 
are  limestones  with  flint-bands  having  a  thickness  of  200  metres, 
and  having  at  their  base  a  chalky  limestone  weathering  pink.  The 
total  thickness  of  this  series  is  22o  metres. 

ih)  The  Esna  shales  are  composed  of  yellow  limestones  (Pecten 
Marls)  forming  the  base,  succeeded  by  green  shales,  in  the  middle 
of  which  is  a  limestone,  the  total  thickness  being  122  metres. 
The  Eocene  here  belongs  to  the  '  Libysche  Stnfe '  of  Zittel  or 
Londinian  stage. 

By  the  discovery  of  the  unconformity  between  the  Eocene  and 
Cretaceous  strata  in  Wadi  Hammama,  the  presence  of  hitherto 
unsuspected  Eocene  has  been  proved  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Eed  Sea  Hills,  such  as  the  faulted  area  of  Jebel  Duwi  and  Nakheil, 
near  Qosseir.  and  the  limestone  range  of  Jebel  iMellaha,  near  Jebel 
Zeit.  The  former  is  a  bold  white  cliff  facing  south  and  dipping 
away  at  angles  of  15  to  20  degrees,  and  is  the  result  of  complicated 
folding  and  strike-  and  dip-faulting,  the  flinty  series  being  some- 
times tilted  at  angles  of  40  degrees,  and  lying  in  succession  against 
Nubian  Sandstone,  metamorphic  rocks,  and  granite,  as  in  Jebel 
Hamrawein.  Jebel  Nakheil  is  an  Eocene  and  Cretaceous  syncline 
in  which  the  succession  is  the  same  as  that  near  Qena.  Other 
outliers  are  noted  in  Wadi  Hamrawein,  the  country  north  of 
Wadi  Saga,  at  the  confluence  of  Wadi  Safaja  and  Wadi  Wasif,  and 
to  the  north-west  of  Wadi  Um  Taglier. 

Jehel  Mellaha. —Fvofessov  Zittel,  in  his  map,  following  Schwein- 
furth's  researches,  refers  the  whole  series  to  the  Cretaceous,  but  the 
latter  seems  to  have  become  aware  of  the  presence  of  Eocene  later. 
This  range  is  composed  of  the  same  beds  as  Jebel  Nakheil. 

The  Eocene  beds  have  covered  the  whole  of  the  Eastern  Desert 
north  of  lat.  26°  N.,  but  have  been  entirely  removed  except  where 
let  down  by  faults.  They  are  everywhere  unconformable  to  the 
Cretaceous  rocks. 

5.  Cretaceous  Limestones.— Mtev  pointing  out  some  gross  errors 
recently  published  by  Dr.  M.  Blanckenhorn,  the  most  important 
points  to  be  noted  arc  these  : — 

(1)  The  occurrence  of  a  Cretaceous  plateau  at  Wadi  Hammama 
containing  numerous  Cephalopoda,  Ptijclioceras.  etc.,  and  a  coprolite 
bed  aboul:  one  metre  thick,  and  extending  over  20  kilometres  to  the 
north,  where  it  runs  to  gromid  at  the  foot  of  Abu  Had.  The  coprolite 
bed  contains  50  per  cent,  phosphate  of  lime. 

158      Jfessi's.  Barron  Sf  Hume — Eastern  Desert  of  Egijpt. 

(2)  There  is  a  distinct  unconformity  between  the  Esna  Shales 
and  the  Cretaceous. 

(3)  Cretaceous  Plateau  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Duioi. — This  was 
hitherto  scarcely  known,  and  differs  from  the  previously  described 
area  in  the  absence  of  the  Ptyclwceras,  etc.,  and  by  their  replacement 
by  large  Nautili,  associated  with  Libycoceras  Ismaeli  and  beds  of 
Trigonoarca  mnltidentata,  etc.,  below  which  comes  a  bed  crowded 
with  Ostrea  Villei.  A  strong  unconformity  is  also  here  present 
between  these  beds  and  the  Eocene.  At  the  north  end  of  this 
range,  near  Saga  Plain,  the  coprolite  beds  are  of  unusual  thickness. 

(4)  Confluence  of  WacU  Safuja  and  Wadi  Wasif — Here  there  are 
two  well-developed  coprolite  beds,  and  a  veiy  prominent  layer  of 
BacuUtes.  The  conclusion  arrived  at  is  that  the  Cretaceous  lime- 
stones of  the  area  described  are  of  shallower-water  origin  than  those 
occurring  to  the  north  in  Wadi  Araba,  and  entirely  Carapanian  in 
age,  being  characterized  by  the  abundance  of  their  oysters,  their 
well-marked  coprolite  beds,  and  small  thickness.  This  main  type 
is  of  great  palgeontological  variability,  the  beds  near  Qena,  Qosseir, 
and  Mellaha  differing  in  essential  particulars. 

Gypseous  Deposits  near  the  Bed  Sea. — These  occur  only  in  the 
'  Eaised  Beach '  area,  and  are  almost  always  intimately  connected 
with  the  limestones  of  this  series.  They  crop  out  from  under  these 
beds,  and,  by  their  invariable  unconformit}'  and  constant  height 
above  sea-level,  suggest  a  "  plain  of  marine  denudation."  They 
are  the  Lower  Eocene  and  Cretaceous  Limestones  which  have 
been  altered,  not  from  below  as  has  been  previously  believed,  but 
from  above,  as  will  be  shown  in  tlie  Report  on  Western  Sinai  by 
Mr.  Barron. 

6.  The  Nubian  Shales  and  /Sandstone. — These  consist  of  soft  green 
and  black  carbonaceous  shales  and  marls,  and  dark-brown  and  red 
sandstone.  The  former  being  easily  weathered  are  accountable  for 
the  formation  of  the  large  plains  which  are  met  with  in  the  areas 
occupied  by  this  series.  The  sandstones  show  evidence  of  ripple- 
marking,  sun-cracks,  rain-prints,  and  worm-tracks.  In  the  softer 
upper  beds,  the  vertebrse  of  a  (?)  Mosasaurus  and  pieces  of  fossil 
wood  in  excellent  condition  were  found.  It  is  everywhere 
unconformable  to  the  underlying  igneous  rocks. 

The  age  of  the  deposit  in  this  district  is  Santonian  or  Lower 
Senonian,  as  shown  by  a  bed  of  oysters  found  in  the  sandstone  near 
El  Geita  by  Mr.  Barron.  No  traces  of  Carboniferous  fauna  have 
been  discovered.  It  is  later  than  the  igneous  range,  and  not  earlier 
as  maintained  by  Eloyer  and  Mitchell. 

Part    II. 

Igneous  and  Metamorphic  Eocks. — These  rocks,  forming  a  wide 
band  running  parallel  to  the  Gulf  of  Suez  and  the  Red  Sea, 
practically  constitute  the  mass  of  the  Red  Sea  Hills.  The  latitude 
of  27  degrees  N.  closely  agrees  with  an  important  geological 
boundary,  the  granites  playing  a  considerable  part  among  the 
components  of  the  mountain  ranges  north  of  this  line,  while  south 

Mcs.irs.  Barron  ^-  If  time — Eastern  Dc^rrt  of  EijiipL       109 

of  it  the  metamorphic  rocks  become  increasingly  prevalent  as 
the  Qena-Qosseir  road  is  approached,  the  granite  forniing  sharp 
isolated  ridges  rising  abrnptly  from  among  low  hills  of  sheared 
diabase  or  slates.  Almost  on  the  southern  edge  of  the  area,  well- 
marked  gneisses  and  schists  give  rise  to  the  range  of  Meeteg,  whose 
rugged  peaks  dominate  the  upper  portion  of  Wadi  Sodmein. 

Metamorphic  Rocks. — In  the  following  pages  only  the  most 
important  new  facts  can  be  touched  upon,  these  being  briefly  as 
follows  : — 

Gneiss,  etc.,  near  Qosseir. — The  northern  track  from  Qena  to 
Qosseir,  after  passing  through  a  granite  and  dolerite  region,  suddenly 
enters  a  district  composed  of  a  grey,  slightly  schistose  rock,  breaking 
off  into  long  splinters.  Through  it  run  numerous  solution  veins 
of  quartz,  bands  of  calcite  and  carbonate  of  iron,  all  of  which  have 
been  extensively  worked.  These  dates,  having  a  distinct  satiny 
lustre,  and  forming  low  ridges  on  the  western  edges  of  the  two  high 
ranges  of  El  Rebshi  and  Meeteg,  dip  steeply  south-west,  but  at  the 
base  of  the  former  mountain  system  are  replaced  by  underlying 
green  phyUites,  into  which  numerous  dykes  of  dolerite  have  been 
intruded,  quartz  veins  being  also  common. 

The  main  range  of  Meeteg  itself  is  composed  of  a  still  older 
series  of  quartz-mica  schists,  the  j'ounger  members  of  which  are 
of  a  yellowish  colour,  splitting  readily  into  blocks  more  or  less 
cubical  in  outline.  Near  the  base  of  the  mountain  small  veins 
of  granite  penetrate  into  the  schists,  in  some  places  being  pinched 
into  these  in  a  lenticular  manner.  The  core  of  the  range  is  com- 
posed of  a  massive  red  and  closely  banded  grey  gneiss,  which, 
in  a  fine  section  displayed  in  the  upper  portion  of  Wadi  Sodmein, 
is  seen  to  be  successively  overlaid  by  a  gabbro,  mica-schists,  a  massive 
dark  dolerite,  hornblende-schists,  and  reddish-white  mottled  slates. 
From  a  little  north  of  this  point  the  valley  wanders  through  a  maze 
of  hills  of  grey  and  green  colour,  consisting  of  micaceous,  chloritic, 
and  hornblendic  'schists,'  capped  by  beds  of  dolerite  and  diabase, 
crushed  or  uncrushed.  A  question  of  terminology  makes  a  difficulty, 
as  the  same  term  schist  is  here  applied  to  these  rocks  in  tlie  foothills, 
which  are  far  less  compact  than  the  typical  varieties  occurring  iu 
the  main  range. 

Sheared  Diabases  and  Dolerites.—The  Wadi  Sodmein  section  is 
useful  because  it  shows  the  relative  age  of  the  gneiss  and  the  sheared 
diabases,  ashes,  and  other  volcanic  rocks,  which  occupy  an  enormous 
area  of  the  southern  portion  of  the  Red  Sea  Hills,  viz.  2,500  square 
kilometres  approximately,  being  the  main  constituent  of  the  region 
to  the  north-west  and  west  of  Qosseir,  except  where  sedimentary  hills 
have  been  faulted  in.  The  sheared  diabases  and  compacted  ashes 
chiefly  occur  in  this  district,  but  further  west,  as  in  Wadi  Atolla, 
are  replaced  by  massive  dolerites,  which  in  many  other  localities 
are  found  in  close  association  with  volcanic  members  of  many 
diflferent  types.  This  volcanic  series  is  by  no  means  limited  to 
the  area  above  mentioned,  but  reappears  throughout  the  whole  of 
the  Red  Sea  region  at  most  unexpected  localities.     Tims,  in   the 

160      Messrs.  Ban-on  8f  Hiuiie — Eadern  Desert  of  Egypt. 

central  range,  dolerites  and  other  basic  rocks  are  seen  capping  some 
of  the  highest  granite  hills,  still  remaining  as  a  thin  coating,  which 
otherwise  has  been  almost  entirely  removed  by  denudation.  Again, 
the  base  of  the  same  range  is  fringed  by  a  belt  of  the  same  character, 
the  presence  of  which  is  probably  directly  referable  to  faulting  on 
a  large  scale. 

South-west  of  the  central  range,  too,  extends  the  Fatiri  El  Iswid 
district,  consisting  of  range  after  range,  in  which  dolerites,  serpentines, 
compacted  ashes,  now  practically  slates,  and  agglomerates  play  an 
important  part.  While  on  the  south  of  lat.  27°  N.  these  rocks 
only  give  rise  to  low  hills  of  complex  character,  to  the  north 
of  that  line  they  take  part  in  the  formation  of  scenic  features  of 
the  first  magnitude,  rising  to  1,800  metres  in  Jebel  Dokhan,  and 
composing  some  of  the  principal  longitudinal  ranges  forming  the 
eastern  boundary  of  the  Red  Sea  Hills. 

The  members  of  this  volcanic  series  are  of  somewhat  different 
character  from  those  previously  mentioned,  dark  andesites  being  as 
conspicuous  as  the  dolerite  sheets  associated  with  them,  while  the 
sheared  diabases  have  been  replaced  by  tuffs  and  asbes  far  less 
compact  than  those  near  Qosseir.  The  agglomerates,  too,  are  very 
striking  in  the  El  Urf  chain,  where  blocks  of  '  imperial  porphyrj'^  ' 
ai-e  included  among  the  rock  fragments.  Indeed,  the  most  interesting 
member  of  this  series  is  the  imperial  porphyry  of  Jebel  Dokhan, 
typical  specimens  of  which  are  withamite,  containing  andesites, 
though  the  same  mineral  is  present  in  some  of  the  tuffs. 

Relative  Age  of  the  Volcanic  Series.  —  It  has  already  been 
stated  that  the  dolerites,  diabases,  etc.,  rest  upon  the  Metamorphic 
Schists  and  Gneisses,  and  are  younger  than  the  latter,  but  it 
is  equally  possible  to  show  that  the  giieissose  granites  and 
diorites,  which  underlie  them  over  wide  areas,  are  of  still  later 
date.  Thus,  to  take  a  few  typical  cases,  a  mass  of  mica-diorite  has 
been  intruded  into  the  agglomerate,  while  in  Wadi  Esh,  near 
Qosseir,  the  sides  of  the  valley  are  formed  of  grey  granite  which,  is 
overlaid  by  the  compact  dolerite,  but  the  former  has  sent  numerous 
veins  into  the  latter.  Other  examples  will  be  mentioned  in  the 
report,  but  one  of  the  best  is  close  to  the  pass  leading  from  AVadi 
Um  Sidri  to  Um  Messaid,  where  a  dyke  of  red  microgranite  in  the 
andesite  has  for  a  time  prevented  another  vein  of  grey  granite  from 
penetrating  into  the  lava,  but  finally,  after  running  parallel  for 
a  short  distance,  the  latter  lias  succeeded  in  bursting  through,  and 
has  sent  long  veins  and  branches  into  the  porphyry. 

Granites. — The  rocks  of  granitic  character  in  the  Red  Sea  Hills 
are  sharply  divided  into  two  groups,  giving  rise  to  very  different 
types  of  scenery.  The  most  prominent  variety  is  a  coarse  red 
granite,  poor  in  mica,  which  forms  some  of  the  finest  summits  north 
of  and  on  the  latitude  of  27  degrees  N.,  these  being  usually 
characterized  by  steepness,  the  mountains  being  seamed  by  bouldery 
ravines  which  cause  the  crests  to  have  a  highly  serrated  outline, 
while  nearly  all  the  lower  country  consists  of  bouldery  ridges  of 
a  gneissose  biotite,  or  hornblende  granite,  which,  has  its  south-eastern 

Professor  T.  G.  Bonnet/ — Schists  in  Lcpontine  Alps.       161 

boundary  along  a  line  joining  Eas  El  Banul  and  Missikat  El  Qukli 
ranges.  This  gneissose  granite  is  especially  conspicuous  owing  to 
the  abundance  of  the  dykes  of  quartz-felsite  and  dolerite  which  vein 
it,  in  a  north-east  and  south-west  direction,  the  differential  weathering 
of  the  two  giving  rise  to  a  typical  alternation  of  parallel  ridges  and 
sandy  valleys  to  which  the  name  '  dyke-country  '  may  be  applied. 
Where  the  above  two  varieties  come  in  contact,  it  can  be  clearly 
seen  that  the  red  granite  is  the  younger  of  the  two. 

General  Eecapitulation. 
We  are  now  in  a  position  to  give  the  general  succession  for  the 
Arabian  Desert  between  Jebel  Gharib  and  the  Qena-Qosseir  line. 

1.  The  metamorphic  are  older  than  the  igneous  rocks. 

2.  The  gneiss  of  Meeteg  is  the  oldest  member  of  the  metamorphic 
series,  the  schists  coming  next  in  order,  followed  by  slates,  grauwacko 
(altered  ash),  sheai-ed  diabases,  and  dolerites. 

3.  Volcanic  action  had  already  begun  during  the  period  of 
formation  of  the  grauwackes  and  slates,  as  the  sheared  diabases  and 
dolerites  are  in  places  closely  associated  with  them,  but  the  main 
mass  of  the  dolerite  is  younger  than  the  slates.  Thus  the  next  in 
succession  is  a  volcanic  series  in  the  south,  consisting  mainly  of 
dolerites  and  sheared  diabases,  and  in  the  north  of  dolerites, 
andesites,  tuffs,  and  agglomerates. 

4.  These  are  themselves  underlain,  and  in  most  cases  intruded 
into,  by  a  third  series,  a  qiiariz-diorite  or  grey  granite,  in  many 
cases  gneissose. 

5.  Through  the  volcanics  and  grey  granite  rise  masses  of  red 
granite,  which  may  be  almost  contemporaneous  with  dykes  of  quartz- 
felsite  and  dolerite,  seaming  the  members  of  the  preceding  series. 

IV. — Schists    and    Schistose    Rocks    in    the  Lepontink   Alps: 

Reply   to   Criticisms   by  Professor   A.   Heim. 

By  Professor  T.  G.  Bonxey,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.E.S. 

SOME  three  years  ago,  on  referring  to  the  twenty-fifth  volume 
of  the  "BeitrJige  zur  Geologischen  Karte  der  Schweiz,"  I  found 
Professor  Heim  had  devoted  a  few  pages  (pp.  ol6-319)  of  that 
work  to  my  criticisms  of  his  attempts  to  prove  that  Jurassic  rocks 
had  been  metamorphosed  into  schists  containing  authigenous  garnets, 
staurolites,  etc.  Had  he  brought  forward  any  new  fact  of  importance 
or  pointed  out  any  serious  error  in  my  work  I  should  have  loplied 
at  once,  but  as  he  was  unable  to  do  this,  and  as  the  justice  of  one  of 
my  criticisms  was  indirectly  admitted  in  the  petrographical  appendix 
by  Dr.  C.  Schmidt,  I  allowed  more  pressing  and  interesting  matters 
to  take  precedence  of  one  which  had  become  chiefly  personal. 

On  reading  Professor  Heim's  remarks  I  perceive  that  we  labour 
under  a  similar  disadvantage,  viz.,  that  neither  is  a  master  of  the 
language  in  which  the  other  writes.  He  complains  of  a  difticulty 
in  understanding  ray  meaning,  though  I  think  it  was  plain  enough 
to  most  of  my  English  friends.  I  am  in  the  same  position,  l)ecause 
he  appears  to  me  to  avoid  the  direct  issues  and  to  repeat  assertions 

DECADE    lY.— VOL.  VIII.— NO.  IV. 


1'62      Professor  T.  0.  Bonney — Schists  in  Lepontine  Alps. 

whicla  I  have  challenged.  So,  before  going  further,  I  will  state  the 
dispute  as  clearly  and  concisely  as  I  can.  It  arose  out  of  a  paper 
read  at  the  London  Meeting  of  the  International  Geological  Congress 
in  1888.^  Then,  or  soon  afterwards,  Professor  Heim  made  the 
following  assertions :  (1)  that  at  Guttannen  stems  of  a  plant  of 
Carboniferous  age  had  been  found  in  a  gneiss ;  (2)  that  near 
Andermatt  a  crystalline  marble  was  associated  with  a  Jurassic 
limestone,  so  that  they  must  be  of  the  same  geological  age ;  (3) 
that  in  the  Lepontine  Alps  a  transition  could  be  traced  between 
fossiliferous  Jurassic  rocks  and  schists  with  authigenous  garnets, 
staurolites,  etc. 

I  have  disputed  the  accuracy  of  all  these  statements.     As  regards 

(1)  it  is  now  admitted  that  the  supposed  stems  are  not  organisms, 
but  merely  imitative  markings.  Hence  this  assertion  is  invalidated, 
but,  as  I  have  apparently  made  a  mistake  as  to  the  nature  of  the 
rock,  neither  side  in  this  controversy  can  '  score  honours.'^     About 

(2)  there  is  nothing  fresh  to  be  said.  I  have  discussed  Prof.  Heim's 
evidence,  which  he  has  not  been  able  to  strengthen,  and  think 
myself  justified  in  claiming  a  verdict  of  'not  proven,'  even  if  I  have 
not  shown  his  interpretation  to  be  improbable.  ^  My  remarks 
accordingly  will  be  confined  to  (3).  Here  sections  are  more 
numerous ;  the  issue  is  simpler,  and  the  initial  difference  between 
us  largely  concerns  matters  of  fact.  In  the  first  place,  Prof.  Heim 
maintains  that  I  have  misunderstood  him,  and  that  he  never  affirmed 
those  altered  Mesozoic  sedimentary  rocks  to  be  true  crystalline 
schists.  The  very  lax  use  of  the  term  '  schist '  by  Continental  and 
some  English  authors  undoubtedly  leads  to  confusion  in  expression 
as  well  as  in  thought,  and  I  am  prepared  to  admit  that  it  might  some- 
times be  difficult  to  draw  a  hard  and  fast  line  between  a  schistose 
rock  (i.e.  cleavage  followed  by  a  certain  amount  of  secondai-y 
mineral  development)  and  some  foliated  schists.  This,  however, 
does  not  really  affect  the  present  issue.  Professor  Heiru  asserted 
that  certain  schists  with  authigenous  garnets,  staurolites,  etc.,  were 
proved  to  be  of  Jurassic  age,  not  only  by  stratigraphical  evidence, 
but  also,  where  the  minerals  were  less  well  developed,  by  the 
presence  of  fossils.  I  asserted  that  the  schists  with  garnets,  etc., 
were  both  truly  crystalline  and  belonged  to  a  group  distinct  from 
the  Jurassic  rocks  in  question ;  that  this  group  could  be  shown  to 
be  much  older  than  the  Trias,  and  to  differ  in  important  respects 
from  the  fossiliferous  schistose  Jurassic  rocks,  which  never  contain 
authigenous  garnets,  etc.,  but  only  certain  hydrous  silicates,  pre- 
senting a  merely  superficial  resemblance  to  garnets,  staurolites,  etc. 
In  other  words,  I  gave  reasons  to  show  that  Professor  Heim's 
interpretation  of  the  stratigraphical  facts  was  untenable,  and  his 
identification  of  the  important  minerals  was  incorrect. 

^  Compte  Rendu  de  la  4"^  Session,  p.  80.  See  also  Nature,  Sept.  27  and  Oct.  4, 
1888,  and  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xlvi  (1890),  p.  236. 

*  Geol.  Mag.,  1900,  p.  215. 

3  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xlvi  (1890),  p.  67  ;  vol.  1  (1894),  p.  285  ;  vol.  liii 
(1897),  p.  16. 

Profc-isor  T.  G.  Bonne// — Schists  in  Lepontinc  A/jis.       16-"5 

Passing  now  to  the  stratigraphy,  I  claim  to  have  proved — 

(a)  That  the  schistose  and  fossiliferous  Jurassic  rocks  in  the 
Scopi  and  Nufeuen  districts  overlie  the  rauchwacke.' 

(b)  That  this  rauchwacke  (commonly  a  friable  yellowish  lime- 
stone, sometimes  including  layers  of  gypsum,  but  without  any 
marked  indications  of  metamorphism)  often  contains  fragments  of 
crystalline  rocks  corresponding  with  those  which  are  elsewhere 
associated  with  the  black  garnet-bearing  schists.  Also,  that  this 
rauchwacke  differs  conspicuously  from  the  cr3'stalline  limestone  or 
dolomite,  which  occurs  both  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Campolungo 
Pass  (south  of  the  Val  Bedretto)  and  in  association  with  similar 
dark  schists  above  Binn  in  the  Biunenthal. 

(c)  That  the  rauchwacke  generally  overlies  the  group  of  ciystal- 
line  schists,  and  where  it  is  apparently  interstratified  with  them 
a  closer  examination  always  suggests  that  it  is  a  later  rock  '  nipped  ' 
in  by  overfolding  and  thrust  faulting. 

(d)  In  the  noted  Val  Canaria  section,  where,  according  to  Professor 
Heim,  crystalline  schists-  are  included  in  a  fold  of  which  an  ordinary 
rauchwacke  forms  the  base,  not  only  does  this  rauchwacke  contain 
fragments  of  more  than  one  variety  of  the  schists  supposed  to  overlie 
it,  but  also  the  band  of  black  garnet-bearing  schists  occurs  three 
times,  and  the  other  beds  are  not  in  pairs.  These  facts  prove 
a  simple  fold  to  be  impossible,'  and  if  faults  be  once  admitted  the 
key  of  Professor  Heim's  position  is  surrendered. 

In  addition  to  this  I  have  shown,  from  stratigraphical,  chemical,  and 
microscopic  evidence,  that  the  schistose  Jurassic  rocks  and  this  group 
of  schists,  locally  garnet-bearing  (a  group  which  I  have  examined 
in  many  places  from  the  Viso  to  the  Gross  Glockner,  and  to  which 
I  refer  in  my  papers  as  the  'Upper  Schists'),  are  quite  distinct  one 
from  the  other;  the  only  possible  confusion  arising  from  s[)ecimeus 
either  badly  preserved  or  in  which  their  distinctive  characters  have 
been  locally  obliterated  by  extreme  pressure.  This,  however, 
is  no  ground  for  asserting  contemporaneity.  In  such  rocks  the 
metamorphism  has  been  destructive,  not  constructive. 

I  pass,  then,  to  the  mineral  differences.  The  group  of  schists,  of 
which  the  dark  one  containing  garnets  is  a  member,  consists,  as 
I  have  shown  elsewhere,  of  truly  crystalline  rocks,  no  less  in  the 
Val  Canaria  section  than  in  the  rest  of  the  Alps,  and  never  affords 
a  trace  of  a  fossil.  Here  and  there  in  its  dark  schists  are  little 
streaks  of  crystalline  calcite.  These  to  a  lively  imagination  may  seem 
the  ghosts  of  departed  belemnites,  but  to  a  niore  prosaic  mind  they 
appear  only  a  vein  product.  The  rocks  are  true  crystalline  schists, 
no  <loubt  of  sedimentary  origin,  but  greatly  metamorphosed.     They 

'  (iuart.  Jnurn.  Gcol.  Soc.  vol.  xlvi  (1890),  p.  219.  and  vol    xlix  (1893),  p.  89. 

-  I  suppose  troiii  Avhat  I  liavo  read  that  Professor  Heim  will  rctiiso  to  call  these 
rocks  crystalline  scliists.  If  so,  there  is  no  crystalline  schist— either  garnot-micu, 
calc-mica,  stanrolitc-niica,  or  (luartz-mica  schist— in   any  part  ot   the   Alps  that 

I  know  of.  ,,,-.•  M 1    i 

^  The  situation  ot  tlie  outcrops  and  their  breadths  make  it  impossihlo  to  escane 
this  ditficnlty  by  one  black  garnet  schist  to  have  been  the  top  bed  and  to  be 
doubled  back  on  itself. 

164      Professor  T.  G.  Bonneij — Schists  in  Lopontine  Alps. 

have  been  affected  by  pressure,  but  they  were  crystalline  scbists 
before  that  acted,  for  the  larger  minerals  are  sometimes  distorted 
or  even  crushed,  the  garnets  in  one  or  two  localities  being  distinctly 
cleaved.  Pressure,  in  fact,  has  injured  more  than  it  has  originated 
the  crystalline  condition.  But  the  Jurassic  rocks  are  only  schistose ; 
they  have  been  affected  by  pressure,  and  it  has  produced  the  usual 
mineral  changes  on  a  comparatively  small  scale.  But  besides  this, 
in  some  localities  a  number  of  ovoid  and  of  rudely  prismatic  bodies 
have  formed  (the  Tcnoten  and  prismen  of  Von  Fritsch),  These,  which 
occur  along  with  fossils  (belemnites,  bits  of  crinoids,  etc.),  are  not 
either  garnets  or  staurolites,  but  only  very  impure  silicates,  more  or 
less  hydrous  ;  some  probably  belong  to  the  chloritoid,  others  perhaps 
to  the  scapolite  group,  with  possibly  a  third  mineral  of  the  same 
general  character.^  Professor  Heim  asks  almost  in  a  tone  of  triumph  ^ 
whether  I  have  not  seen  "  die  Verquetschungen  und  die  Veriinderung 
(Marmorisirung)  in  der  Structur  der  Belemniten  ....  die 
ganz  mit  der  Umiinderung  des  Muttergesteines  parallel  geht." 
Certainly  I  have  :  indeed  have  mentioned  it  (loc.  cit.,  p.  219).  But 
by  this  question  he  shows  that  he  can  have  given  very  little  time  to 
the  study  of  metamorphism.  Otherwise  he  would  have  known  that 
this  '  marmorosis,'  notwithstanding  its  fine  name,  proves  but  little, 
for  calcite  is  one  of  those  minerals  which  are  always  ready  to 
crystallize,  and  particularly  so  when  it  is  '  organic'  We  constantly 
see  this  illustrated  in  rocks  (especially  Paleeozoic)  from  English 
localities.  There  are  no  signs  of  pressure,  yet  fragments  of 
fossils  may  be  often  found  under  the  microscope  to  become  partially 
or  even  wholly  crystalline,  to  the  obliteration  of  the  original 
structure.  I  have  also  seen  tests  or  spines  of  echinids  from  the 
Chalk  break  as  if  they  were  crystalline  calcite,  and  a  fractured 
stalactite  showing  the  cleavage  surface  of  large  crystals.^  Professor 
Heim,  however,  seeks  to  minimize  my  criticisms  by  intimating 
that  I  am  a  prejudiced  witness,  and  have  from  the  first  shown 
signs  of  a  distinct  bias  (tendenz).  Of  this  I  am  convicted  by 
my  own  confession,  because  I  stated  that,  when  I  saw  the 
specimens  on  which  he  rested  his  case,  and  which  he  exhibited  at 
Burlington  House  in  1888,  " '  Still,  I  was  not  quite  satisfied 
.  for  it  was  very  difficult  to  understand  how  such  a  fossil 
as  a  belemnite  could  have  retained   its  characteristic  form  while 

'  Dr.  Schmidt  admits  the  presence  of  clintouite  (which  name  is  now  appHed  by 
Dana  to  the  group  inchiding  the  species  of  chloritoid),  and  assigns  the  knoten  and 
piismen  to  zoisite.  Both  minerals  are  so  full  of  impurities  that  it  is  veiy  difficult  to 
come  to  any  conclusion,  but  neither  reminds  me  of  zoisites,  nor  is  any  close  relationship 
suggested  by  the  analyses  (quoted  on  p.  233  of  my  paper) ;  and  after  reconsideration 
of  my  specimens  I  see  no  reason  to  change  what  I  wrote  in  1890  (Quart.  Jouru.  Geol. 
Soc,  vol.  xlvi,  pp.  232-234).  Dr.  Schmidt's  petrographical  description  will  be 
found  in  Beitrage,  vol.  xxv,  Anhang,  pp.  41-65. 

-  Beitrage,  ut  supra,  p.  317- 

^  Though  I  think  that,  as  a  rule,  I  can  distinguish  a  marble  belonging  to  a  group 
of  crystalline  schists  from  an  ordinary  Palaeozoic  or  later  limestone,  even  if 
pressure  modified,  I  put  more  reliance  on  any  sOicates  which  may  be  associated  with 
the  calcite,  and  do  not  feel  quite  happy  unless  I  can  trace  the  rock  into  some  schist 
composed  largely  of  these. 


Fro/essor  T.  G.  Boniiei/ — Scliisfs  in  Lepontine  Alpa.      165 

molecular  changes  of  such  importance  were  taking  place  in  the 
matrix  of  the  rock.'  Er  sieht  hier  eine  Thatsache,  an  der  er  zweifelt, 
weil  sie  ihm  unerkliirich  vorkommt!"  Well,  then,  I  will  tell 
Professor  Heim  why  I  was  not  quite  satisfied.  In  the  first  place, 
if  it  be  a  sign  of  bias  to  reason  inductively  from  cai'eful  and 
numerous  observations,  and  to  rely  on  the  conclusions  thus  obtained 
so  far  as  to  view  with  some  suspicion  any  new  phenomenon  which 
distinctly  contradicts  them,  I  admit  the  charge,  and  that  un- 
blushingly,  for  I  believe  this  to  be  the  method  of  science.  The 
latter  is  said  by  a  good  authority  to  be  organized  common-sense. 
If  in  every-day  life  a  number  of  credible  persons  agreed  in  stating 
that  something  had  occurred — say  a  man  had  done  an  action  which 
they  had  witnessed — should  we  not  be  justified  in  cross-questioning 
rather  severely  anyone  who  suddenly  appeared  to  swear  an  alibi? 
Now  all  my  work,  and  it  was  considerable,  undertaken  with  the 
sole  desire  of  discovering  the  truth — work  which  had  obliged  me  to 
discard  almost  everything  I  learnt  when  young — had  led  me  to 
conclusions  different  from  what  Professor  Heim  was  asserting.' 
Inasmuch,  then,  as  his  "  Mechanismus,"  while  greatly  impressing 
me  in  some  respects,  had  created  suspicions  of  his  trustworthiness  as 
a  guide  in  petrology,  I  submit  that  I  was  justified  in  thinking  it 
possible  he  might  have  made  a  mistake.  The  '  Thatsache '  was  ia 
reality  little  more  than  his  assertion. 

But  he  will  say  that  I  was  shown  the  specimens.  Yes  ;  and  if 
Professor  Heim  had  seriously  worked  at  petrology  he  would  know 
that  conclusions  founded  on  hand-specimens  are  much  less  trust- 
worthy than  those  arrived  at  by  examination  of  rocks  in  the  field 
or  under  the  microscope.  Speaking  for  myself,  I  refuse,  when  the 
matter  is  difficult,  to  express  an  opinion  on  a  hand-specimen,  but 
require  to  have  a  slice  prepared  for  the  microscope.  Moreover,  it 
appeared  to  me,  when  looking  at  his  specimens,  that  the  matrix  of 
the  two  sets,  those  with  belemnites  and  those  with  real  garnets, 
was  somewhat  different.  Professor  Heim  would  no  doubt  set  down 
this  to  '  bias,'  but  it  is  really  the  almost  unconscious  eft'ect  of  that 
experience  which  most  perso'ns  acquire  by  long  work  at  a  particular 
subject.  It  is  very  similar  to  the  power  which  enables  a  specialist 
to  make  a  diagnosis  of  something  which  a  physician,  who  has  worked 
along  other  lines,  would  not  perceive. 

But  he  quotes  another  phrase  to  convict  me  of  bias.  "It  was 
very  difficult  to  understand  how  such  a  fossil  as  a  belemnite  could 
have  retained  its  characteristic  form  while  molecular  changes  ot  such 
importance  were  taking  place  in  the  matrix  of  tlio  rock.  11ns 
remark  is  evidently  not  intelligible  to  Professor  Heim,  so  i  will 
endeavour  to  enlighten  him.  The  results  of  contact-metamorphism, 
to  which  I  have  paid  considerable  attention,  most  nearly  resemble 
the  crystalline  schists.       In  them,  so  far  as    my    experience   goes, 

'  I  may  add  that  the  general  tendenz  to  minimize  the  effect  of  ' 'ly>';|"';;-™'«^2n 
After  ten 

166      Professor  T.  G.  Bonney — Schists  in  Lepontine  A/ps. 


garnet,  and  still  more  staurolite,  are  not  formed  until  the  materials 
of  the  rock  have  undergone  such  great  molecular  changes  as  to 
obliterate  all  traces  of  a  sedimentary  origin  and  convert  the  rock 
into  a  fairly  coarse  crystalline  aggregate  of  quartz,  brown  and  w^hite 
mica,  andalusite,  and  other  minerals.^  Under  such  circumstances, 
I  believe  that  any  calcareous  organism,  if  it  did  not  disappear  and 
supply  its  lime  to  some  silicate,  would  become  unrecognizable. 
Only  in  one  case,  that  of  the  Bastogne  rock,  have  I  seen  well-formed 
garnets  in  a  matrix  apparently  not  very  greatly  altered.  These, 
however,  are  rather  abnormal  specimens,  and,  as  it  has  been  latelj^ 
demonstrated,  occur  under  very  abnormal  circumstances.-  My  bias, 
then,  was  due  to  experience,  which  showed  me  the  antecedent 
improbability  of  what  Professor  Heim  was  asking  me  to  believe. 

There  was  yet  one  other  reason  for  my  scepticism.  In  1883 
I  crossed  the  Gries  Pass  to  the  Tosa  Falls,  wishing  to  see  an  Alpine 
route  of  some  historical  interest,  and  with  no  definite  geological  aim, 
for  I  had  but  recently  begun  to  make  any  special  study  of  the 
'upper  schists.'^  Here  are  some  extracts  from  my  diary.  Going 
up  the  Eginenthal  I  observed  occasionally  loose  blocks  "  of  a  dark 
slaty  or  schistose  rock,  with  rounded  spots  and  irregular  long 
darkish  crystals,  which  I  took  for  a  kind  of  '  knoteu  schiefer '  and 
got  a  specimen."^  Later  on  I  write — "At  the  head  of  this  [upland 
basin]  there  is  evidently  a  great  piece  of  well-bedded  rock,  not  highly 
metamorphosed,  apparently  folded  in  the  more  crystalline  rock.  To 
this  apparently  the  '  knoten  schiefer '  belongs,  for  it  was  all  about 
here,  some  of  it  being  rather  more  schistose  than  what  1  had  seen 
below."  Again,  on  reaching  the  top  of  the  pass,  I  record  the  presence 
of  dark  mica  schist  with  garnets,  "looking  more  highly  altered  than 
that  below."  From  the  Tosa  Falls  I  crossed  to  the  Binnenthal  aud 
studied  the  crystalline  schists  in  that  district.^  Thus  I  was  aware 
that  in  the  Lepontine  Alps  two  rocks  existed  in  which  some 
superficial  resemblances  were  associated  with  real  and  important 
differences.  In  other  words,  I  knew  that  Nature  had  been  laying 
traps,  so  that  exceptional  caution  was  needed. 

1  think,  then,  I  may  claim  that  my  '  bias '  was  the  result  of 
knowing  certain  facts  in  petrology  and  Alpine  geology  better 
apparently  than  Professor  Heim,  and  thus  was  more  than  justifiable. 
May  1  ask,  in  conclusion,  that  if  he  thinks  he  can  refute  any  of  the 
statements  in  this  paper  he  will  abstain  from  fighting  under  the 
shelter  of  an  official  publication.  There  I  cannot  reply  to  him  ;  so 
the  combat  is  one  Ubi  tu  pulsas,  ego  vapulo  tantum. 

^  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xliv  (1888),  p.  11. 

-  See  Miss  C.  A.  Eaisin:  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  Ivii  (1901),  p.  55. 
A  museum  specimen  labelled  PjTeneite  (from  that  mountain  range)  appears  to  be 
another  instance. 

2  See  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xlv  (1889),  pp.  96-99. 

*  This  is  a  transcript  of  my  field  notes,  in  which  I  do  not  pick  my  phi'ases. 
I  probably  should  not  now  use  the  words  '  knoten  schiefer.'  What  I  meant  to 
express  was  that  it  seemed  in  about  the  same  state  of  alteration  as  a  chiastolite  slate. 

5  A  fortnight  later  I  paid  my  first  visit  to  the  Val  Piora. 

H.  W.  Peanon— Oscillations  of  Sca-kvel.  107 

V. — Oscillations  in  the  Sea-level.     (Pakt  I.) 

By  H.  W.  Pearson. 

(PLATE   IX.) 

WHEN  man  first  began  the  study  of  the  earth's  surface,  he 
encountered  at  the  very  beginning,  along  the  borders  of  the 
sea-coasts,  on  the  lowland  plains,  and  even  on  the  hills,  certain 
puzzling  phenomena,  difficult  of  explanation.  These  perplexing 
observations  seemed  to  testify,  by  means  of  ancient  raised  beaches, 
fossil  oyster  and  mussel  shells,  dessicated  salt  marshes,  fragments 
of  wrecks,  and  even  by  ancient  anchors  in  the  hills,  that  at  some 
unknown  time  in  the  past  the  sea  had  "  formerl}'  been  where  the 
land  now  was." 

Straton  of  Lampsacus  and  Eratosthenes  (between  200  and  300  b.c.) 
explained  these  facts  by  supposing  that  the  Mediterranean  and  the 
Euxine  had  once  been  dammed  by  barriers  at  the  Pillars  of  Hercules 
and  at  Byzantium,  and  that  hy  the  breaking  down  of  these  barriers 
"much  that  was  formerly  covered  by  water  had  been  left  dry." 

Strabo  (54:  is.c.  to  24  a.d.),  holding  Straton  and  Eratosthenes  to  be 
in  error,  insisted  that  explanations  of  these  facts  must  be  found 
either  in  inundations  caused  by  upheavals  of  the  sea  bottom,  or  iu 
actual  subsidence  of  these  lands  beneath  the  level  of  the  waters  and 
their  subsequent  upheaval,  his  preference  being  given  to  the  first- 
named  cause,  as  he  deemed  that  the  humidity  of  the  bottom  would 
render  it  more  liable  to  shifting. 

Here  was  raised,  iu  the  early  morning  of  scientific  investigation, 
the  greatest  problem  of  geology,  or  of  geography,  and  such  little 
progress  has  been  made  in  the  settlement  of  this  question  during  the 
two  thousand  years  that  have  since  passed  over  our  heads,  that 
to-day  if  it  is  asked,  are  these  evidences  of  former  submergence  and 
upheaval  due  to  changes  in  the  sea-level  itself,  or  are  they  due  to 
movements  in  the  crust  of  tlie  earth,  no  man  can  make  certain  reply. 

That  this  uncertainty  has  real  existence  can  be  seen  from  the 
examples  of  opposing  opinions  herein  quoted. 

Celsius  in  1730,  in  explanation  of  the  apparent  upheaval  of  the 
Baltic  shores,  affirmed  a  variable  sea-level.  Play  fair  in  1802  and 
Von  Buch  in  1807,  adopting  the  second  hypothesis  of  Strabo, 
affirmed  movement  in  the  earth's  crust. 

Sir  J.  A.  Picton  contended  that  the  level  of  the  sea  had  not 
changed,  that  it  is  the  land  alone  which  has  altered  its  level 
(Proc.  Liverpool  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  vi,  p.  38).  Sir  Charles  Lyell 
insisted  "  that  the  level  of  the  ocean  was  invariable,"  and  that  the 
"Continents  are  inconstant  in  their  level,  as  has  been  demonstrated 
by  the  most  unequivocal  proofs  again  and  again,  from  the  time  of 
Strabo  to  our  own  time"  ("Principles,"  9th  ed.,  Appleton,  p.  ol8). 
Le  Conte  says,  "  we  may  look  upon  the  sea-level  as  fixed 
("Elements,"  p.  138). 

In  opposition  to  these  statements  of  Picton,  Lyell,  and  Le  Conte, 
James  Geikie  says,  "  the  more  recent  raised  beaches  may  be  hkely 
enough  due  to  oscillations  of  the  sea-level  itself,  and  not  necessarily 
to  movements  of  the  land"  ("  Pre-historic  Europe,"  p.  525). 

168  H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea- level. 

N.  S.  Sbaler  also  says,  that  some  of  the  apparent  upheavals  and 
depressions  of  the  land  may  be  due  to  absolute  changes  in  the  sea-level 
("  Geological  Eecord,"  1875,  p.  178)  ;  and  these  men  are  supported 
in  their  rejection  of  the  old  theory  of  Strabo,  which  had  been  adopted 
by  Playfair,  Von  Buch,  and  Lyell,  by  Edouard  Suess,  Dr.  Schmick, 
and  Trautschold,  the  latter  claiming  that  "  many  of  the  phenomena 
of  sedimentation  and  deposition  attributed  by  geologists  to  a  sub- 
sidence of  the  crust  are,  in  fact,  due  to  periodic  oscillations  or 
upheavals  of  the  oceanic  surface  "  {Science,  vol.  iii,  p.  342). 

These  citations  demonstrate  that  the  matter  of  the  permanency 
of  the  sea-level  is  to-day  one  of  the  unsettled  questions  of  geology, 
and  I  believe  it  to  be  more  fundamental  in  its  nature  than  any  other 
unsolved  geological  problem.  It  should  be  of  interest,  then,  to  learn 
why  these  conflicting  opinions  between  our  great  geologists  have 
existence.  Why  have  the  teachings  of  Playfair,  Von  Buch,  and 
Lyell,  adopted^for  three-fourths  of  a  century,  been  in  the  last  quarter 
of  a  century  questioned  from  every  direction  ? 

Investigation  allows  us  to  answer  this  question.  The  old  beliefs, 
in  the  absence  of  knowledge,  were  based  on  infei'ence.  The  latest 
beliefs,  rejecting  inference,  are  based  on  observation,  on  an  enormous 
accumulation  of  facts,  that  were  entirely  unknown  to  Playfair  and  the 
other  disciples  of  Strabo,  and  these  facts  it  is  impossible  to  explain 
through  the  older  theory. 

For  instance,  Playfair's  argument,  on  which  the  theory  of  an 
invariable  sea-level  rests,  is  as  follows  : — "  In  order  to  depress  or 
elevate  the  absolute  level  of  the  sea  by  a  given  quantity,  in  any  one 
place,  we  must  depress  or  elevate  it  by  the  same  quantity  over  the 
loTiole  surface  of  the  earth  [my  italics],  whereas  no  such  necessity- 
exists  with  respect  to  the  local  elevation  or  depression  of  the  land  " 
("  Principles,"  9th  ed.,  p.  523). 

Now  the  very  foundation  of  this  argument,  a  position  unimpeach- 
able in  the  time  of  Playfair  and  of  Von  Buch,  is  to-day  absolutely- 
untenable.  The  hypothesis  of  Adhemar,  the  knowledge  that  great 
masses  of  ice  at  one  time  existed  in  the  Northern  Hemisphere,  and 
that  submergence  of  the  Northern,  coexistent  with  emergence  of 
the  Southern  Hemisphere,  must  have  been  the  necessary  consequence, 
as  demonstrated  mathematically  by  Dr.  Croll,  by  Lord  Kelvin,  by 
Archdeacon  Pratt,  by  Fisher,  Heath,  Woodward,  and  many  others, — 
these  arguments,  I  say,  teach  us  that  the  contention  of  Playfair,  Von 
Buch,  and  Lyell,  valid  perhaps  in  its  day,  is  no  longer  to  be  accepted, 
and  if  the  theory  of  a  variable  sea-level  is  to  be  rejected,  reasons 
more  solidly  grounded  must  be  accorded  us. 

It  seems  now  impossible  to  reject  the  idea  that  upheaval  of  the 
sea  surface  in  the  north,  and  subsidence  in  the  south,  may  be  going 
on  at  one  and  the  same  time,  and  in  addition  to  this  the  writer  has 
shown  how  a  local  upheaval  of  the  oceanic  surface  in  one  hemisphere 
may,  nay  must,  be  coexistent  with  a  local  depression  of  this  surface 
at  some  point  in  the  same  hemisphere,  provided  the  slightest  variation 
of  flow  in  the  oceanic  currents  shall  take  place.  (See  The  American 
Geologist,  Sept.  1899,  p.  192.) 

H.  W.  PfarsoH — Oacillatiom  of  Sea-krc/.  169 

To  this  point  my  discussion  has  heen  general,  my  object  being 
merely  to  show  the  present  uncertainties  as  to  our  knowledge 
relating  to  changes  in  the  sea-level,  and  to  call  attention  to  the 
fallacies  on  which  the  arguments  of  Playfair  and  Von  Buch  were 
founded.  I  would  now  introduce  a  branch  of  the  same  subject  not 
alluded  to  in  the  previous  argument.     It  is  this  : — 

It  is  admitted  by  all,  that  most  of  the  lowlands  of  the  Northern 
Hemisphere  have  at  some  time  in  the  past  been  submerged  to  less 
or  greater  depth  beneath  the  sea.  The  evidences  of  great 
submergences,  such  as  those  discussed  by  Chambers  in  his  "  Ancient 
Sea  Margins,"  or  by  Prestwich  in  his  "  Traditions  of  the  Flood," 
or  as  shown  by  McGee  in  his  "  The  Lafayette  Formation,"  will  not 
now  be  considered.  To  these  submergences  we  are  as  yet  unable 
to  assign  a  date.  I  would  study,  then,  those  minor  relative  changes 
in  sea  and  land,  both  of  depression  and  elevation,  that  have  occurred 
since  historic  times,  changes  upon  which  a  date  and  the  approximate 
amount  of  movement  can  be  fixed,  with  the  object  of  determining 
whether  these  upheavals  and  submergences  show  any  evidence  of 
being  periodic  in  their  nature.  We  may  attribute  these  changes 
either  to  movement  in  the  earth  or  to  movement  in  the  sea,  it  is 
immaterial  which ;  the  only  question  is,  have  these  oscillations 
shown  regular  cycles  in  their  occurrence. 

If  some  period  could  be  discovered  which  governed  these  minor 
changes,  it  would  seem  that  the  law  controlling  this  period  might 
be  found,  and  the  establishment  of  law,  if  such  existed,  and  the 
consequent  elimination  of  chance,  might  enable  us  to  determine  with 
more  certainty  than  at  present  whether  the  actual  responsibility  for 
these  recent  changes  should  be  placed  upon  an  unstable  earth  or 
upon  a  shifting  sea. 

This  question  of  recent  periodic  oscillations  in  the  sea-level  was 
forced  upon  me  by  certain  facts,  impossible  to  explain  otherwise, 
derived  from  many  years'  study  of  the  raised  beaches  of  the  world  ; 
these  facts,  owing  to  the  nature  of  this  paper,  I  cannot  now  set 
forth,  but  they  assured  me  in  the  strongest  manner  that  a  regular 
<:yde  had  existed  at  the  time  these  raised  beaches  were  formed,  and  that 
its  present  existence  was  almost  a  certainty.  I  therefore  commenced 
search  for  this  periodical  vibration  of  the  oceanic  surface  in  the 
records  of  history  and  tradition,  in  the  ancient  cities  of  the  old 
world,  in  the  registered  changes  in  the  coastlines  of  all  countries, 
including  the  American  coasts  since  the  time  of  Columbus. 

The  data  thus  collected  are  almost  unanimous  in  tlieir  testimony  ; 
they  point  unerringly  to  a  vibration  period  in  the  soa-level  of  about 
€40  years,  an  interval  of  about  320  years  existing  between  periods 
•of  high  and  of  low  water. 

The  data  inform  us  as  well  that  at  periods  of  high-water  tlie 
submergence  increased  in  amount  going  north ;  they  tell  us  that  at 
previous  periods  of  low-water  the  sea  stood  lower  than  at  present ; 
and  finally,  they  assure  us  that,  following  the  law  of  change  which 
has  guided  these  vibrations  in  the  past,  we  must  expect  lugher  water 
in  the  north  in  the  immediate  future.     This  raised  sea-level  m  tho 

170  S.  W.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level. 

north  should  culminate  within  200  years,  while  the  advance  should 
be  visible  within  a  few  decades. 

The  points  in  the  curve  illustrating  the  variation  in  level  of  the 
surface  of  the  sea  were  sought  for  and  found  under  a  system  of 
reasoning  adopted  after  consideration  of  the  results  obtained  from 
the  investigation  of  the  raised  beaches  before  mentioned.  This 
investigation  furnished  me  certain  testimony  strongly  opposed  to  all 
my  prepossessions,  yet,  if  I  had  interpreted  the  records  correctly, 
I  felt  compelled  to  adopt  as  logical  conclusions  the  following 
theories : — 

1.  Since  the  carving  of  these  ancient  terraces  there  had  been  no 
movement  of  the  earth's  crust,  but  these  terraces  lay  in  position 
exactly  as  originally  traced. 

2.  The  date  of  these  beaches  is  unknown,  but  they  certainly 
antedate  the  historical  period.  I  must  therefore  conclude  that  since 
the  dawn  of  history  no  upheaval  or  subsidence  of  the  earth's  crust 
can  have  occurred,  and  explanation  of  the  observed  recent  sub- 
mergence and  emergence  of  lands  must  be  sought  for  in  vertical 
movements  of  the  sea  itself,  rather  than  in  upheavals  or  depressions 
of  the  crust. 

3.  I  had  reason  to  strongly  suspect,  in  fact  I  regarded  it  as  almost 
certain,  that  at  the  time  of  deposition  of  these  terraces  alternate 
rising  and  falling  of  the  sea-level  had  occurred,  that  the  traces  of 
this  movement  were  plainly  discernible,  that  I  had  good  cause  to- 
suspect  the  present  existence  of  these  same  cycles  of  alternate  ascent 
and  descent  in  the  sea-level,  and  that  if  these  oscillations  existed  they 
should  be  uniform  in  direction  of  movement  over  one  hemisphere. 

Impressed,  then,  with  the  logic  of  the  facts  which  had  led  up  to 
these  conclusions,  facts  which  are  set  forth  in  other  papers,  I  started 
on  a  new  research,  seeking  for  evidence  of  these  suspected  cycles, 
of  the  approximate  dates  of  their  maxima  and  minima,  and  of  the 
amount  in  feet  of  their  vertical  vibration. 

The  apparent  absurdity  of  entering  upon  such  a  labour  as  this  is 
manifest.  On  all  sides  we  see  evidences  of  alleged  upheavals  or 
depressions  of  laud :  we  know,  for  instance,  that  Scandinavia, 
Scotland,  all  of  Northern  Asia,  Alaska,  and  Texas  are  now  rising 
out  of  the  sea;  we  are  told  that  the  coasts  of  New  Jersey,  Long 
Island,  Cape  Breton,  and  Greenland  are  now  sinking  beneath  the 
sea.  Here  were  undeniable  facts  directly  opposed  to  each  other  and 
to  my  assumption  that  these  movements  must  be  universal  in  kind 
over  either  hemisphere. 

These  conflicting  facts,  which  seemed  to  deny  and  refute  these 
other  facts  mentioned,  as  obtained  from  the  raised  beaches,  and  to- 
the  accumulation  of  which  I  have  devoted  so  many  years'  labour, 
seemed  to  assure  me  of  failure  from  the  first ;  but  notwithstanding 
the  discouraging  outlook,  search  was  undertaken  for  evidence  of 
these  periodic  vibrations  in  the  oceanic  surface,  no  hope  being 
entertained  at  that  time,  however,  of  finding  explanation  of  those 
discordant  motions,  existing  in  the  same  hemisphere,  to  which 
attention  has  been  called.  My  only  hope  was  that  these  fluctuations 
might  be  found  periodic  in  their  nature. 

//.  IF.  Pfiarsoii — Osci/hifions  of  Sea-krcl.  171 

At  the  beginning  I  bad  been  led  to  suspect  some  physical 
connection  between  the  periodic  swing  in  the  magnetic  needle  and 
these  oscillations  in  the  level  of  the  sea  ;  therefore,  as  the  half-period 
in  the  motion  of  the  agonic  line  is  about  320  years,  1  commenced 
search  for  evidence  of  a  period  of  universally  higher  water  in  the 
north,  culminating  about  320  years  distant  in  the  past,  or  about  tlie 
year  1570. 

As  my  investigations  progressed  I  soon  met  an  obstacle.  I  found 
that  the  study  of  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Serapis  by  Babbage,  Forbes, 
Lyell,  and  others,  demonstrated  that  the  high-water  was  receding 
in  Italy  in  the  years  1508  to  1511  (see  "Physical  Geography,"  by 
A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  p.  46),  and  consequently  my  culminating  point 
of  1570  must  be  moved  backward  to  some  period  probably  anterior 
to  1500,  and  my  assumption  that  the  present  low-water  period  was 
now  at  its  central  position  also  needed  adjustment ;  we  must  have 
passed  the  low-water  minimum. 

I  next  sought  proofs  that  the  emergence  of  the  Temple  of  Serapis 
was  coexistent  with  a  corresponding  emergence  of  every  part  of  the 
Mediterranean  shore-line,  and  these  proofs  are  in  incontestable 
existence ;  many  of  them  I  submit  herewith,  hundreds  of  them  for 
lack  of  space  I  withhold.  George  Maw  discovered  "  evidence  of 
upheaval,  in  a  uniform  rise  of  about  25  feet  in  distant  parts  of  the 
Mediterranean,  of  an  old  coastline,  exactly  corresponding  with  the 
amount  of  emergence  of  the  shell-bored  columns  of  the  Temple  of 
Serapis,"  and  tliis  testimony  of  Maw  (see  Kep.  Brit.  Assoc,  for 
Advancement  of  Science,  1870,  p.  80)  I  have  verified  by  a  hundred 
items  of  evidence  perhaps  unknown  to  him. 

Satisfied  at  length  tbat  the  elevated  sea-level  was  certainly 
uniform  over  the  Mediterranean,  I  extended  my  investigations  to 
the  shores  of  England,  France,  Holland,  and  the  Baltic,  to  the 
Americas,  and  to  the  shores  of  the  Pacific,  seeking  as  before  for 
evidences  of  a  raised  sea-level,  central  about  the  year  loOO. 

England  supplies  a  wealth  of  evidence.  I  found  that  Queen 
Elizabeth  in  1562  was  granting  many  descriptions  of  land  in  the  bed 
of  a  creek  or  waterway  '  swawed '  or  dried  up,  "  by  reason  of  the 
receding  waters"  ("  History  of  Romney  Marsh."  HoUoway,  p.  141), 
at  the  same  time,  nearly,  that  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  for  the  same 
reason,  were  conveying  land  in  Italy,  that  had  likewise  '^  dried  up  " 
(Brown,  "  Physical  Geog.,"  p.  46). 

Having  thus  collected  much  evidence  that  the  sea-level  was 
falling  in  the  period  subsequent  to  1500,  I  next  sought  data  as  to 
its  rise  at  some  earlier  date.  Much  evidence  as  to  this  movement 
was  found.  For  instance,  in  1427  we  find  Henry  VI  perplexed  and 
disturbed  "  by  the  excessive  rising  of  waters  in  divers  parts  of  the 
realm,"  and  urging  that  remedy  should  be  '-hastily  provided 
("  History  of  Eomney  IVIarsh,"  p.  130). 

Testimony  such  as  this,  as  to  the  epoch  of  Henry  ^  I.  combined 
with  a  great  mass  of  similar  evidence,  like  the  progressive  sub- 
mergence during  the  same  period  of  the  Fens  of  England  and  the 
lowlands  of  Holland,  led  me  to  believe  that  the  waters  in  142*  were 

172  H.  JV.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level. 

rising,  and  as  I  knew  they  were  falling  in  England,  Italy,  and 
France  about  1500,  my  conclusion  was  that  somewhere  between 
these  dates,  say  from  1450  to  1475,  I  must  expect  to  find  the 
culminating  period  of  that  particular  epoch  of  northern  submergence. 

From  this  preliminary  examination  I  was  led  to  believe  that 
a  high-water  period  must  certainly  have  existed  over  the  greater 
portion  of  the  European  shores,  culminating  not  far  from  the  year 
1450.  I  therefore  entered  upon  a  more  extended  search  for  data, 
not  only  as  to  this  particular  epoch  of  an  elevated  sea,  but  for  those 
■other  and  more  ancient  changes  which  I  had  been  led  to  suspect 
as  stated. 

For  many  years  I  pursued  this  search,  carefully  collecting  and 
indexing  every  notice  as  to  change  of  sea-level  encountered  in  my 
readings,  regardless  of  date  or  direction  of  movement.  The  data 
thus  accumulated  seem  to  me  conclusive ;  periodic  vibrations  in  the 
ocean  level  are  certain  beyond  question.  The  present  cycle  appears 
to  have  a  period  of  about  640  years,  while  the  evidence  points  to 
a  period  of  about  500  years  only  at  about  the  time  of  the  Christian  era. 

A  portion  of  the  data  which  have  been  used  in  establishing  this 
curve  (see  Diagram,  next  page)  is  submitted  herewith.  Hundreds, 
however,  of  the  facts  used  as  ordinates  are  omitted,  that  this  paper 
may  not  be  swollen  to  unreadable  size. 

When  this  material  had  been  mapped  out,  it  was  found  that 
-300  points  or  more  were  aggregated  in  a  compact  body,  central 
about  the  year  1475,  and  that  each  of  these  points  bore  testimony 
to  a  period  of  high-water  at  some  part  of  the  earth's  surface  north 
of  the  Equator ;  another  aggregation  of  points,  less  numerous  and 
each  one  indicating  a  low-water  period,  was  found  bunched  between 
the  years  1100  and  1200,  central  about  1150  to  1175.  I  thus  laid 
out  all  these  accumulated  facts  each  in  its  pi'oper  place  and  position, 
and  at  the  end  found  a  dense  haze  of  dots  central  about  the  years 
825  and  325  a.d.  and  250  B.C.,  these  clouds  representing  high-water 
periods,  and  similar  swarms  of  dots,  each  representing  proofs  of  low- 
water,  central  about  the  years  600  and  100  a.d.,  with  occasional  and 
conflicting  points,  scattered  indiscriminately  along  the  line. 

At  this  point,  then,  to  complete  my  curve  it  was  but  necessary 
to  draw  a  sinuous  line  through  these  preponderating  masses  of  dots  ; 
this  curve  was  drawn,  and  the  result  is  shown  in  the  accompanying 

I  now  examined  as  to  what  weight  these  conflicting  points  might 
have  towards  weakening  my  confidence  in  the  general  accuracy  of  the 
curve.  Much  labour  has  been  given  to  this  subject ;  many  of  these 
dots  were  removed  by  investigation,  others  I  attribute  with  good 
reason  to  erosion  of  shore-lines  or  to  accretion  to  shore-lines,  as  is  now 
going  on  all  over  the  world,  and  finally  I  decided  that  not  one  of  these 
■conflicting  points  could  be  depended  upon  as  making  serious  objections 
to  the  correctness  of  our  curve.  The  information  was  too  uncertain 
in  its  nature;  it  lacked  that  element  of  the  positive,  the  known, 
which  pervaded  the  great  mass  of  evidence  on  which  the  curve  had 
been  based. 



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174     Notices  of  Memoirs— Dr.  D.  H.  Scott— Fossil  Plants. 

For  instance,  Heligoland  in  the  year  800  is  sLown  in  Myers'  map 
to  be  of  great  size  ;  this  is  in  conflict  with  our  curve,  as  the  year 
600  being  near  the  high-water  period,  the  island  should  have  been 
email  in  size.  On  investigation  we  find  that  we  have  testimony 
equally  strong  that  the  island  was  small  at  that  time.  The  description 
of  the  island  by  Adam  of  Bremen  shows  that  it  was  not  much  larger 
than  now  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne  (768  to  814),  ("Principles," 
9th  ed.,  p.  329).  (For  this  map  of  Heligoland  in  800,  see  Von  Hoff's 
"  Geschichte,"  etc.,  vol.  i,  p.  56.) 

Another  item  tending  to  invalidate  our  curve  is  the  legend  as  to  the 
submergence  of  lands  now  beneath  the  sea  in  Cardigan  Bay,  Wales. 
Pennant  states  that  these  lands — the  Cantre'r  Gwaelod — were  over- 
whelmed by  the  sea  about  the  year  600  (Pennant's  "  Tours  in  Wales," 
vol.  ii,  p.  274).  In  "The  Gossiping  Guide  to  Wales,"  however,  we 
read,  "  We  are  not  aware  that  any  date  is  assigned  "  to  this  disaster 
(p.  37).  It  seems  that  what  little  is  known  of  this  inundation  is 
derived  from  a  poem  by  one  Prince  Gwyddno,  who  flourished  between 
the  years  460  and  520.  There  is  no  evidence  that  Gwyddno  witnessed 
the  event  he  describes,  and  it  can  be  readily  surmised  that  he  merely 
reduced  to  verse  the  current  traditions  of  an  event  that  may  have 
occurred  three  or  four  generations  before  his  time.  If  this  was  the 
case,  the  Sarn  Badrig  and  its  attached  legends  would  be  evidence 
confirmatory  of  our  curve.  In  any  case  we  are  assured  that  the  date 
fixed  by  Pennant  is  uncertain  and  offers  no  reliable  testimony 
against  us. 

{To  be  continued  in  our  next  Nitmber.) 

nsroTXGES   OIF   nvniEiMioiss- 

On  the  Structure  and  Affinities  of  Fossil  Plants  fro^i 
THE  Palaeozoic  Eocks.  IV.  The  Seed-like  Fructification 
OF  Lepidocarpon,  a  Genus  of  Lycopodiaceous  Cones  from 
the  Carboniferous  Formation.  By  D.  H.  Scott,  M.A., 
Ph.D.,  F.R.S.,  Hon.  Keeper  of  the  Jodrell  Laboratory,  Eoyal 
Gardens,  Kew. 

A  SHORT  account  of  the  new  genus  Lepidocarpon  has  been  given 
in  a  note  communicated  to  the  Royal  Society  last  August ;  ^  the 
present  paper  contains  a  full,  illustrated  description  of  the  fossils  in 
question,  together  with  a  discussion  of  their  morphology  and  affinities. 

The  strobilus  of  Lepidocarpon  Lomaxi,  the  Coal-measure  species,  is, 
in  its  earlier  condition,  in  all  respects  that  of  a  Lepidostrohus,  of  the 
tj'pe  of  L.  Oldhamius. 

In  each  megasporangium,  however,  a  single  megaspore  or  embryo- 
sac  alone  came  to  perfection,  filling  almost  the  whole  sporangial 
cavity,  but  accompanied  by  the  remains  of  its  abortive  sister-cells. 
An  integument  ultimately  grew  up  from  the  sporophyll,  completely 
enclosing  the  megasporangium,  and  leaving  only  a  narrow  slit-like 

1  "Note  on  the  Occurrence  of  a  Seed-like  Fructification  in  certain  Palaeozoic 
Lycopods":  Eoy.  Soc.  Proc,  vol.  Ixvii,  p.  306. 

Bevioics — Prof.  W(.in-$c](e)ielc — The  Graphifc  Jlijies  of  Ccijlon.    il') 

opening,  or  miciopyle,  along  the  top.  As  shown  in  specially  favour- 
able specimens,  both  of  Lepidocarpon  Lomaxl  and  of  L.  WUdiamim, 
the  more  ancient  Burntisland  form,  the  functional  megaspore  became 
filled  by  a  large-celled  prothallus,  resembling  that  of  the  recent 
Isoetes  or  Selaginella.  The  whole  body,  consisting  of  the  sporophyll, 
bearing  the  integumented  megasporangium  and  its  contents,  became 
detached  from  the  strobilus,  and  in  this  isolated  condition  is  identical 
with  the  'seed'  described  by  Williamson  under  the  name  of  Cardio- 
carpon  anomahim,  which,  however,  proves  to  be  totally  distinct  from 
the  Cordaitean  seed  so  named  by  Carruthers. 

The  seed-like  organs  of  Lepidocarpon  are  regarded  by  the  author 
as  presenting  close  analogies  with  true  seeds,  but  as  dift'ering  too 
widely  from  the  seeds  of  any  known  Spermophyta  to  afford  any 
proof  of  affinity.  The  case  appears  rather  to  be  one  of  parallel  or 
convergent  development,  and  not  to  indicate  any  genetic  connection 
between  the  Lycopods  and  the  Gymnosperms,  or  other  Phanerogams. 

I^  IHJ  "V  I  IE  "W  S. 

E.  Weinsciienck.  Zur  Kenntniss  der  Grapiiitlaoeustatten. 
HI,  Die  Graphitlagekstatten  der  Insel  Ceylon.  Abb. 
k.  bay.  akad.  Wiss.,  CI.  ii,  Bd.  xxi,  Abth.  11 ;  Miinchen,  1900. 

PROFESSOR  Weinschenck  has  examined  a  series  of  rock  and 
vein  specimens  from  the  graphite  mines  of  Ragedara,  Ampe, 
Pushena,  and  Humbuluwa,  in  Ceylon,  collected  by  i)r.  Griinling. 
He  discusses  the  nature  of  the  granulitic  rocks  and  tlie  mode  of 
occurrence  and  origin  of  the  graphite. 

A  general  petrographical  description  of  the  granulitic  rocks^  is 
givenf  illustrated  by  three  plates  of  microphotographs.  .^lassive 
habit,  granulitic  structure,  and  variable  chemical  composition  are 
<;haracteristic.  Except  in  the  more  basic  varieties,  intorgrowtlis  of 
two  felspars  are  very  noticeable.  The  granulitic  rocks  include 
a  continuous  series  ranging  from  aplites  (weiss-steine)  to  pyroxene- 
plagioclase  rocks  (trapp-granuliten)  and  even  pyroxenites.  A  rather 
oily  lustre  and  greenish  colour  are  very  characteristic  features.  The 
xjonstituent  minerals  are  in  a  remarkably  fresh  condition,  except^  in 
the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  graphite  veins.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  that  Professor  Weinschenck  does  not  mention  any  pleochroic 
monoclinic  pyroxene.  ,     •     i    i 

There  are  certain  other  rocks  in  Ceylon  which  include  coarse- 
grained dolomites  and  '  cipolins,'  containing  blue  apatite  and  contact 
minerals  such  as  forsterite,  chondrodite,  phlogopite,  and  spinel,  and 
also  the  peculiar  andalusite,  sillimanito,  and  corundum  bearing  rocks 
described  by  Lacroix. 

The  o-rauulitic  rocks  show  no  trace  of  tlie  operation  ot  dynamic 
causes;" they  are  regarded  as  an  eruptive  mass  which  may  form 
a  single  unit  or  be  compound  in  character.  Ihe  occurrence  <>f 
coarse  crystalline  dolomites  in  the  midst  of  the  granulitic  series 
seems  to  show  tliat  different  eruptive  units  are  separated  l)y  contact 

176  Reviews — Prof.  Weinsdtencli — The  Grapldle  Mines  of  Ceylon, 

rocks.  The  existence  of  still  younger  eruptive  masses  of  granite  haa 
not  yet  been  demonstrated,  for  tlie  few  rocks  as  yet  described  from 
Ceylon  as  granite  are  rather  varieties  of  the  granulitic  series. 

Professor  Weinschenck  compares  the  Saxon  and  Ceylon  granulites,. 
thinking  with.  Naumann  that  the  former  are  truly  eruptive  rocks. 
Had  the  Ceylon  rocks  been  studied  before  those  of  Saxony  this  view 
would  have  been  more  widely  held.  They  differ  from  the  Saxon 
rocks  chiefly  in  their  non-schistose  character  and  coarser  grain. 
Lehmann  regarded  the  peculiarities  of  the  Saxon  granulites  as  the 
result  of  dynamo-metamorphism.  He  regarded  the  microperthitic 
intergrowths  of  two  felspars  as  the  result  of  such  a  process,  but  as 
these  are  characteristic  of  quite  unaltered  rocks  in  Ceylon  they  ma}"- 
also  be  original  in  the  Saxon  rocks.  The  absence  of  sericite  in 
the  latter  presents  a  difficulty  to  those  who  favour  the  dynamo- 
metamorphic  view.  Lehmann  supposed  that  its  place  was  taken  by 
biotite,  but  this  mineral  is  not  infrequently  an  original  constituent 
in  Ceylon  rocks.  Garnets  are  characteristic  of  typical  granulites,. 
and  their  presence  is  the  result  of  chemical  peculiarities  in  the 
magma  or  peculiar  physical  conditions  obtaining  at  the  time  of  its 
consolidation.  The  chemical  composition  of  Ceylon  and  Saxon 
granulites  resembles  those  of  truly  igneous  rocks.  Perhaps  in 
Saxony  we  are  dealing  only  with  the  outer  margin  of  an  eruptive 
mass  intruded  into  surrounding  schistose  rocks,  while  in  Ceylon 
the  heart  of  the  eruptive  mass  is  exposed.  In  both  cases  there  has 
been  extensive  magmatic  differentiation,  and  this  may  be  considered 
characteristic  of  granulites  in  general. 

It  is  only  in  immediate  contact  with  the  graphite  veins  that  the 
granulite  matrix  is  chemically  altered  and  finally  impregnated  with 
graphite.  Fragments  of  rocks  included  in  the  veins  are  also  speciallj^ 
affected.  In  the  altered  rocks  the  felspars  are  largely  changed  to 
nontronite,  a  feature  associated  with  the  occurrence  of  graphite  in 
the  Passau  district  also.  The  pyroxenes  change  to  a  fine  scaly 
material  with  aggregate  polarization.  Mica  and  garnet  alter  les& 
readily.  Impregnation  with  rutile  and  titanite  is  characteristic,  as 
in  the  .Bavario-Bohemian  area.  Beside  the  rock  fragments,  pieces 
of  various  minerals  occur  in  the  veins — quartz,  pyrite,  orthoclase, 
raicroperthite,  apatite,  biotite,  augite — the  formation  of  these  being- 
previous  to  that  of  the  graphite,  while  calcite,  and  sometimes  biotite, 
seem  to  have  been  deposited  contemporaneously. 

In  the  Passau  district  (Bavaria)  the  formation  of  nontronite  and 
impregnation  with  graphite  affect  the  whole  schistose  complex, 
while  in  Ceylon  the  graphite  occurs  in  veins.  This  difference 
depends  chiefly  on  the  harder  and  more  massive  character  of  the 
Ceylon  rocks.  In  Ceylon,  Siberia,  and  Cumberland  the  graphite 
occurs  in  veins;  in  Passau  and  Taconderoga  (U.S.A.)  in  veins  and 
beds ;  in  Bohemia  in  beds  :  these  differences  depend  on  the  varied 
character  of  the  matrix  and  not  on  different  modes  of  origin  of  the 
graphite.  Emanations  of  carbon  monoxide,  with  or  without 
cyanogen-bearing  compounds,  may  have  given  rise  to  the  graphite 
veins  ;  while  the  introduction  of  iron  oxide  and  manganese  peroxide 

Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London.      177 

in  their  neighbourhooil  may  argue  that  metal  carbonyls  were  also 

Finally,  Professor  Weinschenck  would  suppose  the  following  to 
have  been  the  sequence  of  events  in  Ceylon :— A  fluid  magma 
intruded  into  beds  of  unknown  age  consolidated  as  a  peculiar 
'  schlierig  '  rock,  while  contact  -  metamorphic  structures  were 
developed  in  surrounding  beds.  Contraction-joints  developed  on 
cooling,  allowed  the  formation  of  pegmatites,  including  pure  quartz 
veins  to  some  extent.  But,  contemporaneously  with  the  formation 
of  the  pegmatite,  there  were  emanations  of  carbon  monoxide  and 
cyanogen-bearing  compounds,  which  followed  the  same  paths  as 
the  pegmatites  and  then  gave  rise  to  the  graphite  veins.  The 
system  of  veins  traversing  the  whole  massif  played  in  later 
mountain  movements  the  role  of  buffer,  the  soft  yielding  mineral 
absorbing  the  mechanical  effects,  and  thus  the  Ceylon  granulites 
remained  unaltered  by  dynamic  changes. 

I  have  attempted  in  this  review  merel}'^  to  give  an  abstract  of 
Professor  Weinschenck's  views  as  expressed  in  his  important  paper. 


Geological  Society  of  London. 

I.  — February  15th,  1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,   Esq.,  M.A.,  V.P.R.S., 
President,  in  the  Chair. 

Annual    General    Meeting. 

The  reports  of  the  Council  and  of  the  Librai-y  and  Museum 
Committee  for  the  year  1900.  proofs  of  which  had  been  previously 
distributed  to  the  Fellows,  were  read.  The  Council  stated  that, 
although  there  was  a  decrease  in  the  number  of  Fellows,  the  financial 
prosperity  of  the  Society  continued  undiminished. 

The  report  of  the  Library  and  Museum  Committee  enumerated 
the  increasingly  extensive  additions  made  to  the  Society's  Library. 

Tlie  reports  having  been  adopted,  the  President  handed  the 
Wollaston  Medal,  awarded  to  Professor  Charles  Barrois,  F.M.G.S., 
of  Lille,  to  Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  for  transmission  to  the  recipient, 
addressing  him  as  follows  :— Sir  Archibald  Geikie, — 

lu  these  days  ot  specializatiou  tew  men  are  eudowed  with  tliosi^  faculties  which 
enable  them  to  contribute  with  marked  ability  to  all  branches  of  our  many-sided 
science  ;  but  amono-  those  few  Professor  Barrois  must  unquestionably  be  ranked. 

In  the  monograph  on  the  Calcaire  d'Erbray  and  many  otlier  papers  ho  lia.s 
established  his  reputation  as  a  paLeontologist ;  in  uumeroas  memoirs  on  the  Granitic 
and  Metamorphic  Rocks  of  Brittanv  he  figures  as  an  accomplished  petrologist ; 
while  in  the  many  geological  maps  of' the  same  district  he  has  constructed  a  lasting 
monument  to  his  skill  and  energy  as  a  geological  surveyor. 

His  published  work  represents  a  vast  accumulation  of  facts  carefully  <ibsoryed, 
clearly  described,  and  lucidly  arranged.  More  than  this,  it  is  often  full  of  suggestive- 
ness.  He  has  had  the  satisfaction  of  initiating  lines  of  research  which  have  hrcu 
followed  up  with  great  success  by  others.  •  i     •    , 

It  was  he  who  first  taught  us  how  to  zone  our  English  Chalk  by  the  aid  ot  the 
fossils  which  it  contains,  and  the  friendships  which  he  formed  during  the  progress 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — KO.  IV.  *- 

178      JRejJorts  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

of  that  work  have  heen  strengthened  by  the  lapse  of  time.  He  might  repeat  with 
truth  the  words  of  another  visitor  to  these  Islands  from  the  other  side  of  the  Channel : 
veni,  vidi,  vici. 

In  his  recent  publications  on  Brittany  he  has  correlated  the  breadth  and  character 
of  the  metamorphic  zones  surroiinding  the  granitic  masses  with  the  thickness  of  the 
cover  under  which  the  intrusions  took  place,  and  has  suggested  ideas  that  may  prove 
of  great  importance  in  connection  with  such  questions  as  the  origin  of  the  crystalline 
schists  and  igneous  magmas. 

But  he  has  aided  the  progress  of  geology  in  other  ways  than  as  an  original  worker. 
The  illustrious  pupil  of  an  illustrious  master,  he  has  contributed  to  maintain  the  great 
reputation  of  Lille  as  a  centre  of  geological  teaching ;  while  his  extensive  knowledge 
and  exceptional  organizing  ability  have  ever  been  at  the  disposal  of  the  International 
Geological  Congress  and  kindred  associations. 

Many  years  have  elapsed  since  I  had  the  privilege  of  making  his  acquaintance,  and 
it  is  therefore  with  the  greatest  pleasure  that  I  now  ask  you  to  transmit  to  him 
the  "Wollaston  Medal,  which  has  been  awarded  to  him  by  the  Council  as  a  mark 
of  their  appreciation  of  the  great  services  that  he  has  rendered  to  all  branches  of 
Geological  Science. 

Sir  Archibald  Geikie  replied  in  the  following  words : — Mr. 
President, — 

It  has  been  to  my  fi-iend  Professor  Barrois  a  matter  of  very  keen  regret  that  he  is 
prevented  from  being  here  to-day,  to  renew  his  personal  relations  with  the  Fellows 
of  the  Geological  Society,  and  to  receive  from  them  the  highest  distinction  which  it  is 
in  their  power  to  bestow.  We  must  aU  deeply  sympathize  with  him  in  the  causes  that 
deprive  us  of  his  presence.  Bowed  down  by  one  of  the  greatest  afflictions  that  can 
befall  a  father — the  death  of  a  son  in  the  full  bloom  and  promise  of  early  manhood — 
he  has  manfully  struggled  with  his  numerous  duties,  until  at  last  his  health  has  given 
way  under  the  strain.  Let  us  hope  that  he  may  soon  be  restored  to  his  former 
vigour,  and  be  able  to  resume  the  researches  in  Brittany  and  the  detailed  description 
of  them  on  which  he  has  so  long  been  engaged.  He  has  asked  me  to  receive  this 
Medal  for  him,  and  I  count  it  a  great  privilege  and  honour  to  be  the  intermediary 
between  the  Geological  Society  of  London  and  one  of  the  most  distinguished  and 
Avidely  esteemed  geologists  of  Eiu'ope.  Professor  Barrois  has  sent  a  letter  of  thanks, 
which  1  will  now  read  :— 

"  Mr.  President, — 

' '  Allow  me  to  express  my  gratitude  for  the  new  honour  which  the  Geological 
Society  has  bestowed  upon  me,  by  the  award  of  the  "Wollaston  Medal,  as  I  cannot 
but  recall  that  the  Council  has  on  a  former  occasion  encouraged  me  in  my  scientific 
work  by  the  award  of  the  Bigsby  Medal. 

"  I  have  since  made  long  wanderings  along  the  Channel  clift's  on  both  sides,  from 
chalk  to  granite,  for  the  sake  of  science,  in  the  steps  of  De  la  Beche,  Fitton,  Godwin- 
Austen,  and  the  founders  of  stratigraphical  geology  ;  and  it  is  for  me  a  very  unexpected 
event  to  see  my  name  written  to  day,  for  ever,  with  theirs,  in  the  Proceedings  of  the 

"  No  distinction  can  be  more  gratifying  to  a  geologist  than  to  receive  its  highest 
award  from  the  Council  of  the  illustrious  Society  which  for  nearly  a  century  has 
extended  our  knowledge  in  every  branch  of  geology,  and  promoted  progress  in  every 
part  of  the  earth.  I  so  greatly  appreciate  this  great  honoui-,  that  I  feel  as  if  the 
work  that  I  have  been  able  to  accomplish  Avas  too  small  to  merit  the  Wollaston 
Medal,  granted  as  a  reward,  but  rather  as  a  friendly  incitation  to  go  on  in  my  labour — 
'  upward  and  onward.'  " 

Charles  Barrois. 

"Lille,  February  9th,  1901." 

The  President  then  presented  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the 
Wollaston  Donation  Fund  to  Mr.  Arthur  Walton  Eowe,  M.B.,  M.S., 
of  Margate,  addressing  him  as  follows  : — Dr.  Rowe, — 

It  will,  I  am  sure,  be  a  source  of  gratification  to  you  to  be  associated  with 
Professor  Barrois  on  the  present  occasion,  for  you  have  done  much  to  confirm  and 
extend  the  principles  which  he  first  applied  to  the  elucidation  of  the  structui-e  of  the 

Report'i  and  Proceedings— Geological  Society  of  London.       179 

English  Chalk.  Wc  recognize,  however,  that,  although  your  work  has  heen  of  very 
great  stratigraphical  importance,  your  main  object  is  biological,  and  that  the  task 
you  have  set  yourself  is  that  of  working  out  the  evolution  of  organic  forms  during 
the  Upper  Cretaceous  period. 

lu  your  paper  on  Micrastcr  you  have  set  an  example  which  I  trust  will  bo  followed. 
You  have  shown  how  it  is  possible  to  deal  with  a  vast  mass  of  mnterial,  so  as  to 
bring  out  the  maiu  facts  of  evolution,  without  burdening  science  with  hosts  of  new 
names  and  long  lists  of  synonyms. 

By  the  application  of  the  den'tal  engine  to  the  preparation,  and  of  micro-photography 
to  the  illustration,  of  fossils,  you  have  also  rendered  signal  service  to  science. 

The  Council  of  the  Geological  Society,  in  making  this  award,  have  been  desirous 
of  expressing  their  gratitude  to  you  for  the  work  that  you  have  alreadv  accomplished, 
and  their  lively  sense  of  favours  to  come. 

In  handing  the  Miivchison  Medal,  awarded  to  Mr.  Alfred  John 
Jukes-Browne,  B.A.,  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  to  Mr.  W.  Whitaker, 
for  transmission  to  the  recipient,  the  President  addressed  him  as 
follows  : — Mr.  Whitaker, — 

Mr.  Jukes-Browue,  whose  absence  we  all  deeply  regret,  has  aided  the  progress 
of  geology  in  many  ways.  His  numerous  writings  ou  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Rocks 
are  too  well  known  to  make  it  necessary  for  me  to  refer  to  them  in  detail.  He  has, 
from  the  first,  recognized  the  enormous  importance  of  associating  pala-ontological 
with  stratigraphical  work,  and  by  original  research,  as  well  as  by  a  critical  study 
of  the  writings  of  othei's,  has  made  himself  master  of  the  geology  of  that  period 
to  which  he  has  especially  devoted  himself. 

But  he  possesses  also  a  good  all-round  knowledge  of  geology.  Ilis  Handbooks  on 
Physical  and  Historical  Geology  have  been  of  great  service  to  students,  and  his 
suggestive  work  ou  the  Building  of  the  British  Isles  has  been  the  means  of  directing 
attention  to  many  problems  of  considerable  theoretical  interest. 

There  is  yet  another  way  in  which  he  has  rendered  great  service  to  geology,  and 
that  is  as  a  stimulator  of  work  in  others.  I  am  siu"e  that  no  one  will  be  more  ready 
to  acknowledge  this  than  Mr.  William  Hill,  with  whom  Mr.  Jukes-Browne  has 
been  so  long  associated. 

In  recognition  of  these  many  services  to  our  science,  the  Council  have  awarded  to 
him  the  Murchison  Medal,  which  I,  an  old  College  friend  and  fellow-student,  now 
a-^k  you  to  transmit  to  him  with  our  heartiest  good  wishes. 

Mr.  Whitaker,  having  expressed  his  gratification  at  the  privilege 
of  receiving  the  Medal  on  behalf  of  an  old  colleague  and  valued 
friend,  read  the  following  extracts  from  a  letter  wliich  he  had 
received  from  Mr.  Jukes-Browne  : — 

"  I  beg  you  to  convey  to  the  Council  of  the  Geological  Society  my  deep  appreciation 
of  the  honour  conferred  upon  me  by  the  award  of  the  Murchison  ^Medal,  and  my 
great  regret  that  the  state  of  my  health  makes  it  impossible  for  me  to  be  present  in 
person  to  express  my  acknowledgments. 

"  That  such  work  as  I  have  been  able  to  accomplish  should  be  thought  worthy  of 
this  high  reward  is  not  onlv  a  present  gratification,  but  will  be  an  incentive  to  show 
myself  more  worthv  of  such  recognition.  I  feel  also  that  I  have  been  specially 
fortunate  in  mv  friends,  and  that  without  the  assistance  of  two  of  them  in  particular 
—Mr.  W.  Hill  and  Professor  J.  B.  Harrison— many  of  the  investigations  in  which 
I  have  been  concerned  w'ould  have  been  iucomj)lete. 

"  I  should  like  further  to  sav  that  the  pleasure  of  receiving  the  :Murchison  Medal 
«m  the  present  occasion  is  much  enhanced  by  the  knowledge  that  the  Wollaston 
Medal  is  at  the  same  time  awarded  to  my  old  friend  Professor  Harmis.  whose  zonal 
work  among  the  Cretaceous  rocks  of  England  and  France  has  addid  so  much  to  our 
knowledge  of  those  rocks." 

The  President  then  handed  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the 
Murchison  Geological  Fund,  awarded  to  Mr.  Thomas  Sargeant 
Hall,  M.A.,  of  Melbourne,  to  Professor  J.  W.  Judd,  for  transmission 
to  the  recipient,  addressing  him  as  follows :— Professor  Judd,— 

180      Heports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Societg  of  London. 

In  awarcliug  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the  Murchison  Fund  to  Mr.  Hall, 
the  Council  is  desirous  of  recoguizing  the  value  of  his  many  contributions  to  Australian 
Geology,  and  especially  of  his  detailed  researches  on  the  Zonal  Distribution  of  the 
Graptolites  of  Victoria.  His  work  has  thrown  much  light  on  the  Lower  Palaeozoic 
history  of  Australia  ;  while  his  discovery  of  the  coincidence  of  the  Ordovician 
auriferous  belts  with  certain  graptolitic  zones  is  an  illustration  of  the  bearing  of 
palseontological  research  on  economic  questions. 

His  application  of  the  zonal  method  of  research  to  the  Kainozoic  deposits  of 
Victoria  has  done  much  to  elucidate  the  later  geological  history  of  the  colouy,  and 
his  bibliographic  labours  have,  I  am  told,  greatly  facilitated  the  work  of  his  scientific 
colleagues  in  Victoria.  We  hope  that  this  award  will  be  of  some  assistance  to  him 
in  further  researches. 

In  presenting  the  Lyell  Medal  to  Dr.  Eamsay  Heatley  Traquair, 
F.E.S.,  of  Edinburgh,  the  President  addressed  him  in  the  following 
words  : — Dr.  Traquair, — 

The  Council  of  the  Geological  Society,  in  presenting  you  with  the  Lyell  Medal, 
desires  to  express  its  sense  of  the  great  value  of  your  many  contributions  to 
Palaeontology.  More  than  thirty  years  have  elapsed  since  the  publication  of  your 
first  papers  on  Fossil  Fishes,  and  during  the  whole  of  that  period  you  have  been 
giving  evidence  of  your  keen  insight  into  the  structui'e  of  these  interesting  forms  of 
life.     I  can  only  refer  to  one  or  two  of  youi"  more  important  works. 

Your  memoirs  on  the  structure  of  the  Palajoniscidaj  and  Platysomidaj  are,  I  believe, 
masterpieces  of  descriptive  palteontology,  and  must  for  ever  remain  most  vahiable 
works  of  reference.  Of  great  importance,  from  a  geological  point  of  view,  have  been 
your  researches  bearing  on  the  fish  fauna  of  the  Old  Eed  Sandstone  of  Scotland. 
You  have  not  only  shown  the  complete  divergence  between  the  fauna  of  the  Orcadian 
Series  and  that  of  the  Lower  Old  Red  Sandstone  south  of  the  Grampians,  but  you  have 
also  pointed  out  that  in  certain  areas  the  fishes  in  different  divisions  of  that  formation 
are  arranged  in  life-zones — a  fact  which  has  been  of  service  to  the  field-geologist. 

Your  last,  and  perhaps  your  greatest,  work  is  yoiir  monograph  on  the  remarkable 
Fossil  Fishes  from  the  Silurian  rocks  of  the  South  of  Scotland.  Your  keen  insight 
and  wide  knowledge  of  fossil  ichthyology  enabled  you  to  show,  among  other  points, 
that  the  group  of  the  Heterostraci,  which  hitherto  contained  only  the  Pteraspida;, 
must  be  considerably  enlarged,  and  that  a  transition  could  be  seen  from  the  shagreen- 
covered  Coelolepidffi  to  the  plate-covered  Pteraspidce.  You  have  also  arrived  at  the 
conclusion  that  the  Heterostraci,  though  not  actual  Selachians,  liad  in  all  probability 
a  common  origin  with  the  primitive  Elasmobi'anchs.  These  results  must  be  of  the 
highest  interest  to  biologists. 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  handing  to  you  the  Medal,  together  with  our  best  wishes 
that  you  may  long  be  spared  to  carry  on  your  most  valuable  researches. 

Dr.  Traquair  replied  as  follows  : — Mr.  President, — 

Permit  me  to  thank  the  Coimcil  of  the  Geological  Society  for  the  honour  which 
they  have  this  day  conferred  upon  me,  and  you,  sir,  for  the  kind  words  which  you 
have  spoken  regarding  my  work. 

I  am  much  gratified  to  hear  that  some  of  that  work  has  been  of  use  to  the 
stratigraphical  geologist,  as  it  is  indeed  impossible  for  the  paleontologist  who  has 
himself  collected  in  the  field  to  avoid  taking  an  interest  in  his  subject  from  the 
geological  standpoint  also. 

The  impulse,  however,  which  led  me  to  take  up  Fossil  Fishes  as  a  speciality  was 
entirely  biological.  While  still  a  boy  at  school  I  broke  open  an  ironstone  nodule 
containing  a  piece  of  a  Palaeoniscid  fish,  and  was  thereupon  seized  by  an  intense 
curiosity  to  know  how  the  bones  of  its  head  were  arranged.  As  I  did  not  find  the 
information  that  I  desired  in  the  books,  I  resolved  some  day  to  try  and  work  out 
the  problem  myself.  Need  I  remark  that,  when  in  due  time  I  got  fairly  to  work 
on  the  subject,  I  found  that  fossil  ichthyology  presented  a  field  sufficient  to  supply 
not  only  myself,  but  many  others,  with  original  work  for  our  lifetimes  ? 

If  the  work  that  I  have  accomplished  in  this  field  falls  far  short  of  the  realization 
of  early  dreams,  it  is  still  gratifying  for  me  to  find  that  I  have  been  able  to  do  enough 
to  merit  this  expression  of  the  Society's  approbation. 


Rejjorts  and  Proceedimjs— Geological  Society  of  London.      181 

In  presenting  one  lialf  of  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the  Lyell 
Oeological  Fund  to  John  William  Evans,  D.Sc,  LL.B.,  the  President 
addressed  him  as  follows  : — Dr.  Evans, — 

Half  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the  Lyell  Fund  has  been  awarded  to  you,  in 
reeognition  of  the  importance  of  your  geological  work  during  the  last  ten  years. 
Your  visit  to  an  almost  unknown  part  of  Brazil,  and  several  years'  residence  in  India, 
have  enabled  you  to  make  observations  and  to  collect  specimens  of  great  value  to 
•our  science.  The  papers  which  you  have  already  published  in  our  Journal  on  the 
Matto  Grosso  district,  and  on  tlie  Calcareous  Sandstones  and  Monchiquites  of  North- 
western India,  are  evidence  of  your  capacity  for  original  work. 

We  trust  that  this  award  may  aid  you  in  publishing  the  results  of  investigations 
that  you  are  known  to  have  carried  out  while  engaged  in  the  Survey  of  the  State 
of  Junagarh  (Kathiawar),  and  will  encourage  you  in  further  work. 

In  handing  the  other  half  of  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the 
Lyell  Geological  Fund,  awarded  to  Mr.  Alexander  McHenry,  of 
the  Geological  Survey  of  Ireland,  to  Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  for  trans- 
mission to  the  recipient,  the  President  addressed  him  as  follows  :  — 
Sir  Archibald  Geikie, — 

Mr.  McHenry's  claims  to  recognition  are  well  known  to  you,  and  the  fact  that 
you  receive  the  award  of  a  moiety  of  the  Balance  of  the  Proceeds  of  the  Lyell 
Geological  Fund  on  his  behalf  is  a  proof  that  you  cordially  endorse  the  action  of 
the  Council.  For  forty  years  he  has  laboured  to  advance  our  knowledge  of  Irish 
Geology  as  a  member  of  the  Geological  Survey,  first  as  a  collector  of  fossils  and 
rock -specimens  and  afterwards  as  a  member  of  the  Surveying  Staff.  Most  of  his 
work  has  been  published  in  the  Maps  and  Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey,  to 
which  he  has  devoted  himself,  as  you  yourself  have  said,  with  admirable  loyalty 
and  enthusiasm.  One  of  his  most  useful  labours  has  been  the  preparation,  in 
conjunction  with  his  former  colleague,  Professor  Watts,  of  a  Guide  to  the  Collection 
flf  Kocks  and  Fossils  belonging  to  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ireland.  His  extensive 
and  accurate  knowledge  largely  contributed  to  make  this  work  a  most  valuable 
compendium  of  Irish  Geology.  "We  hope  that  this  award  will  act  as  an  encourage- 
ment to  him  and  be  of  some  assistance  in  further  work. 

Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  in  reply,  said :— Mr.  President, — 

On  the  part  of  my  old  colleague,  I  have  to  express  to  the  Geological  Society  his 
best  thanks  for  the  recognition  of  his  work  which  is  expressed  in  this  award.  Next 
to  myself  he  is  the  member  of  the  Geological  Survey  who  has  been  longest  on 
the  staff.  His  whole  life  has  been  devoted  to  his  official  duties,  and  he  has  only 
now  and  then  ventured  to  make  his  appearance  in  non-official  print.  His  labours 
are  thus  chronicled  in  the  Maps,  Sections,  and  Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey 
of  Ireland,  and  are  probably  familiar  to  comparatively  few  geologists.  He  lias 
been  content  honestly  and  strenuously  to  do  his  duty  with  a  loyalty  that  has  never 
flinched,  and  with  aii  enthusiasn)  that  seems  to  wax  higher  as  the  years  go  past. 
To  such  a  man  you  mav  well  believe  that  recognition  from  the  Geological  Society  is 
as  precious  as  it  is  unlocked  for.  It  will  nerve  him  with  fresh  energy  for  the  task 
of  revision  of  the  Superficial  Deposits  of  Ireland  on  which  the  Survey  is  about  to 
enter ;  for  it  will  show  him  that  his  work  is  not  only  known  to  his  colleagues,  but 
is  appreciated  by  tlie  leaders  of  (leological  Science  here. 

In  presenting  the  Bigsby  Medal  to  Mr.  George  William  Lamplugb, 
of  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  the  President  addressed  him  as  follows  :— 
Mr.  Lamplugh, — 

In  1891  the  Council  of  the  Geological  Society  recognized  the  value  of  your  work 
on  the  Glacial  Deposits  of  Yorkshire  and  on  the  Speeton  Clay  by  an  award  trom 
the  Lyell  Fund.  Since  that  time  you  have  still  further  extended  our  knowlcilge  ot 
the  Lower  Cretaceous  rocks  of  Yorkshire  and  Lincolnsliiro,  and  have  lurnisliea 
Professor  Pavlov  with  material  which  has  enabled  him  to  throw  consi.lcral.le  ligUt 
on  the  physical  conditions  and  migrations  of  the  Cephalopod  launa  during  me 
period  represented  by  these  rocks. 

182      Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

Your  early  work  was  done  in  the  midst  of  an  active  and  successful  business  career, 
which  you  gave  up,  somewhat  against  the  advice  of  your  friends,  to  join  the 
Geological  Survey  and  devote  aU  your  energy  to  the  progress  of  science.  Of  late 
years  you  have  been  working  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  the  map  of  that  island  which 
you  have  produced  is  a  striking  proof  of  your  skill  as  a  geological  surveyor.  Its 
publication  leads  us  to  look  forward  with  great  expectations  to  the  forthcoming 

In  awarding  to  you  the  Bigsby  Medal,  the  CouucU  feel  that  they  are  placing  it  in 
safe  hands.     You  have  done  much,  and  they  confidently  expect  that  you  will  do  more. 

Mr.  Lamplugh  replied  in  the  following  words : — Mr.  President, — 

It  is  not  without  a  proper  sense  of  responsibility  that  I  receive  this  Medal.  The 
terms  of  the  award  leave  no  doubt  that,  while  it  is  intended  to  some  extent  as 
a  recognition  of  work  already  done,  it  is  essentially  intended  as  an  incentive  to  further 
work,  and  implies  a  certain  obligation  in  this  respect,  which  you,  sir,  in  your  engaging 
words  have  not  attempted  to  lighten.  The  recipients  of  this  Medal  in  the  past  have 
always  fulfilled  the  obligation,  and  it  wiU  indeed  be  a  satisfaction  to  me  if  it  be  in 
my  power  to  prove  my  fitness  for  the  trust  reposed  in  me  by  this  award. 

You  have  made  reference  to  my  altered  circumstances  since  the  time,  ten  years 
ago,  when  my  earlier  work  received  kindly  recognition  from  the  Council  of  this 
Society  ;  and  it  may,  therefore,  be  permitted  me  to  confess  that,  in  deciding  to  devote 
my  whole  energies  to  geological  research,  I  felt  some  misgiving  lest  the  studies  which 
had  proved  so  congenial  as  a  recreation  should  take  on  another  aspect  when  made 
the  main  occupation  of  my  life.  But  the  misgiving  has  proved  groimdiess ;  the 
wider  opportunity,  so  far  from  blunting  my  interest  in  these  studies,  has  brought 
fresh  zest,  and  on  every  side  has  opened  up  ■vistas  of  promising  work  for  the  future. 

The  President  read  his  Anniversary  Address,  in  which  he  first 
gave  Obituary  Notices  of  several  Fellows  and  Foreign  Members 
deceased  since  the  last  Annual  Meeting,  including  Professor  0.  M. 
Torell  (elected  F.M.  in  1883),  Professor  A.  Milne-Edwards  (F.M.  in 
1899)  ;  the  Duke  of  Argyll  (President  in  1872-74)  ;  Mr.  C.  Tylden- 
Wright  (elected  a  Fellow  in  1857),  Mr.  G.  C.  Greenwell  (el.  in  1858), 
Mr.  G.  H.  Morton  (el.  in  1858),  General  Pitt-Rivers  (el.  in  1867), 
Professor  G.  H.  F.  Ulrich  (el.  in  1867),  Mr.  J.  Thomson  (el.  in 
1868),  Mr.  C.  J.  A.  Meyer  (el.  in  1869),  Mr.  W.  P.  Sladen  (el. 
in  1872),  Dr.  John  Young  (el.  in  1874),  and  Dr.  W.  Waagen 
(el.  in  1881). 

He  then  dealt  with  the  evolution  of  petrological  ideas  during  the 
nineteenth  century,  especially  as  regards  the  igneous  rocks.  The 
discussions  as  to  the  origin  of  basalt  and  granite  were  referred  to, 
and  it  was  shown  that  the  controversy  regarding  the  latter  rock 
had  contributed  largely  to  the  clearing  up  of  our  ideas  as  to  the 
nature  of  plutonic  phenomena. 

The  solution  theory  propounded  by  Bunsen  was  especially  empha- 
sized, and  its  modern  developments  were  briefly  sketched.  It  was 
suggested  that  the  next  great  advance  will,  in  all  probability,  be  the 
result  of  experiment,  controlled  by  the  modern  theory  of  solutions, 
and  carried  out  for  the  purpose  of  testing  the  consequences  of  that 
theory  and  discovering  the  modifications  which  may  be  necessary  to 
adapt  it  to  igneous  magmas.  The  bearing  which  recent  work  on 
alloys  had  on  petrographical  problems  was  also  referred  to. 

The  problem  of  the  origin  of  petrographical  species  was  next 
considered,  and  the  growth  of  ideas  on  the  subject  briefly  sketched. 
It  was  pointed  out  that  although  magmatic  difi'erentiation  is  accepted 
by  many  as  an  important  factor  in  producing  different  kinds  of 

Reporta  and  Proccedinga — Gcohjical  Suciety  of  London.     1S3 

igneous  rocks,  it  does  not  rest  on  any  assured  experimental  basis. 
Differentiation  dependent  on,  or  connected  with,  the  crystallization 
of  definite  minerals  was  reviewed  more  favourably ;  but  it  was 
pointed  out  that  all  theories  of  differentiation  which  are  based  on 
unaided  molecular  flow  are  subject  to  the  criticism  that  the  time 
required  to  effect  any  important  differentiation  appears  to  be  too 

Reference  was  also  made  to  recent  work  on  the  modification  of 
igneous  magmas  by  the  inclusion  and  assimilation  of  rocks  through 
which  they  pass ;  and  the  conclusion  was  reached  that  the  origin 
of  species,  so  far  as  igneous  rocks  are  concerned,  is  a  problem 
the  final  solution  of  which  has  been  handed  on  by  the  nineteeuth 
century  to  its  successor. 

The  ballot  for  the  Couucil  and  Officers  was  taken,  and  the  followiu^  were  declared 
duly  elected  for  the  eusuino;  vear: — Council:  W.  T.  Blanford,  LTj.D.,  F.R.S. ; 
Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D..  F.R.S.  ;  Professor  E.  J.  Garwood.  M.A. ; 
Professor  T.  T.  Groom,  M.A.,  D.Sc. ;  Alfred  Ilarker,  Esq.,  M.A. ;  R.  S.  Ilerries, 
Esq.,  M.A.  ;  William  Hill,  Esq.  ;  W.  H.  Iludlestou,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S. ; 
Prof.  J.  W.  Judd,  C.B.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.;  Lieut.-Gen.  C.  A.  MoMahon,  F.R.S.; 
J.  E.  Marr,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.;  Professor  H.  A.  Miers,  M. A.,  F.R.S. ;  Rijrht 
Rev.  John  Mitchiuson,  D.D.,  D.C.L. ;  IL  W.  Monckton,  Esq..  F.L.S.  :  E.  T. 
Newton,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  ;  G.  T.  Prior,  Esq.,  M.A.;  F.  W.  Rudler,  Esq. ;  Professor 
H.  G.  Soeloy,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.;  Professor  W.  J.  Sollas,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.; 
J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq..  M.A.,  F.R.S.  ;  Professor  W.  W.  Watts,  M.A. ;  W.  Whitaker. 
Esq.,  B.A.,  F.R.S. ;  K.  B.  Woodward,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Officers:— Prcsldoit:  J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents: 
J.  E.  Marr,  Es(i.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.  ;  II.  W.  Monckton,  Esq.,  F.L.S.  ;  Professor 
H.  G.  Seeley,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.  ;  W.  Whitaker,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.R.S.  Secretaries: 
R.  S.  Herries,  Esq.  M.A.  ;  Professor  W.  W.  Watts,  M.A.  Fnreir/n  Stcretary : 
Sir  John  Evans,  K.O.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.  Trea-wrer:  W.  T. 
Blanford,  LL.D..  F.R.S. 

II. —February  20,  1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall.  Esq.,   M.A.,  V.P.R.S., 
President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Address,  which  it  is  proposed  to  submit  to  His  Majesty  the 
King,  on  behalf  of  the  President,  Council,  and  Fellows,  was  read  as 
follows,  and  the  terms  thereof  were  approved  :  — 


"May  it  ple.\se  your  M.uesty, 

"We,  your  Majesty's  most  dutiful  and  loyal  subjects,  the  President, 
Council,  and  Fellows  of  the  Geolo-ical  Society  of  Loudon,  humbly  be-  leave  to  otter 
to  your  Maiostv  our  most  profound  and  heartfelt  sympathy  in  the  great  sorrow  wlucl. 
has  fallen  on  vou  in  the  death  of  our  late  h.-lovrd  Sovcnign  Queen  Victoria  and  to 
most  resp(K'tfullv  express  the  deep  gric^f  tliat  we,  in  com.non  with  all  your  .Majestj  s 
subjects,  feel  at'the  great  loss  which  has  befallen  the  nation.  «     ♦ . 

'•'While  thus  exFessing  our  grief,  we  most  humbly  beg  leave  to  offer  to  ) our 
Majesty  our  most  sincere  and  unfeigned  congratulations  on  your  Majesty  »>  »«^e8»ion 
to  the  throne  of  your  ancestors.  Our  knowledge  ol  the  grea  interest  »  ^  our 
Majesty  has  always  taken  in  all  matters  relating  to  the  wellaie  of  yon.  ^utjectH 
makes  us  feel  with  confidence  that  seience  will  continue  to  advance  during  )our  ic  g n 
as  in  that  of  Her  late  Majesty  of  In-ioved  memory.  ^^  e  reeall  with  p r u  e  that  )our 
Majesty's  father,  the  late  Prince  Consort,   was   lor  many   years  a   J^ellovv   ot   tni* 

^°"  And  we  shall  ever  pray  that  your  Majesty  may  long  be  spared  to  reign  over 
a  happy  and  contented  people." 

184      Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

Professor  J.  B.  Harrison,  alluding  to  a  series  of  views  of  parts  of 
the  interior  of  British  Guiana,  which  he  laid  on  the  table,  remarked 
that  the  photographs  had  been  taken  by  his  colleague,  Mr.  H.  I. 
Perkins,  F.G.S.,  Acting  Commissioner  of  Mines  in  British  Guiana, 
during  their  recent  geological  investigations  into  the  structure  of 
the  goldfields  of  that  colony.  The  views  well  illustrate  the  general 
characteristics  of  the  densely  wooded  country  in  which  the  gold- 
bearing  areas  occur,  and  give  some  idea  of  the  difficulties  which 
affect  the  work  of  the  mining  prospector  and  of  the  field-geologist 
in  that  colony. 

Several  of  the  photographs  illustrate  rapids,  cataracts,  and  falls 
which  so  frequently  occur  along  the  courses  of  some  of  the  vast 
rivers  of  that  part  of  South  America,  and  show  the  differing  forms 
of  weathering  of  various  igneous  rocks  and  of  horizontally-bedded 
sandstones  and  conglomerates  in  the  tropics. 

Among  the  photographs  are  several  fine  views  of  the  Kaieteur 
Falls  on  the  Potaro  Eiver,  a  tributary  of  the  Essequibo.  These 
falls,  which  were  discovered  by  a  Fellow  of  the  Geological  Society, 
Mr.  C.  Barrington  Brown,  in  the  course  of  his  geological  recon- 
naissance of  the  colony  about  thirty  years  ago,  occur  near  the 
escarpment  of  the  great  sandstone  formation  which  is  so  largely 
developed  in  the  Guianas  and  in  Bi-azil.  The  falls  are  over  a  ledge 
of  very  coarse  siliceous  conglomerate,  some  18  or  20  feet  thick, 
which  overlies  a  thickness  of  about  1000  feet  of  almost  horizontally- 
bedded  sandstones.  The  river  above  the  falls  is  about  400  feet 
broad  and  from  18  to  20  feet  deep,  and  falls  vertically,  as  a  great 
curtain  of  water,  for  740  feet,  into  a  vast  chasm  at  the  extremity 
of  a  deep  valley  which  it  has  eroded  for  a  distance  of  about  17  miles 
from  the  escarpment  of  the  sandstones.  During  the  first  3  or 
4  miles  of  its  course  from  the  falls  through  the  valley,  the  river 
descends  for  about  400  feet  by  a  series  of  cataracts  and  rapids. 
The  valley,  which  is  eroded  in  places  through  the  sandstones  into 
the  underlying  igneous  rocks,  is  of  surpassing  beauty,  and  offers 
many  features  of  marked  geological  interest.  One  of  the  views, 
taken  when  the  water  was  low  after  a  long-continued  drought, 
shows  very  clearly  the  great  cave  which  the  spray  of  the  falling 
water  has  cut  out  from  the  softer  sandstone  strata. 

Others  of  the  views  show  the  somewhat  primitive  methods 
employed  in  prospecting  and  in  working  the  placer-claims  for  gold. 

Professor  Edward  Hull  made  a  communication,  illustrated  by 
lantern-slides,  on  the  submerged  valley  opposite  the  mouth  of 
the  Eiver  Congo.  The  position  of  this  submerged  valley  has  been 
ascertained  by  Mr.  Edward  Stallybrass  and  Professor  Hull,  by 
contouring  the  floor  of  the  ocean  with  the  aid  of  the  soundings 
recorded  on  the  Admiralty  Charts.  The  sides  of  the  valley  are 
steep  and  precipitous  and  clearly  defined,  the  width  varying  from 
2  to  10  miles,  and  the  length  across  the  Continental  platform  being 
about  122  miles.  It  is  continuous  with  the  Valley  of  the  Congo, 
and  its  slope  is  uninterruptedly  downward  in  the  direction  of  the 
abyssal  floor.  The  steepness  of  the  sides  indicates  that  they  are 
formed  of  very  solid  rocks. 

Rejiorts  and  Proceedinys — Geological  Society  of  London.       185 

Several  other  submerged  valleys  off  the  coast  of  Western  Europe 
were  described  for  comparison.  In  most  cases  the  landward  end 
of  the  submerged  river-channel  is  filled  with  silt,  etc.,  for  some 
distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  actual  river ;  but,  farther  out,  its 
course  becomes  quite  distinct  towards  its  embouchure  at  the  edge 
of  the  Continental  platform.  Among  the  valleys  specified  were 
those  off  the  mouth  of  the  Tagus  and  the  Lima,  the  Adour,  and  the 
Loire,  and  those  in  the  English  and  Irish  Channels. 

The  following  communication  was  read  : — 

"  The  Geological  Succession  of  the  Beds  below  the  Millstone  Grit 
Series  of  Pendle  Hill  and  their  equivalents  in  certain  other  parts 
of  England."  By  Wheelton  Hind,  M.D.,  B.S.,  F.R.C.S.,  F.G.S., 
and  J.  Allen  Howe,  Esq.,  B.Sc,  F.G.S. 

Part  i  of  this  paper  consists  of  a  detailed  account  of  the  ground. 
Many  detailed  sections  are  given,  showing  in  each  case  the  exact 
fossiliferous  horizons.  The  geological  succession  between  the  massif 
of  limestone  and  the  Millstone  Grit  Series  on  Pendle  Hill  is  shown, 
by  various  sections,  to  contain  a  characteristic  limestone  series, 
easily  distinguished  by  palseontological  and  lithological  characters 
from  the  White  or  Clitheroe  Limestone.  This  calcareous  series  is 
found  to  be  very  constant  over  a  certain  definite  area,  and  to  contain 
a  zonal  fauna. 

By  various  sections  the  extent  of  the  deposit  is  shown,  and  it  is 
demonstrated  that  the  deposit  occupies  a  basin,  of  which  the  Pendle 
district  covers  the  maximum  area  of  deposit,  for  the  sequence  thins 
out  rapidly  north-wes  and  south.  But  although  the  beds  thin  out, 
a  calcareous  series  with  a  typical  zonal  fauna  is  always  present. 
Beds  containing  this  fauna  are  traced  from  County  Dublin,  the  Isle 
of  Man,  Bolland,  Craven,  the  Calder  and  Mersey  valleys,  to  Derby- 
shire and  North  Staffordshire.  It  is  shown  that  this  series,  for 
which  the  term  Pendleside  Series  is  proposed,  occupies  a  basin 
about  the  size  of  the  area  indicated  above,  and  that  the  beds  are 
lithologically  distinct  from  the  Yoredale  Beds  of  Wensleydale,  and 
contain  a  different  fauna. 

Part  ii  discusses  the  question  in  detail,  from  a  pal^ontological 
point  of  view.  Several  goniatites  and  Posidonomijn  Becheri  are 
shown  to  be  characteristic  of  the  lower  part  of  the  series,  while 
Avtculopecten  papyracens,  Posidoniella  lavis,  and  certain  goniatites 
have  a  wider  distribution  in  the  series. 

The  faunas  of  the  Yoredale  Beds  of  Wensleydale  and  the  I  endle- 
side  Series,  generally  mapped  as  Yoredales,  are  shown  to  be  entirely 
distinct ;  and  the  Yoredale  Series  of  Wensleydale  is  shown,  on 
palseontological  and  stratigraphical  grounds,  to  be  the  eciuivalent  ot 
the  upper  part  of  the  massif  of  limestone.  ,    ,     a 

The  migration  of  certain  families  of  fossils  from  the  nor  h  to  the 
south,  brought  about  by  a  slow  change  of  environment,  is  shown  l.y 
tables,  and  lines  called  'isodiectic  lines '  are  drawn  to  ropresent  this 
distribution.  It  is  shown  that  the  Nuculidje  are  found  in  the  owest 
Carboniferous  beds  in  Scotland,  but  come  in  at  successively  higher 
horizons  as  the  beds  range  southward. 

186  Corresjjondence — Rev.  0.  Fisher. 

These  facts  and  comparative  thicknesses  are  the  basis  of  an 
argument  as  to  the  local  distribution  of  land  and  water  in 
Carboniferous  times ;  and  it  is  shown  that  the  peculiar  change  in 
type  which  Carboniferous  rocks  undergo  in  passing  from  north  to 
south  is  due  entirely  to  physiographical  conditions,  and  not  to  any 
theoretical  assumption  of  contemporaneous  faulting.  It  is  shown, 
moreover,  that  the  Craven  Faults  per  se  have  had  nothing  to  do 
with  this  change  of  type.  The  correlation  of  the  limestone  knolls 
of  Craven  with  the  Pendleside  Limestone  is  demonstrated  to  be  no 
longer  tenable. 



Sir, — In  the  volume  of  this  Magazine  for  1900  I  reviewed 
Professor  Joly's  theory,  that  the  age  of  the  earth  can  be  calculated 
by  comparing  the  amount  of  sodium  now  in  the  sea  with  the  time 
rate  at  which  rivers  are  at  present  conveying  sodium  down.  Among 
other  matters  I  suggested  that  the  salinity  of  rivers  might  be  partly 
due  to  sodium  derived  from  sedimentary  rocks,  which  had  formerly 
come  from  the  sea.  This  would  of  course  lengthen  the  computed 
age  of  the  earth. 

Mr.  Hunt  now  suggests  that  "sea- water  reached  the  heated  rocks," 
and  he  appears  to  consider  that  much  of  the  sodium,  which  the 
Dartmoor  granites  (at  any  rate)  contain,  was  derived  from  the  sea. 

This  is  turning  Professor  Joly's  theory  round  about.  Professor 
Joly  derives  the  salts  of  the  sea  from  the  igneous  rocks.  Mr.  Hunt 
derives  the  salts  of  the  igneous  rocks  from  the  sea. 

My  object  in  this  letter  is  to  direct  attention  to  the  difficulty  of 
explaining  the  undoubted  abundance  of  water,  which  is  extravasated 
by  volcanoes,  to  absorption  from  the  ocean  or  from  anj'  other 
external  source.  I  have  gone  into  my  objections  to  this  view 
(whatever  they  may  be  worth)  in  my  "Physics  of  the  Earth's 
Crust"  (2nd  ed.,  p.  144),  where  I  have,  in  a  note,  given  an  account 
of  Daubree's  experiment,  to  which  Mr.  Hunt  refers. 

Since,  alas !  my  two  friends  have  passed  away,  it  may  be 
permissible  to  say,  that  I  was  on  a  visit  to  my  dear  friend  Pro- 
fessor Prestwich  shortly  after  he  had  published  his  paper  on  "  The 
Agency  of  Water  in  Volcanic  Eruptions,"  and  Professor  John  Morris 
was  my  fellow-guest.  We  two  were  talking  about  Prestwich's 
theory  that  the  volcanic  water  was  derived  ab  extra,  and  that 
water  could  enter  into  combination  with  molten  rock.  Morris  said, 
"Water  would  not  be  so  foolish  !"  This  was  not  a  very  scientific 
reason,  but  it  was  putting  his  own  idea  pretty  strongly.  He  also 
told  me  that  he  had  tried  to  dissuade  Prestwich  from  publishing  his 
views  of  volcanic  energj^,  but  without  success. 

My  own  opinion  is  that  water  has  been  a  constituent  of  the  liquid 

Correqmuleiicc—Profi'Sfior  T.  G.  Bonnoj.  187 

interior  of  the  earth  from  the  very  first,  aucl  that  it  simply  makes 
its  escape  at  a  tremendous  pressure  whenever  a  way  is  opened  for  it 
through  the  solid  crust.  0.  Fisher. 


March  5,    1901. 


Sir, — May  I  suggest  to  Mr.  Lamplugh  that  to  propose  names  for 
British  Ice-slieets  before  proving  that  they  have  existed  is  rather 
like  counting  chickens  before  the}^  are  hatched.  At  present  we 
know  neither  the  ancient  extent  of  land-ice  in  our  Island,  nor  in  all 
cases  what  are  indisputable  traces  of  it.  Wliere  faith  is  strong  this, 
no  doubt,  seems  a  detail,  but  to  sceptics  it  appears  important. 

If,  however,  we  admit  that  there  was  an  East  British  Ice-sheet, 
"  maintained  and  augmented  principally  by  the  snowfall  upon  its- 
own  sui'face,"  how  are  we  to  explain  the  presence  of  Scandinavian 
rocks  at  Cromer  and  other  places  on  our  East  Coast  ?  Of  that  ice- 
sheet  the  Dogger  Bank  would  be  centre  and  highest  part.  This- 
tract  is  crossed  (a  little  north  of  its  centre)  by  a  line  drawn  from 
Flamborough  Head  to  the  Naze  of  Norway.  Over  an  area  measuring 
about  70  miles  from  east  to  west,  and  12  miles  in  the  opposite 
direction,  it  rises  above  the  ten-fathom  contour-line  (the  minimum 
depth  being  7  fathoms).  The  twenty-fathom  line  is  very  near  to 
the  other  one  at  the  south-west  end,  but  then  recedes  from  it  so  as- 
to  enclose  a  long  bank  which  stretches  in  a  north-easterly  direction, 
almost  half-way  across  the  North  Sea,  and  the  thirty-fathom  line  on 
the  northern  side  extends  from  the  Yorkshire  coast  to  Jutland. 
North  and  north-west  of  this  limit  are  soundings  down  to  49  fathoms, 
and  those  over  40  fathoms  are  rather  common.  In  the  great  channel 
off  the  south-west  of  Norway  they  are  often  over  200  fathoms  (for 
particulars  see  this  Magazine,  18*99,  p.  282).  Thus  the  ice  of  the 
Dogger-fjeld  (would  not  that  have  been  a  better  name  ?  )  must  have 
descended  from  its  central  plateau  down  slopes  about  250  feet  in 
vertical  height  on  the  north  and  north-west,  and  about  half  that 
amount  down  those  from  the  south-west  to  the  south-east.  This  mass 
of  ice  flowing  outwards  towards  nearly  all  points  of  the  compass, 
and  buttressed  on  the  western  side  by  the  Caledonian  ice,  which  it 
would  try  to  'shoulder'  in  that  direction,  would  surely  defend  onr 
shores  from  the  inroads  of  the  Scandinavian  ice-sheet,  however 
nimbly  it  might  climb  the  steep  slope  of  the  above-mentioned 
channel.  Is  it,  then,  a  mistake  to  identify  Scandinavian  rocks  in 
East  Anglia ;  for  if  the  Dogger-fjeld  existed  they  could  not  have 
travelled  on  floating  ice  ?  'i'-  ^^-  Ronney. 

Sir,— The  well-known  globular  concretions  from  the  Magnesiai! 
Limestone  of  Durham  occur  in  many  collections  under  the  name 
of  'dolomite  '  or  '  magnesian  limestone.'  Professor  Garwood,  how- 
ever, effectually  showed  (Geol.  Mag.,  1891,  p.  43G)  that  tliese 
concretions  are  due  to  the  crystallization  of  calcite  in  a  ground  of 

188       Correspondence — Prof.  G.  A.  J.  Cole — A.  StraJian. 

magnesian  limestone,  and  that  the  5  to  15  per  cent,  of  magnesium 
carbonate  contained  in  them  is  a  mere  impurity,  when  compared 
with  the  30  per  cent,  in  the  matrix  from  which  they  have  arisen. 
It  is  interesting  to  come  across  a  similar  statement  made  in 
1817,  though  we  waited  long  for  Professor  Garwood's  numerical 
proofs,  and  for  a  complete  account  of  the  mode  of  origin  of  the 
concretions.  Mr.  N.  J.  Winch  (Transactions  of  the  Geological 
Society  of  London,  vol.  iv,  p.  9)  remarks  that  "botryoidal  masses  of 
fetid  limestone  devoid  of  magnesia,  in  balls  varying  from  the  size 
of  a  pea  to  two  feet  in  diameter,  imbedded  in  a  soft,  marly, 
magnesian  limestone,  are  found  at  Hartlepool,  etc."  Winch  had 
given  a  specimen  some  twelve  years  before  to  James  Sowerby 
("  British  Mineralogy,"  table  38),  and  the  passage  above  quoted 
was  incorporated  by  Conybeare  &  Phillips  in  their  "  Geology  of 
England  and  Wales,"  1822,  p.  306.  Grenville  A.  J.  Cole. 

Dublin,  3[arch  1,   1901. 

Sir, — Mr.   Dakyns    is   right   in    his    criticism  on   the  succession 
I  quoted  for  the  Yoredale  strata  of  the  Yore  "Valley.     It  is  true  that 
the  sequence,  though  there  are  many  exceptions,  is  usually — 
But  this  may  be  put  in  another  way.     The  series  as  a  whole  is 
made  up  of  repetitions  of  this  threefold  cycle,  and  may  with  equal 
correctness  be  regarded  as  consisting  of  repetitions  of  the  cycle — 
We  have,  therefore,  the  same  evidence  of  intermittent  and  more  or 
less  rhythmic  sedimentation  which  I  claimed  for  the  Coal-measures. 
But  there  is  this  difference,  that  whereas  in  the  Yoredales  the  cycle 
commences    with    inactivity    (limestone)    and    proceeds    to     rapid 
sedimentation  (sandstone),  in  the  Coal-measures  it  commences  with 
activity  (sandstones  and  conglomerates)  and  proceeds  to  stagnation 
(coal-seams),  the  order  being — 

Sandstone  and  conglomerate. 
Both  formations  result  from  rapid  sedimentation  over  a  subsiding 
area,  but  whereas  the  Coal-measures  are  essentially  estuarine,  the 
Yoredale  rocks  of  the  type  developed  in  the  Yore  Valley  bear  every 
sign  of  having  been  laid  down  in  open  sea ;  the  one  was  a  product 
of  the  shallowest  water,  the  other  of  comparatively  deep  water. 
Herein  probably  lies  the  explanation  of  the  reversal  of  order  of 

I  am  obliged  to  Mr.  Dakyns  for  the  correction. 

A.  Strahan. 
March  6,  1901. 

Con-e.y)ondence — J.  E.  3larr — IL  Biil/cn  Nricfon.       189 


Sir, — As  long  ago  as  September,  1900,  I  observe  that  the  writer 
who  reviewed  my  book  on  '-The  Scientific  Study  of  Scenery"  in 
this  Magazine  criticizes  my  use  of  the  term  suhUmafiou. 

He  says:  "In  alluding  to  the  evaporation  of  snow  and  camphor 
the  process  is  referred  to  as  '  sublimation.'  In  Watt's  Dictionary 
of  Chemistry  sublimate  is  defined  as  '  a  body  obtained  in  the  solid 
state  b}'  the  cooling  of  its  vapour.'  " 

Nevertheless,  I  believe  that  I  use  the  term  correctly,  and  in 
support  of  this  assertion  let  me  further  (juote  Watt's  Dictionary 
(1894  edition,  vol.  iv,  p.  524).  Sublimation  is  there  defined  as 
"  The  passage  of  a  solid  body,  when  heated,  to  the  state  of  va^wur 
without  melting." 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  thanking  the  writer  for  the  appreciative 
notice,  which  contains  many  suggestions  which  I  should  gladly 
utilize,  if  a  second  edition  of  ray  book  should  be  called  for. 

J.  E.  ]\Iakr. 



Sir,  — Since  the  publication  of  my  paper  in  last  month's 
Geological  Magazine,'  where  I  compiled  some  notes  on  the 
geology  of  the  Mala}^  Peninsula,  and  took  occasion  to  remark  that 
in  the  absence  of  fossils  it  Avas  impossible  to  correlate  the  limestones 
of  that  country  with  any  definite  horizon,  some  further  samples  of 
the  same  rock  have  been  submitted  to  my  notice  by  Dr.  Henry 
Woodward,  F.K.S. 

This  new  material  was  collected  a  few  years  back  by  the  late 
Mr.  H.  M.  Becher,  at  Gua  Sai,  Penjom,  Pahang,  and  is  of  precisely 
similar  appearance  to  the  paler-coloured  limestones  obtained  by 
Mr.  R.  M.  W.  Swan  from  the  River  Tui  District,  which  he  found 
associated  with  those  of  a  dark  variety  referred  to  in  my  paper. 

The  '  Becher '  specimens  are  important  from  the  fact  that  they 
exhibit  organic  structures,  a  feature  pointed  out  by  Dr.  G.  J.  Hinde. 
F.R.S.,  on  a  manuscript  label  dated  January  7th,  1899,  who  thus 
describes  them: — "Very  fine-grained  bluish  limestones.  The  ojily 
organisms  recognizable  are  Crinoidal  stem-joints.  Tliere  are  traces 
of  other  organisms  with  which  the  rock  seems  to  have  been  filled 
originally,  "but  they  are  now  nearly  obliterated  and  are  not 

This  report,  however,  leaves  us  still  without  a  clue  as  to  the  age 
of  the  limestone,  and  we  shall  require  more  accurate  palreontological 
evidence  before  that  desirable  point  can  be  permanently  settled.  In 
the  meantime  mention  may  be  made  of  the  presence  of  an  obscure 
Crinoidal  fragment  on  one  of  the  weathered  surfaces  of  this  rock, 

1  "Notes  on  Literature  beariut?  upon  the  Geology  of  the  Malay  reninsula  :  willi 
an  account  of  a  Neolithic  Implement  from  that  i-ountry  "  :  Oeoi..  Mao..  1!»01. 
pp.  128-134. 

190  Obituary— Dr.  G.  M.  Damon. 

exhibiting  a  portion  of  tbe  stem  witli  fragmentary  brachial 
extensions,  the  whole  organism  covering  a  space  of  nearly  three 
inches  in  length.  My  colleague,  Dr.  F.  A.  Bather,  has  kindly 
examined  the  specimen,  but  without  any  satisfactory  result,  on 
account  of  its  poor  preservation;  he  is,  however,  inclined  to  regard  it 
as  of  Palfeozoic  age.  Further  efforts  should  now  be  made  to  obtain 
more  suitable  fossils  from  these  interesting  limestones  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  so  that  their  geological  age  may  be  finally  determined. 

R.  BuLLEN  jSTewton. 
British  Museum  (Natural  History). 
Jfarch  19,  1901. 



C.M.a,  LL.D.,  Assoc.  R.S.M.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S.  Canada, 
Director  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Canada. 

Born  August  2,  1849.  Died  March  2,   1901. 

This  eminent  geologist,  whose  portrait  and  life  we  published  in 
the  Geological  Magazine  for  May,  1897,  pp.  193-195,  died  at 
Ottawa,  after  an  illness  of  only  two  days,  at  the  early  age  of 
51  years,  sincerely  regretted  by  a  large  circle  of  friends. 

Dr.  Dawson  was  the  son  of  Sir  William  Dawson,  F.R.S.,  for  many 
years  Principal  of  McGill  College,  Montreal ;  and  was,  since  1875, 
one  of  the  staff  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  of  which  he 
speedily  became  Assistant-Director,  and  in  1894  Director.  He  was 
educated  at  McGill  College,  Montreal,  and  at  the  Royal  School  of 
Mines,  London.  Here  he  obtained  the  Duke  of  Cornwall's  Scholar- 
ship, and  the  Edward  Forbes  medal  and  prize.  He  was,  in  1873, 
on  the  North  American  Boundary  Commission.  On  the  Geological 
Survey  he  did  much  personal  work  in  British  Columbia  and  the 
North- West  Territory,  covering  in  his  mapping  many  thousand  miles 
of  area.  Dr.  Dawson  was  one  of  the  Commissioners  for  the  Behring 
Sea  Arbitration,  spending  the  Summer  of  1892  inquiring  into  the 
conditions  and  facts  of  seal-life,  and  his  services  were  of  the  greatest 
value.  He  received  the  thanks  of  the  Governor-General-in-Council, 
and  was  made  a  C.M.G.  He  received  the  Bigsby  Gold  Medal  from 
the  Geological  Society  in  1891,  and  in  1890  the  degree  of  LL.D, 
from  Queen's  University  and  from  McGill  University  in  1891.  In 
1897  he  was  awarded  the  Gold  Medal  of  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society  for  his  work  as  a  whole. 

Canada  may  well  be  proud  of  Dr.  G.  M.  Dawson  as  one  of  her 
most  brilliant  men  of  science,  whose  loss  she  will  long  deplore,  nor 
will  he  fail  to  be  remembered  in  this  country  also  as  a  son  of  that 
great  Motherland  whose  name  can  never  die. 

Ohltuari/—C.  F.  Liltkcn—Ii.  Crahj.  191 


Born  at  Soii.0,  Octobeu  4,  1827.  Died  at  Copenuaokx,  Feiiuuauy  6,  1901. 
Professor  Lutken,  whose  death,  some  two  years  after  his 
resignation  of  the  Directorship  of  the  Zoological  Museum  at 
Copenhagen,  removes  another  veteran  from  the  ranks  of  the  aihnirably 
trained  and  hard-working  Scandinavian  naturalists,  was  best  known 
as  a  describer  and  classifier  of  living  animals.  But  while,  in 
common  with  the  leaders  of  palaeontology,  he  insisted  that  "  only 
from  the  organization  of  the  living  form  can  we  learn  to  uiulei'stand 
that  of  the  extinct,''''  so  also  he  was  at  one  with  the  more  eminent 
zoologists  in  recognizing  that  only  by  a  study  of  extinct  forms  can 
we  perceive  the  true  I'elationships  of  the  living.  And  it  is  because 
he  put  his  creed  into  practice  for  over  half  a  century  that  the  close 
of  his  labours  calls  for  the  affectionate  regret  of  geologists.  That 
a  notice  should  appear  in  this  Magazine  is  moreover  specially 
appropriate,  since  it  was  to  it  that  he  turned  on  the  few  occasions 
when  he  desired  to  address  English  readers  in  their  own  language. 
We  allude  to  his  notice  of  Loven's  memoir  on  Leskia  viiraltilis 
(Geol.  Mag.,  1868,  p.  179),  his  notes  on  the  Ophiuridas  (1870,  p.  79), 
and  his  criticism  of  Professor  Kner's  writings  on  the  Ganoids  and 
on  Xenacanthus  (1868,  pp.  376  and  429).  His  own  great  memoir 
on  the  classification  of  the  Ganoids  appeared  in  Palaontographica 
(1873-75).  Fi'om  his  many  allusions  to  fossil  Echinoderms  we 
may  select  as  early  evidence  of  his  penetration  the  constant 
opposition  that  he  raised  to  the  idea  that  the  anus  of  the  stalked 
echinoderms  was  a  proboscis  or  mouth,  and  his  severe  criticism 
(oddly  overlooked  by  later  writers)  of  the  division  of  the  Crinoids 
into  a  Paljeozoic  and  a  Neozoic  group.  As  a  systematist  the 
characteristics  of  his  work  were  thoroughness,  accuracy,  and  caution  : 
qualities  less  showy  than  lasting.  He  was  not  a  brilliant  speculator 
on  the  phylogeny  of  unknown  forms,  but  an  advocate  of,  and  an 
adept  in,  the  synthetic  method  :  "  I  mean  that  method  which,  giving 
up  all  preconceived  ideas,  patiently  puts  genus  to  genus,  until 
families  are  formed,  and  family  to  family  after  their  natural  affinities, 
until  the  whole  systematic  building  stands  before  us."  It  is  work 
of  this  nature  that  will  stand,  that  will  vindicate  the  claiuis  of 
paleontology  to  be  heard,  that  will  justify  systematic  /.oology  as 
a  serious  attempt  to  solve  the  problems  of  life,  and  tliat  will  keep 
«cience  itself  from  the  ridicule  of  the  unlearned.  We  can  ill  spare 
such  workers;  but  Lutken  was  a  leader  and  a  teacher  as  well  as 
a  student,  and  his  monument  is  to  be  found  not  only  in  the  books 
that  he  has  left,  nor  even  in  the  rich  and  well-arranged  museum  of 
Copenhagen,  but  also  in  the  school  of  active  and  earnest  zoologists 
that  will  long  do  honour  to  Denmark.  E-  A.  B. 

We    regret   to    record    the    death    at    Gleuganiock,  on   the  14th 
January,  of  Robert  Craig,  in  the  80th  year  of  his  age.     Mr.  Craig 
took   an   active   interest   in   geology,  and    from    his   occui-ation  as 

192  MisceUaneoHs. 

a  quarryinaster  and  burner  of  lime  he  had  exceptional  opportunities 
for  the  pursuit  of  the  science.  During  the  past  forty  years  he 
contributed  many  papers  to  the  Transactions  of  the  Glasgow- 
Geological  Society,  more  especially  on  the  Drift  deposits  and 
Carboniferous  rocks.  In  his  own  neighbourhood,  from  his  literarj-- 
and  scientific  tastes,  he  was  known  as  "  The  Sage  of  Beith." 

1\^TS  GIBXiXj-iLIsriEO  TJ  S . 

Geological  Survey  of  the  United  Kingdom.— We  have 
already  notified  the  appointment  of  Mr.  J.  J.  H.  Teall  as  Director 
in  place  of  Sir  Archibald  Geikie,  Director-General.  The  further 
appointments  are  two  Assistant-Directors  :  Mr.  H.  B.  Woodward 
(for  England  and  Wales)  and  Mr.  John  Home  (for  Scotland). 
District  Geologists  :  Mr.  C.  Fox  Strangways,  Mr.  Clement  Eeid,  and 
Mr.  Aubrey  Strahan  (for  England  and  Wales)  ;  Mr.  B.  N.  Peach 
and  Mr.  W.  Gunn  (for  Scotland)  ;  and  Mr.  G.  W.  Lamplugh  (foi-^ 

'Blood  Eain'  in  Sicily. — A  telegram  despatched  from  Palermo 
yesterday  stated  that  since  the  previous  night  a  dense  lurid  cloud 
had  hung  over  the  town.  The  sky  was  of  a  sinister  blood-red  hue 
and  a  strong  south  wind  was  blowing,  and  the  drops  of  rain  which 
fell  were  like  blood.  The  phenomenon,  which  is  known  locally  by 
the  name  of  *  blood  rain,'  is  attributed  to  dust  from  the  Sahara 
Desert  having  been  carried  there  by  the  wind.  Similar  atmospheric 
conditions  are  reported  from  Eome.  The  sky  had  a  yellow  tint 
yesterday,  and  a  violent  sirocco  swept  over  the  citj^  At  Naples 
showers  of  sand  fell,  and  the  phenomenon  of  the  '  fata  Morgana  ' 
was  observed. — Morning  Post,  March  11,  1901. 

Vienna,  March  12. — Ked  and  yellow  snow  has  fallen  in  many 
parts  of  Austria,  including  districts  so  far  north  as  Prague.  The 
coloured  snow  lies  several  inches  deep,  and  makes  a  weird  and 
unearthly  efi'ect.  Scientists  state  that  southern  winds  of  extra- 
ordinary force  have  carried  the  red  and  yellow  sand  of  the  Sahara 
across  the  Mediterranean  to  Southern  Europe  in  such  an  enormous 
quantity  that  even  here  in  Austria  the  colour  of  the  snow  has 
thereby  been  changed. — Morning  Leader,  March  13,  1901. 

Eeptilian  Eemains  from  Patagonia. — At  the  meeting  of  the 
Zoological  Society  on  March  5th,  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward,  F.L.S., 
F.Z.S.,  F.G.S.,  read  a  detailed  description  of  the  remains  of  Miolania 
from  Patagonia,  which  were  briefly  noticed  by  Dr.  Moreno  in  the 
Geological  Magazine  for  September,  1899.  He  regarded  them 
as  indicating  a  Chelonian  only  specifically  distinct  from  the  typical 
Miolania  of  the  Australian  region.  In  the  same  formation  in 
Patagonia  were  found  the  skeleton  of  a  new  extinct  snake  and  the 
jaws  of  a  large  carnivorous  Dinosaur,  which  were  also  described. 
The  discovery  of  Miolania  in  South  America  seemed  to  favour  the 
theorj'^  of  a  former  Antarctic  continent ;  but  it  should  be  remembered 
that  in  late  Secondary'-  and  early  Tertiary  times  the  Pleurodiran 
Chelonia  were  almost  cosmopolitan. 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 

No.   v.— MAY,    1901. 

I. — Sand-blast  of  the  Shoee  and  its  Erosive  Effect  on  Wood. 
By  T.  Mellard  Re.-vde,  C.E.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.I.B.A. 
(PLATE  X.) 

1MLE  effect  of  the  natural  sand-blast  of  the  desert  in  eroding  soft 
and  hard  rock  has  long  been  known,  and  attracted  much 
attention,  but  I  cannot  call  to  mind  any  account  of  the  effect  of 
blowing  sand  impinging  upon  wood. 

From  seven  to  eight  years  ago  a  boat-house  was  built  b}'  the 
Blundellsands  Sailing  Club  on  the  sandhills  at  the  Altmouth,  about 
8  or  9  feet  above  high- water  mai*k  of  spring  tides.  Afterwards,  for 
better  access  thereto,  a  sloped  road  was  built  up  of  timbers  from  the 
shore  level,  leading  to  a  level  gangway  about  10  feet  above  the  shore, 
also  made  of  timbers.  This  gangway  was  6  feet  wide  and  12  feet 
long,  with  close-boarded  sides  about  2  feet  high  formed  of  roughly 
sawn  pine  boards  and  split-oak  staves.  This  formed  a  trough  having 
a  direction  about  west-north-west,  and  really  became  a  wind-gap. 

The  effect  of  the  sand-blast  on  the  southern  face  of  the  northern 
side  has  been  most  striking  and  curious.  The  boat-house  has  just 
been  taken  down  and  re-erected  at  a  lower  level,  and  my  sons, 
members  of  the  club,  have  brought  me  a  sample  of  the  pine  boarding 
and  of  the  split-oak  staves  from  the  north  side  of  the  old  gangway. 
These  are  reproduced  in  the  Plate  from  photographs  by  Hartley  Bros., 
Waterloo.  The  general  effect  of  the  sand-blast  has  been  to  remove 
from  one-eighth  to  three-sixteenths  of  an  inch  of  wood  over  a  large 
part  of  the  surface  of  the  pine  board  (PI.  X,  Fig.  1).  and  to  develop 
the  structure  of  the  wood  in  a  remarkable  manner.  The  grain  being 
very  irregular,  the  differential  effect  of  the  impinging  sand-grains 
on  the  harder  and  softer  portions  is  most  instructive. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  large  hard  knot  stands  out  above  the 
general  surface  of  the  wood,  and  that  the  grain  around  the  knot  is 
picked  out  in  a  surprising  manner.  The  knot  itself  is  carved  and 
polished.     Perhaps  the  most  instructive  feature  is  ilwr^fffeet  t>f-Uie 

DECAT)E    IV. — VOL.   VIII. — NO.   V.  r/^^*  1'^  'Co  \\ 

194        T.  Mellard  Recide — Erosive  Action  of  Sand-blasts. 

three  nails  in  preserving  the  wood  in  the  rear  or  lee  of  the  nails,  the 
course  of  the  sand-blast  having  been  from  left  to  right.  These  are 
vpire  nails  that  fastened  the  board  horizontally  to  the  upright  posts. 
The  heads  of  these  nails  mark  the  original  sawn  surface  of  the  board, 
and  indicate  well  the  amount  of  the  general  denudation  the  board 
has  undergone.  In  the  year  1875  I  contributed  a  short  article  to 
this  Magazine  on  "  Wind  Denudation,"  describing  little  ridges  of 
sand  on  the  shore  left  on  the  leeside  of  fragments  of  shells,  or 
sometimes  whole  shells,  which  have  protected  the  sand  from  the 
general  denudation  which  always  takes  place  in  the  upper  moist 
part  of  the  shore  during  a  strong  breeze.  These  little  ridges 
I  ventured  to  call  '  eolites.'  The  wood  ridges  left  in  the  rear  of 
the  nail  heads  are  the  counterparts  of  these  eolites,  but  they  are 
actually  carved  out  of  the  board  by  the  mechanical  battering  of  the 
sand-grains,  whereas  the  eolites  are  due  to  the  wind  first  drying 
the  surface  of  the  sand  and  then  blowing  the  grains  away,  except 
where  protected  by  the  shell  fragments. 

Another  interesting  feature  is  the  rope-like  appearance  caused  by 
the  truncation  of  bundles  of  fibres,  shown  by  the  minute  transverse 
markings  on  the  photograph.  This  happens  only  where  the  grain  is 
not  parallel  to  the  surface  of  the  wood. 

The  effect  on  the  oak  staves  is  equally  characteristic.  Here,  in 
consequence  of  the  regularity  and  parallelism  of  the  grain,  grooves 
have  been  cut  by  the  sand  with  the  precision  of  a  planing  machine 
(Fig.  2). 

Since  the  preceding  was  written  another  pine  board  has  been 
brought  to  me.  It  measures  2  ft.  6  in.  x  6f  in.  The  timber  is 
rather  harder  than  in  the  one  already  described,  and  the  grain  more 
regular.  The  sand  has  cut  grooves  of  segmental  section  from  three- 
sixteenths  to  half  an  inch  wide,  deeply  undercut  on  one  side,  the 
ridges  between  the  grooves  being  like  a  knife  edge.  There  are 
hardly  any  of  the  transverse  markings  to  be  seen,  the  grain  being 
parallel  to  the  surface,  and  the  whole  has  a  smooth  polished  surface 
to  the  touch. 

It  is  interesting  to  find  that  the  continual  attrition  of  these 
quartzose  sand-grains,  many  of  them  much  rounded,  in  time  cuts 
deeply  into  the  wood  and  develops  the  structure  by  differential 
action  on  the  harder  and  softer  parts  it  operates  upon,  and  also 
polishes  the  surface.  The  time  the  wood  has  been  exposed  to  the 
blast  is  about  seven  years.  What  the  velocity  of  the  grains  was  in 
a  high  wind  I  have  no  means  of  judging,  but  no  doubt  the  air 
currents  were  intensified  in  this  wind-gap,  and  it  must  not  be  taken 
as  representative  of  the  whole  shore. 


Fig.  1. — Portion  of  a  pine  board,  1ft.  lin.  x  5  in.,  eroded  by  sand-blast  of  the  shore. 
Fig.  2. — Portion  of  a  split-oak  stave,  5|  in.  x  2|  in.,     ,,  j,  ,, 

E.  T.  Nenion — Graptolitesfrom  Peru.  195 

II.  —  Note    ox    Graptolites    from    Peru. 
By  E.  T.  Xewtox,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  etc. 

ME.  HERBERT  J.  JESSOP,  who  has  recently  returned  from 
a  journey  in  Eastern  Peru,  kindly  placed  in  my  hands,  for 
examination,  some  specimens  of  graptolites  which  he  had  obtained 
on  the  River  Macho,  one  of  the  tributaries  of  the  Inambari,  near  the 
celebrated  mountain  Capac  Oreo,  or  Monte  Bello,  in  the  province  of 
Carabaya,  Peru  (lat.  13°  40'  S.  ;  long.  70°  10'  W.).  The  locality  is 
situated  on  the  north-east  of  the  main  watershed,  and  the  rivers  flow 
eventually  into  the  Amazon.  The  difficulties  of  travelling  make  it 
likely  that  a  long  time  will  elapse  before  other  specimens  are 
forthcoming  from  this  locality ;  it  seems  desirable,  therefore,  that 
some  account  of  these  should  be  published. 

Fig.  2. 

Fi«;.   1. 

Fig.  1. — Fragmout  ot  bhak  slialo  with  Diplograptus  ;  natural  size ;  Carabaya,  Peru. 

From  a  photon-raph  kiuiUy  taken  by  Mr.  A.  Strahan. 
Fig.  2. — Spccimeu  marked  ou  Fig.  1 ;   enlarged  U  times.     The  \irgula  lias  been 

added  from  another  example. 

Mr.  Jessop  tells  me  that  the  pieces  of  black  shale  containing  the 
graptolites  wei"e  portions  of  a  mass  of  rock  about  two  feet  square 
and  one  foot  thick,  which  was  not  found  in  place,  but  loose  upon 
the  ground  ;  its  unrolled  and  unweathered  condition  convincing  him 
that  it  could  not  have  travelled  far  from  the  parent  bed.  Similar 
shaly  rocks  are  in  place  near  by,  but  he  was  prevented  from  making 
a  careful  exploration.  The  specimens  obtained  seemed  to  him 
sufficiently  interesting  to  be  brought  home,  notwithstanding  that 
everything  had  to  be  carried  by  the  men  for  many  miles,  the  place 
being  inaccessible  for  horses  or  mules. 

196  E.  T.  Netdon — GraptoUten  froui  Pent. 

The  whole  mass  of  shale  seems  to  be  full  of  these  graptolites,  for, 
wherever  split  open,  many  white  examples  are  displaj'ed  upon  the 
surface  of  the  black  shale  (Fig.  1),  all  of  which  are  referable  to  the 
genus  Diplograptiis,  and  although  differing  somewhat  in  width  thej' 
are  so  similar  in  other  respects  that  they  can  hardly  represent  more 
than  one  species.  The  longest  and  most  perfect  specimen  (Fig.  2) 
does  not  exceed  25  mm.  in  length  and  3  mm.  in  width  at  the  widest 
part;  but  this  example  has  no  projecting  virgula,  such  as  is  seen  on 
other  specimens  extending  perhaps  4  or  5  mm.  beyond  the  thecce. 
Some  examples  are  a  little  narrower,  while  one  is  as  much  as  5  mm. 
wide.  The  polypary  has  a  small  radicle  and  two  cornua  at  its 
proximal  end,  and  thence  increases  somewhat  rapidly  in  width  for 
about  a  third  of  its  length  and  then  decreases  slightly  and  very 
gradually  to  the  distal  extremity,  from  which,  in  several  specimens, 
a  virgula  extends.  In  one  instance  the  virgula  may  be  traced 
throughout  the  length  of  the  polypary.  The  theca3  diverge  from 
each  side  of  the  axis  at  an  angle  of  rather  less  than  45° ;  the 
apertural  margin  is  nearly  at  right  angles  with  the  axis,  and  the 
outer  free  margin  is  in  most  cases  slightly  convex;  but  there  is  some 
variation  in  all  these  particulars,  even  in  the  same  polypary.  There 
are  11-13  thecas  in  10  mm.  These  Peruvian  Diplograptids  very 
closely  resemble  the  D.  truncatus  of  Lapworth,^  and  Professor 
Lapworth,  who  saw  the  specimens  for  a  few  minutes,  was  good 
enough  to  point  out  this  near  resemblance.  The  small  differences 
which  may  be  noticed,  namely,  the  distinct  virgula,  the  somewhat 
smaller  thecte,  and  the  less  oblique  apertural  margin,  as  well 
apparently  as  the  shorter  polypary,  probably  indicate  that  specific 
difference  which  one  is  led  to  expect  from  the  widely  separated 
habitats  of  the  two  foi'ms ;  at  the  same  time  one  hesitates  to  give 
them  a  new  name,  and  would  prefer  to  record  them  as  Diplograptiis, 
cf.  truncatus,  Lapw.,  and  as  probably  of  Bala  age. 

Little  is  known  of  the  geology  of  the  immediate  area  from  which 
Mr.  Jessop  obtained  his  graptolites;  but  David  Forbes,  in  his  paper  on 
"The  Geology  of  Bolivia  and  Southern  Peru,"- not  only  gives  a  large 
area  of  Silurian  rocks  extending  from  the  south-east  to  the  north-west 
border  of  his  map,  which  is  perhaps  within  a  hundred  miles  of  Monte 
Bello,  but  says  that  these  Silurian  strata  extend  as  far  as  Cuzco,  and 
this  would  be  as  far  north  and  well  to  the  west  of  the  district  now 
in  question.  David  Forbes  does  not  aj)pear  to  have  visited  this  area 
himself,  and  the  fossils  collected  further  south,  which  were  described 
by  J.  W.  Salter,  were  said  to  indicate  beds  of  Upper  Silurian  age,  and 
probably  Lower  Silurian  also.  The  fossils  doubtfully  referred  to 
the  Lower  Silurian  certainly  left  much  to  be  desired.  No  graptolites 
were  found,  and  consequently  a  most  important  guide  to  the  age  of 
these  old  rocks  was  wanting. 

D'Orbigny,  during  his  travels  in  Bolivia,^  found  certain  graptolites 
at  Tacopaya,  near  the  Eio  Grand  (lat.  19°  S. ;    long.  63°  40'  W.), 

1  Proc.  Belfast  Nat.  Field  Club,  ser.  ii,  vol.  i,  pt.  4,  Appendix,  p.  133,  1876-7. 

2  Quart.  Joui-n.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xvii  (1861),  p.  53. 

•^  "Voyage  dans  I'Ameriqxie  Meridionale  " :   Pala^out.,  vol.  iv  (1842),  p.  23. 

E.  T.  Newton — GyaptoUtesfroiii  Pern.  197 

which  he  named  GraptolUes  dentatns  ;  but  finding  that  they  had 
two  branches,  united  them  with  Graptoiites  (now  Bidijmogrnptus) 
Mnrchisoni ;  Grap.  foUaceus  was  likewise  included,  and  as  this  is 
a  Diplograptid  there  must  be  much  doubt  as  to  the  specific  identity 
of  his  Bolivian  forms,  although  the  published  figures  leave  little 
doubt  as  to  their  belonging  to  the  genus  J)ichjmograptas,  and 
consequently  point  to  beds  of  Llandeilo  or  Arenig  age  ;  that  is,  if 
we  are  right  in  using  the  zonal  distribution  of  Old  Woidd  Graptoiites 
as  an  index  for  those  of  Central  South  America. 

Both  Cambrian  and  Silurian  fossils  have  been  described  from 
Northern  Argentina  (hit.  23^°  and  25°  S.)  by  Professor  Kayser,^  and 
from  Portezuelo  manj'  examples  of  a  Didymograptus  are  noticed 
which  he  thinks  may  be  the  same  form  as  that  brought  fi'om 
Bolivia  by  D'Orbigny,  thus  again  pointing  to  Llandeilo  or  Arenig 
rocks  a  long  way  to  the  south-east,  and  confirming  the  occurrence 
of  strata  of  that  age  in  the  central  part  of  Sonth  xlmerica. 

M.  J.  Balta,  in  his  note  on  "Fosiles  de  Carabaya,"  -  mentions  the 
occurrence  of  graptoiites  and  annelid  burrows  at  Huayna  Tacuma, 
Santo  Domingo,  in  the  province  of  Carabaya.  I  am  unable  to  find 
this  locality  on  any  map  I  have  consulted,  but  Mr.  Jessop  tells  me 
there  is  a  Santo  Domingo  a  few  miles  from  where  his  graptoiites 
were  found,  and  this  is  probably  the  place  indicated.  M.  Balta  refers 
his  graptoiites  to  Diplogrnptiis  palmeus,  Barrande,  and  D.  pristis,  His., 
and  he  remarks  that  only  Lower  Silurian  rocks  have  at  present  been 
observed  in  South  America.  The  genus  Diplograptas,  however,  is  not 
confined  to  Lower  Silurian  (Ordovician)  deposits,  and  if  the  reference 
of  specimens  to  D.  palmeus  and  B.  pristis  be  correct,  then,  while  the 
latter  points  to  beds  of  Bala  age  or  the  uppermost  part  of  the 
Lower  Silurian,  the  former,  B.  palmeus,  indicates  Upper  Silurian 
rocks,  that  is,  strata  of  Llandovery  or  Tarannon  age ;  moreover, 
Salter  had  already  in  1861  recognized  Upper  Silurian  fossils  among 
those  brought  over  by  David  Forbes. 

The  Diplograptus  obtained  by  Mr.  Herbert  J.  Jessop,  whether 
referable  to  D.  truncatus,  Lapw.,  or  to  a  new  but  closely  allied 
species,  may  be  taken  as  indicative  of  beds  near  the  uppermost 
part  of  the  Lower  Silurian. 

So  far  as  we  can  judge  from  the  evidence  of  the  graptoiites  now 
known  to  occur  in  Central  South  America,  there  are  in  that  country 
deposits  of  Ai'enig  or  Llandeilo  age  with  the  characteristic  Bidijmo- 
graptus  Murclnsoni  ;  beds  approximately  of  Bala  age,  with  Biplo- 
graptus  pristis  and  Diplograptus  near  to  truncatus ;  and  possibly  strata 
of  Llandovery  age,  as  indicated  by  D.  palmeus.  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  before  long  definite  graptolitic  evidence  of  Upper  Silurian 
rocks  will  be  obtained  by  the  discovery  of  some  characteristic 

1  Zeitsch.  deiitsch.  Geol.  Gcsell.,  vol.  xlix  (1897),  p.  274. 
-  Eev.  Cii.'Ui',  Lima,  vol.  i  'ISOS),  p.  7. 

198        Dr.  W.  F.  Hume—Eift  Valleys  of  Eastern  Sinai. 

Ill, — The  Eift  Valleys  of  Eastern  Sinai. ^ 
By  W.  F.  Hume,  D.Sc,  A.E.S.M.,  F.G.S.,  etc. 

IN  this  paper  the  author  deals  with  some  of  the  results  obtained 
in  the  course  of  a  survey  of  Eastern  Sinai  during  the  season 
of  1898-99,  his  remarks  being  based  on  a  map  carefully  prepared 
by  his  colleague,  Mr.  H.  G.  Skill,  F,R.G.S.,  and  on  his  own 
topographical  and  geological  observations. 

The  region  speciall}^  under  consideration  is  bounded  on  the  west 
by  the  central  range  of  Sinai,  which  is  familiar  to  every  Indian 
traveller,  forming  as  it  does  a  prominent  rock-wall  to  the  east  of 
the  Gulf  of  Suez.  This  mountain  mass  in  reality  consists  of  a  series 
of  narrow  crests  separated  by  few  but  high  moimtain  passes,  and 
capable  of  being  traversed  only  by  heavilj^  loaded  camels  at  two 
points,  viz.  at  the  head  of  Wadi  Tarfah  and  Wadi  Plebran.  If  this 
range  be  crossed,  and  Mount  Sinai  (Jebel  Musa)  itself  ascended, 
the  view  to  the  east  is  decidedly  disappointing.  To  the  north-east 
the  long  white  limestone  wall  of  Jebel  Gnnnah  runs  more  or  less 
east  and  west,  far  to  the  east  breaking  into  isolated  masses,  and 
ending  in  the  fine  truncated  cone  of  Jebel  El  Ain.  South  of,  and 
parallel  to  it,  extend  sandy  plains  and  precipitous  plateaux  of 
sandstone,  these  being  succeeded  by  an  apparently  flat  or  undulating 
granite  plateau  (the  rift- valleys  in  it  being  hidden),  out  of  which 
sharp-peaked  mountain  masses  rise  as  isolated  projections  or  long 
ridges.  To  the  south-west  is  a  mountain-wall,  which  hides  all  the 
southern  land  from  view,  and  constitutes  the  most  important  scenic 
feature  in  Eastern  Sinai,  extending  across  the  country  from  the 
Central  Kange  to  the  Gulf  of  Akaba.  This  Transverse  Divide  claims 
special  attention,  not  only  from  the  fact  that  it  sepai'ates  two  different 
types  of  country,  but  also  because  at  many  points  these  two  regions 
are  at  markedly  different  levels,  there  being  an  abrupt  fall  to  the 
south.  The  divide  is  also  crossed  by  five  passes,  which  all  have  this 
remarkable  feature  in  common,  viz. :  that  the  valleys  they  connect  form 
Jive  roughly  straight  lines,  all  parallel  to  one  another  and  to  the  Gidf  of 
Ahaha,  that  is,  running  in  a  direction  someiohat  west  of  south.  Two 
of  these  are  then  specially  considered  with  a  view  to  showing  that 
they  belong  to  the  category  of  Eift  Valleys,  of  which  the  Gulf  of 
Akaba  is  itself  a  striking  example,  it  being  premised  that  these  are 
not  necessarily  single  depressions,  but  rather  a  series  of  basins  or 
grooves  separated  by  barriers,  which,  though  higher  than  the  main 
valley,  are  of  no  great  altitude  compared  with  the  bordering  hills. 
Thus,  the  Shelala  Um  Eaiyig  rift  is  shown  to  have  a  length  of  over 
72  kilometres,  being  almost  perfectly  straight  and  bounded  by  very 
steep  slopes  throughout  the  greater  part  of  its  course. 

The  geological  features  are  still  more  striking,  the  hills  on  the 

*  Abstract  of  a  paper  read  by  permission  of  Sir  William  Garstin,  Under-Secretary 
of  State  for  Public  Works,  and  Captain  H.  G.  Lyons,  R.E.,  Director- General  of 
the  Egyptian  Survey  Department,  before  the  International  Geological  Congress- 
at  Paris,  August,  1900. 

D)'.  W.  F.  Hume— Rift  Valleys  of  Eastern  Sinai.        199 

two  sides  being  frequently  of  diffei'ent  geological  structure,  this 
contrast  having  often  a  very  marked  effect  upon  the  scenery',  as, 
for  instance,  where  the  rift  separates  the  granite  range  of  Ashara 
from  the  felsitic  hills  of  Feraui,  the  former  rising  in  sharply  peaked 
red-coloured  crests  scored  by  wild  gorges,  while  the  latter  are  of 
dark-green  colour,  and  possess  less  rugged  outlines. 

Still  more  noteworthy  is  the  presence  of  sandstones  in  the  valley 
itself,  having  all  the  typical  characters  of  the  Nubian  Sandstone, 
yet  situated  25  kilometres  south  of  the  main  mass  of  that  formation  ; 
similarly,  at  the  head  of  Um  Raiyig,  a  ridge  of  Cenomanian  lime- 
stone, with  sandstone  at  its  base,  block  the  valley,  being  enclosed 
between  two  walls  composed  of  Nubian  Sandstone  resting  on  granite. 
Still  further  to  the  north  the  reverse  is  met  with,  a  granite  ridge 
running  north  and  south,  rising  steeply  through  the  surrounding 
sedimentaries.  The  examination  of  the  relations  of  the  beds  over 
the  area  shows  that  the  actual  displacement  of  strata  in  the 
production  of  the  rift  varies  from  200  to  600  metres  (2,000  feet). 

The  Eaib  Melhadge  rift  is  in  some  respects  even  more  striking, 
the  granite  range  extending  far  further  to  the  north  on  its  eastern 
than  on  its  western  border,  which  for  some  distance  is  formed  by 
lower  country,  geologically  a  complex  of  granite,  sandstone,  and 
Cenomanian  limestone.  As  a  result,  in  the  upper  part  of  Wadi 
Eaib,  Cretaceous  limestone  forms  low  ridges  dipping  steeply  eastward 
at  the  foot  of  a  granite  range,  which  rises  immediately  above  them 
to  a  height  of  over  300  metres.  Descending  Wadi  Eaib  the 
conditions  become  simpler,  the  Nubian  Sandstone  on  the  west  giving 
way  to  granite  cliffs,  and  the  valley  becoming  a  bi'oad  highway 
bounded  on  both  sides  by  precipitous  height.  Yet  scattered  all 
along  its  course  are  low  hills  of  white  Nubian  Sandstone,  and  in  one 
place  Cenomanian  limestone,  so  that  the  surprising  result  is  realized, 
that  Cretaceous  fossils  were  collected  from  a  limestone  on  both  sides  of 
which  tower  granite  cliff's  to  a  height  of  over  500  metres  (themselves 
in  places  capped  by  Nubian  Sandstone),  the  extent  of  dislocation  being 
here  at  least  700  metres.  Further  to  the  south,  the  same  rift  gives 
rise  to  a  Coastal  Watershed  Eange  of  some  importance. 

The  other  valleys  are  considered  to  be  rifts  on  account  of  their 
parallelism  to  those  already  described,  while  they  also  must  have 
been  produced  by  the  same  series  of  movements  which  gave  rise  to 
the  Gulf  of  Akaba. 

Correlation  of  Eastern  Sinai  Rifts  with  those  of  neighbouring 
districts. — In  returning  from  Eastern  Sinai  the  writer  was  struck 
by  the  resemblance  of  the  western  valleys  to  those  already 
described,  the  clefts,  viz.  Nagb  Hawa  and  El  Watiyeh,  which 
break  through  the  granite  hills,  barring  the  Sinai  convent  region 
to  the  north,  being  the  continuations  of  remarkable  lines  of  depression 
which  can  be  traced  far  to  the  north-west.  One  of  these,  which 
includes  the  Convent  Valley  and  runs  to  Wadi  Suwig,  is  especially 
straight  and  well  defined,  but,  in  common  with  the  other  western 
valleys,  is  parallel,  not  to  the  Gulf  of  Akaba,  but  to  the  Gulf 
of  Suez. 

200  D)\  W.  F.  Hume — Geology  of  Eastern  Sinai. 

The  conclusion  arrived  at  is  as  follows  : — To  the  toest  of  a  north- 
south,  line  (practically  longitude  34°  E.)  extend  a  series  of  N.W.- 
S.E.  rifts,  the  Suez  type,  which  include  not  only  the  Western  Sinai 
valleys  and  the  Gulf  of  Suez,  but  also  Wadi  Qena,  and  in  all 
likelihood  part  of  the  Nile  Valley  itself;  while  to  the  east  of 
this  line  is  an  Akaba  rift-series,  not  only  giving  rise  to  the  Gulf 
of  Akaba,  but  to  all  the  important  longitudinal  valleys  of  Eastern 
Sinai,  and  probably  producing  effects  on  the  opposite  coast  of 
Midian  comparable  for  extent  and  interest  to  those  of  Egypt  itself. 
A  third,  or  transverse,  type  of  dislocation  is  also  considered,  special 
attention  being  called  to  the  regularity  and  parallelism  of  the  valley 
directions.  Thus,  in  a  space  north  of  the  transverse  divide,  the 
valleys  run  mainly  east-of-north,  west-of-south,  or  north-east,  while 
in  other  parts  of  the  eastern  side  of  the  peninsula  the  dominant  trend 
is  slightly  east-of-north,  west-of-south,  or  south-east.  On  the  western 
side,  on  the  contrary,  they  run  north-west  and  south-east,  or  south- 
west. Many  of  these  transverse  valleys  a:-e  in  places  deep  clefts, 
bounded  by  precipitous  rock-walls,  but  the  geological  evidence  of 
rifting  is  wanting.  The  general  conclusion  is  thus  stated,  after 
a  summary  of  the  leading  results : — The  principal  features  of 
Southern  Sinai  have  been  produced  by  dislocation  rather  than 
erosion,  fracture  in  three  directions,  either  directly  proved  or  in 
the  highest  degree  probable,  having  determined  the  general  struc- 
ture of  the  country.  It  is,  in  fact,  the  meeting-point  of  two  great 
longitudinal  rift-systems,  parallel  to  the  Gulf  of  Suez  and  Gulf  of 
Akaba  respectively,  traversed  by  a  third  or  transverse  tyj)e,  the 
result  being  the  apparently  intricate  maze  of  sharp  crest  and  deep 
valley  characteristic  of  this  region. 

Note. — It  should  be  observed  that  the  Akaba  system  of  rifts  does 
not  extend  far  south  of  lat.  28°  N.,  the  ranges  to  the  east  of  the  Eed 
Sea  being  apparently  also  of  the  Suez  type. 

IV. — Geology  of  Eastern  Sinai.^ 

By  W.  F.  Hume,  D.Sc,  A.E.S.M.,  F.G.S.,  etc. 

rpHE  paper  under  consideration  deals  briefly  with  the  geological 
JL  features  of  Eastern  Sinai,  and  more  especially  with  the 
characters  of  the  sedimentary  rocks  developed  in  that  region, 
a  short  note  on  the  igneous  rocks  being  also  appended.  The  subject 
is  treated  under  the  following  headings  : — 

I.  Pebble  Gravels,  Travertine,  etc. 
II.  Coral  Eeefs. 

III.  Cretaceous  Limestones  of  Cenomanian  age. 

IV.  Nubian  Sandstone. 
V.  Igneous  Eocks,  etc. 

I.  Pebble    Gravels.  —  Attention   is   here    again    called   to   the 
remarkable  development  of  high  gravel  terraces  in  the  principal 

1  Eead  by  jDermission  of  tbe  Egyptian   Government  before  the   International 
Geological  Congress,  August,  1900.  ' 

Dr.  W.  F.  Hmne — Geology  of  Emtet-ii  Sinai.  201 

valleys,  these  beiug  often  over  twenty  metres  liigb,  the  gravels  being 
characterized  by  the  fact  that  they  contain  fragments  of  all  shapes 
and  sizes  derived  from  tlie  surrounding  hills,  largely  embedded  in 
a  sandy  matrix  consisting  of  materials  of  the  same  derivation,  their 
source  being  thus  strictly  local.  While  found  in  almost  all  the 
principal  valleys  and  many  of  the  side  tributaries,  they  are  often 
particularly  well  developed  at  points  where  longitudinal  and  transvei'se 
depressions  cross  one  another.  Their  probable  age  can  be  but 
determined  on  the  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Akaba,  where  they  are  found 
to  overlie  raised  coral-reefs  containing  such  typical  Pleistocene  or 
recent  forms  as  Laganum  depressum  and  Heterocentrotns  mammillatus. 
The  gravels  are  therefore  not  earlier  than  the  Pleistocene,  thus 
agreeing  with  the  conclusion  arrived  at  by  Mr.  Barron  for  those 
on  the  west  coast  of  the  Red  Sea. 

One  of  the  most  striking  features  connected  with  these  gravel 
plateaux  is  the  perfectly  flat  nature  of  their  upper  surfaces,  even 
in  the  upland  wadis,  a  character  which  appears  inconsistent  with 
their  having  been  produced  by  rushing  torrents,  but  in  accordance 
with  the  hypothesis  of  their  formation  in  lakes  or  marine  fjords. 
Unfortunately,  no  shells  having  been  obtained  in  these  beds,  their 
mode  of  origin  still  remains  doubtful. 

Attention  is  also  called  to  several  special  varieties  of  these 
gravels,  the  most  notable  being  : — 

(a)  The  Manganiferous  Pebble  Gravels  of  Sherm,  in  which  the 
cementing  material  of  the  conglomerate  consists  of  the  hydrous 
black  oxide  of  manganese,  psiloinelane,  the  beds  being  in  places 
as  much  as  four  metres  thick,  while  underneath  are  strata  coloured 
red  by  ferruginous  ochre.  These  gravels  are  closely  connected  with 
a  core  of  red  granite,  ending  abruptly  where  the  latter  is  no  longer 
exposed  at  the  surface,  and  only  overlying  it  along  the  edge  where 
it  faces  the  sea.  It  is  of  interest  to  note  that  the  S.S.  "  Pola " 
expedition  found  manganiferous  deposits  forming  on  the  floor  of 
the  Gulf  of  Akaba,  a  fact  which  also  suggests  the  marine  origin 
of  the  Sherm  Gravels. 

(fo)  Oolitic  Valley  Deposits. — An  oolitic  rock  is  described  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ras  Muhammed,  whose  components  closely  agree 
in  their  characters  with  oolitic  grains  found  by  Professor  Walther 
at  the  mouth  of  Wadi  Dehese,  near  Suez,  and  whicli  he  believed  to 
be  a  marine  deposit  in  statu  naticendi,  mineral  fragments  being 
enclosed  by  successive  calcareous  layers. 

In  Wadi  Hashubi,  where  these  beds  are  best  developed,,  they  are 
composed  of  grains  of  quartz  and  orthoclase,  cemented  by  carbonate 
of  lime,  which  frequently  surrounds  them  in  a  series  of  concentric 
coats,  while  the  strata  themselves  also  show  traces  of  ripple-marking 
and  very  fine  sun-cracks.  In  the  lower  part  of  the  valley  they  are 
often  strongly  current-bedded,  and  contain  lenticular  masses  of 
pebbles,  while  in  its  upper  part  they  give  rise  to  striking  ravines, 
bounded  on  both  sides  by  vertical  walls  of  the  light-coloured  sand- 
rock.  An  interesting  feature,  too,  is  the  height  at  which  these  beds 
are  met  with,  a  typical  example  being  still  present  at  696  metres 

202  Dr.  W.  F.  Humc—Geolocji/  of  Eastern  Sinai. 

above  sea-level,  so  that,  if  its  marine  origin  be  admitted,  a  differential 
movement  of  at  least  2,000  feet  has  taken  place  in  the  southern  end 
of  the  peninsula  during  comparatively  recent  times. 

(c)  Gravels  cemented  by  Calcite. — At  the  mouth  of  Wadi  Nasb, 
near  Dahab,  the  gravels  composed  of  igneous  rocks  are  cemented 
together  by  crystalline  calcite  developed  in  scalenohedra  (dog-tooth 
spar),  while  in  the  hills  themselves  the  igneous  fragments  are 
enclosed  in  well-marked  travertine,  especially  in  the  smaller  water- 

The  theoretical  deductions  which  maj'  help  to  explain  the  presence 
of  the  various  types  of  gravels  are  thus  summarized  : — 

1.  In  South-Eastern  Sinai  earth-movements  have  produced  three 
high  watershed  lines,  only  one  of  which  is  now  broken  through. 
If  these  were  formed  at  the  same  period  all  the  water  draining  into 
the  basin  enclosed  by  them  would  collect  to  form  nan-ow  lakes. 
This  would  account  for — 

(a)  The  flat  character  of  the  plateaux. 
(&)  The  absence  of  marine  organisms. 

2.  A  marine  depression,  resulting  in  the  invasion  of  the  sea,  and 
amounting  to  at  least  700  metres,  is  also  suggested,  and  might 
account  for — 

(c)  The  oolitic  beds  of  Wadi  Hashubi. 

{d)  The  manganiferous  gravels  of  Sherm. 

(e)  The  travertines  of  the  higher  valleys. 

(/)  The  calcite-cemented  gravels  of  Nasb. 
This  hypothesis  would  also  account  for  their  flat  character,  and  only 
the  absence  of  marine  organisms  prevents  the  absolute  acceptance  of 
the  view  that  many  of  these  gravels  were  laid  down  beneath  the 
surface  of  the  sea.  Indeed,  it  is  of  interest  to  note  that  Mr.  Beadnell 
has  obtained  these  calcite-cemented  gravels  and  travertines  in  his 
Nile  Valley  lacustrine  series,  thus  affording  an  additional  reason  for 
not  arriving  at  hasty  conclusions  regarding  the  marine  origin  of  those 
in  Sinai. 

3.  A  subsequent  elevation,  accompanied  by  earth  -  movements 
resulting  in  the  uptilting  of  the  older  coral-reefs,  brought  the 
formation  of  these  special  features  to  a  close,  the  gravels  subsequently 
formed  being  now  distributed  irregularly  over  the  surface,  in  places- 
overlying  the  oolite  beds,  and  being  interbedded  with  the  younger 
Pleistocene  coral-reefs. 

II.  Coral  Eeefs  and  Raised  Beaches. — This  portion  of  the 
paper  opens  with  a  correction  of  Professor  Waltber's  statement  that 
the  Gulf  of  Akaba  is  poor  in  coral-reefs,  it  being  pointed  out  by  the 
author  that  his  colleague,  Mr.  Skill,  had  now  practically  mapped 
continuous  reefs  from  Dahab  to  Ras  Muhammed.  This  Fringing  Reef 
and  the  isolated  coral  terraces,  up  to  25  metres  high,  standing  only 
a  little  way  back  from  the  sea-shore  (viz.  the  Loioer  Coral  Series) , 
are  first  considered,  and  shown  to  be  typically  Pleistocene,  the 
raised  beaches  which  in  many  places  line  the  shore  being  closely 
associated  with  them.  The  Upper  Coral  Limestone  or  Older  Fossil 
Eeef  of  Walther,   though   apparently  overlying  the  lower  one,  is- 

Dr.  W.  F.  Rumc — GeoJotjn  of  Eastern  Sinai.  203 

evidently  of  okler  date,  the  coral  having  undergone  much  alteration 
and  being  now  of  a  dirty  brown  colour,  though  still  in  large  measure 
possessing  the  cavernous  character  of  a  modern  reef.  The  fauna  of 
these  beds  has  not  yet  been  fully  studied,  but  there  is  sufficient 
evidence  to  show  that  we  have  here  a  remarkable  combination  of 
Pectens  of  older  aspect  and  Mediterranean  character,  associated  with 
modern  Erythraean  species  similar  to  that  revealed  by  a  study  of 
Mr.  Barron's  collection  of  shells  from  the  older  reef  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Eed  Sea  (see  R.  Bullen  Newton,  Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  IV, 
Vol.  VII,  pp.  500-514  and  544-560,  Nov.-Dec,  1900).  Thus,  in 
one  bed  of  this  series,  Pecten  Vasseli,  Fuchs,  and  Chlamys  latissima, 
Brocchi,  are  associated  in  the  same  bed  as  Echinus  verruculatus, 
previously  only  recorded  from  Mauritius  (identified  by  Dr.  Gregory). 
South  of  Sherm  there  is  a  tilted  series  of  coral-reefs,  rising  nearly 
200  metres  above  sea-level,  whose  fauna,  although  very  obscure,  is 
probably  very  early  Pleistocene,  judging  frona  similar  beds  occurring 
on  the  west  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Suez.  It  is  of  special  interest  to 
note  that  these  older  reefs  are  only  present  at  the  southern  end  of 
the  Gulf  of  Akaba. 

After  maintaining  the  general  proposition  that  the  coral-reefs 
here  are  formed  in  a  region  of  elevation,  the  question  is  raised  (on 
the  ground  of  the  observation  made  by  Walther  that  an  apparently 
dead  coral-reef  was  present  0  metres  below  the  present  one), 
whether  this  elevation  is  being  continued,  and  it  is  pointed  out 
that  the  formation  of  bays  at  the  mouths  of  several  of  the  principal 
valleys  suggests  that  a  small  local  depression  is  at  present  taking 
place  in  the  Gulf  of  Akaba,  which  thus  differs  from  neighbouring 
regions.  The  writer  then  considers  the  series  of  questions  which 
Professor  Walther  set  himself  to  answer  in  his  "  Die  Korallenriffe 
der  Sinai-halbinsel,"  and  agrees  with  him — (1)  that  a  coral-reef 
(sensu  stricto)  does  not  attain  any  great  thickness  ;  (2)  as  to  the 
role  which  detrital  materials  play  in  filling  up  a  coral-reef;  and 
(3)  the  passage  of  coi'al  limestone  to  dolomite  by  the  increase  of 
magnesia.  On  the  other  hand,  he  has  been  unable  to  accept 
Walther's  view  as  to  the  basis  of  a  coral-reef,  the  latter  laying 
stress  on  the  importance  of  compact  sedimentary  rocks  as  a  base 
compared  with  igneous  rocks,  while  in  the  paper  under  discussion, 
after  pointing  out  that  the  fringing  reef  of  the  Gulf  of  Akaba  is 
largely  founded  on  igneous  or  metamorphic  rock,  the  writer  main- 
tains that  the  deposition  of  a  coral-reef  is  practically  independent  of 
the  nature  of  the  rock  forming  its  base,  red  granite,  diabase,  sand- 
rock,  and  marls  (probably  also  gneiss  and  hornblende  -  granite) 
having  been  noted  as  its  basal  members. 

III.  Cenomanian  Limestones  ;  IV.  Nubian  Sandstone. — This  is 
a  description  of  the  relations  and  characters  of  the  strata  at  the 
northern  end  of  the  area  examined,  limestones  forming  the  main 
escarpment  of  Jebel  Gunnah  overlying  a  highlj'^  characteristic  striped 
series  of  green  marls  containing  such  typical  Cenomanian  fossils 
as  Hemiaster  cnhicus,  Pseudodiadema  variolare,  and  Heterodiadema 
libycum.      These  marls  are  themselves  only  the  surface  capping  of 

204  Br.  W.  F.  Hume — Qeologij  of  Eastern  Sinai. 

a  thick  series  of  white  sands,  which  are  now  cut  deeply  into  by 
ravines,  giving  rise  to  battlements  and  castellated  ridges,  sometimes 
over  100  metres  high,  forming  one  of  the  most  striking  features  on 
the  road  from  Sinai  to  Akaba.  These  are  based  on  a  series  of 
variously  coloured  ferruginous  sandstones,  forming  broad,  low, 
smooth  plateaux,  themselves  resting  on  a  planed-down  surface 
of  granite.  Unfortunately  these  sands  and  sandstones  are  all 

The  thicknesses  in  Jebel  Gunnah  are  as  follows  : — 

Compact  limestones, -with  few  fossils    ...         100 

Striped  Cenomanian  marls         20 

Sands  and  sandstones     ...         207 

Total  thickness         ...  327  (over  1,000 feet). 

The  most  important  points  noted  are: — (1)  The  Nubian  sandstones 
resting  on  a  planed-down  surface  of  granite;  (2)  the  Cenomanian 
beds  belong  to  Professor  Zittel's  '  Africano  -  Syrian '  series,  which 
since  Mr.  Beadnell's  discovery  of  these  beds  in  Baharia  Oasis  are 
shown  to  have  an  enormous  extension  north  of  latitude  28°  N., 
while  Dr.  Schweinfurth  has  shown  them  to  be  of  great  thickness  to 
the  north  of  the  Red  Sea  Hills  ;  (3)  the  dip  and  present  position 
of  the  beds  show  that  these  strata  once  extended  over  the  whole  of 
the  present  igneous  mountain  region;  (4)  the  Carboniferous  sand- 
stones of  Western  Sinai  are  apparently  absent. 

Y.  The  Igneous  Eocks  of  Eastern  Sinai.  —  After  a  brief 
general  description  this  portion  of  the  paper  lays  stress  on  the 
importance  of  dyjfes  of  every  petrographical  variety,  which,  though 
the  youngest  members  of  the  igneous  series,  never  pass  into  the 
Nubian  Sandstone,  so  that  thej'^  are  at  least  Pre-Cretaceous.  While 
generally  trending  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W.,  there  is  frequently  a  second 
system,  running  practically  at  right  angles  to  this  direction.  Though 
in  general  aspect  resembling  the  mountains  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  Red  Sea,  the  fundamental  rocks  of  the  central  axis  of  the 
peninsula  are  granitoid  gneiss  and  hornblende-granite,  not  the  red 
granite  which  forms  many  of  the  main  summits  in  the  Eed  Sea 
Hills.  The  latter  is,  however,  also  widely  distributed  in  the 
peninsula  itself. 

Of  special  interest  are  beds  of  andesite,  tuff,  and  agglomerate, 
which  form  some  of  the  principal  summits,  capping  the  granite  and 
gneiss,  while  in  the  Ferani  range,  etc.,  this  Volcanic  series  is  closely 
associated  with  a  metamorphic  type,  varying  from  spotted  slates  and 
slightly  foliated  mica-schists  to  dark-green  chlorite  and  hornblende- 
schists  pierced  by  innumerable  dykes  of  dolerite.  Some  special 
points  are  dealt  with  in  closing,  such  as  the  development  of  gneisses 
on  a  magnificent  scale  in  Wadi  Um  Gerat,  the  importance  of 
tourmaline-granite  in  some  of  the  southern  summits,  the  presence 
of  splierulitic  felsites  forming  dykes  in  many  parts  of  the  district, 
and  the  probable  absence  of  the  basalt  recorded  near  Sherm  by 

Dr.  HoM—Thc  Glacial  Period  and  Oscillation  of  Land.     205 

V. — The  Connection  of  the  Glacial  Pekiod  with  Oscillation 
OF  the  Land,  especially  in  Scandinavia. 

By  Dr.  Nils  Olof  Holst.     Translated  by  F.  A.  Bather,  D.Sc. 

[In  a  recently  published  paper '  Dr.  N.  0.  Hoist,  of  the  Geological 
Survey  of  Sweden,  has  given  a  detailed  description  of  the  Post- 
Glacial  deposits  of  the  Baltic  Sea  and  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia.  The 
paper  is  accompanied  by  a  map  showing  the  chief  points  of  observation. 
The  determination  of  the  different  horizons  depends  on  (1)  the 
stratigraphy;  (2)  the  sub-fossil  diatomaceous  flora;  (3)  the  sub- 
fossil  higher  flora.  The  stratigraphical  evidence  is  in  the  form 
of  numerous  sections,  taken  all  along  the  coast.  The  diatoms  are 
used  chiefly,  but  not  solely,  to  distinguish  the  marine  from  the 
fresh-water  deposits ;  their  determinations,  nearly  3,000  in  number, 
are  due  to  Professor  P.  T.  Cleve  and  his  daughtei",  Dr.  Astrid  Cleve. 
The  remains  of  the  higher  plants  have  been  determined  by 
Dr.  Gunnar  Andersson. 

The  fresh-water  [Ancijlus)  epoch  and  the  salt-water  (IJtorina) 
epoch  are  divided  by  the  author  as  follows : — 

1.  The  oldest  Ancylus  epoch,  the  deposits  of  which  age  in 
southern  Sweden  partly  are  barren,  partly  contain  Arctic  plants. 

2.  The  middle  Ancylus  epoch,  of  which  the  deposits  contain 
the  remains  of  fir  and  birch.  During  this  epoch  the  land-ice  melted 
away  from  the  lower  parts  of  central  Sweden,  and  the  sea  came 
into  the  Baltic,  making  the  water  temporarily  salt. 

3.  The  youngest  Ancylus  epoch,  or  the  older  half  of  the  oak 

4.  The  Litorina  epoch,  or  the  younger  half  of  the  oak  epoch, 
when  the  present  communication  with  the  sea  was  opened,  and  the 
water  of  the  inland  sea,  which  during  the  Ancylus  epochs  had  been 
fresh  as  a  rule,  now  became  salt. 

The  fact  that  the  climate  became  temporarily  colder  in  the  middle 
of  the  Litorina  epoch  is  established  b}'  finds  of  boreal  diatoms : 
Navicula  semen,  N.  amphibola,  Pinnularia  streptonqjhe,  etc. 

Wider  interest  attaches  to  the  concluding  pages  (113  et  sqq.),  in 
which  the  author  deals  with  the  question  of  oscillation  of  the  land 
in  Scandinavia  and  with  the  explanation  of  the  Glacial  Period,  on 
which  matters  he  expresses  some  new  views.  We  therefore  ofter 
a  full  translation  of  this  part  of  Dr.  Hoist's  memoir.] 

I  HAVE  elsewhere  -  shown  that  the  events  immediately  connected 
with  the  melting  of  the  Scandinavian  land-ice  occuri'ed  in  rapid 
succession.  The  same  was  the  case  with  the  oldest  Post-Glacial 
events.  Thus  it  has  been  demonstrated  in  the  present  paper  that 
the  Glacial  marine  clay  and  sand,  deposited  along  the  present  coast 

1  "Bidrag  till  kiiunedomeu  om  Ostersjcins  ocli  Bottuiska  Vikens  postglaciala 
geologi":  Sveriges  Geoloo-iska  Uiulersokning,  Alliaudl.,  scr.  C,  No.  180.  8vi>; 
128  pp.,  1  map;   1899  (published  March,  1901). 

*  N.  0.  Hoist,  "liar  det  funnits  mer  iin  en  istid  i  Sverige?":  Sver.  Geol. 
ITnders.,  1895,  ser.  C,  No.  151,  see  pp.  36-39.  German  translation  by  W.  Wolff, 
"  Hat  es  in  Schwedeu  mehr  als  eine  Eiszeit  gegeben  r"  pp.  38-42  ;  Berlin,  1899. 

206  Dr.  N.  0.  Hoht—The  Glacial  Period  and 

of  Blekinge  and  of  the  Kalmar  district,  were  exposed  by  elevation 
of  the  land  and  were  weathered  before  the  deposition  of  Post-Glacial 
beds  upon  them  had  begun.  It  was  this  elevation  of  the  land  that 
connected  Scania  with  Denmark  and  permitted  the  immigration  of 
the  larger  land  animals.^  It  appears  as  though  not  only  this 
elevation,  but  also  the  succeeding  depression,  during  which  the 
oldest  Ancijlus  beds  were  deposited  in  the  government  districts  of 
Blekinge  and  Kalmar,  took  place  in  the  former  district  before  the 
Arctic  plants  had  found  time  to  immigrate  thither.  But  when  this 
depression  reached  the  neighbourhood  of  Kalmar,  the  Arctic  plants 
were  already  there.  In  Blekinge  and  the  Kalmar  district  there 
followed  an  elevation,  probably  of  less  importance,  and  it  was  not 
until  the  succeeding  depression,  which  marks  the  beginning  of  the 
middle  Ancylus  epoch,  that  southern  Sweden  saw  the  deposition  of 
beds  that  can  be  paralleled  with  the  oldest  Post-GIacial  beds  of 
central  Sweden.  But  these  latter  lie  without  break  conformably  on 
the  Glacial  beds.  This  implies  that  southern  Sweden  incurred  two 
elevations  and  their  succeeding  depressions,  in  which  central  Sweden 
had  no  share.  No  explanation  of  these  facts  is  more  natural  than 
that  southern  Sweden,  relieved  of  its  ice-load,  rose  ~  and  began  to 
■oscillate,  loJiile  the  land-ice  continued  to  keep  central  Sweden  depressed. 
In  other  words,  this  means  that  there  was  a  clear  and  definite  con- 
nection on  the  one  hand  between  the  weight  of  the  land-ice  and  the 
depression  of  the  land,  on  the  other  hand  between  the  removal  of 
the  weight  and  the  elevation  of  the  land.  But  this  is  a  result 
pregnant  with  the  most  important  consequences  for  the  whole  of 
glacial  geology. 

It  is  clear  that  the  depression,  if  dependent  on  the  weight  of  the 
land-ice,  should  yield  evidence  of  having  been  greater  tlie  nearer 
one  comes  to  the  centre  of  the  ice ;  in  other  words,  the  nearer  one 
comes  to  those  regions  where  the  ice-load  was  greatest.  A  glance 
at  a  map  indicating  the  extent  of  the  depression  shows  at  once  that 
such  was  the  case.^     While  in  the  south  the  curve  of  depression 

1  That  the  aurochs  abeady  existed  in  the  province  of  Kalmar  at  the  beginning  of 
the  fir  period,  i.e.  at  the  beginning  of  the  middle  Ancylus  epoch,  has  been  proved 
on  a  preceding  page.  But  the  only  Post-Glacial  elevation  of  importance  that 
occurred  in  southern  Sweden  before  that  period  was  the  very  one  that  immediately 
followed  the  deposition  of  the  Glacial  marine  beds. 

-  It  is  quite  probable  that  this  elevation  during  the  oldest  Post-Glacial  Period  also 
reached  northern  Germany.  If  such  was  the  case,  may  it  not  in  part  have  been  the 
reason  why  the  Vistula  and  Oder  during  that  period  did  not  flow  into  the  Baltic  but 
had  their  outlet  through  the  Elbe?  Cf.  F.  WahnschafPe,  "Die  Ursachen  der 
Oberflachengestaltung  des  norddeutschen  Flachlandes"  ;  Stuttgart,  1891. 

It  is  also  very  probable  that  the  same  upward  pressure  of  the  land  outside  the 
periphery  of  the  land-ice  took  place  in  North  America,  and  that  this  affords  the 
•correct  explanation  of  many  phenomena  which  otherwise  appear  inexplicable. 

3  See  Gerard  De  Geer,  "  Om  Skandinavieus  geografiska  utveckling,"  2.  Kartor, 
pis.  2,  3,  4  ;  Stockholm,  1896.  The  criticism  must,  however,  be  passed  on  these 
plates  that  they  do  not,  as  they  ])rofess,  give  the  depression-curves  for  different 
epochs  of  the  melting  of  the  ice,  but  that  all  three  show  only  the  same  thing,  namely, 
the  extent  of  the  depression  at  the  time  of  the  final  melting  of  the  ice.  According  to 
the  plates,  the  depression  during  the  melting  of  the  ice  remained  the  same  for  a  long 
period,  while,  on  the  contrary,  all  the  facts  tend  to  prove  that  throughout  that  time 
the  extent  of  the  depression  altered  very  rapidly. 


Oscillations  of  Land  in  Scandinacia.  207 

that  crosses  the  southern  Baltic,  and  in  the  east  that  which  passes 
by  the  southern  end  ot  Lake  Ladoga,  both  mark  zero,  as  one  proceeds 
from  south  to  north  or  from  east  to  west  tlie  curves  mark  higher 
and  higher  numbers,  until  the  greatest  depression  known,  so  far  as 
established  by  ti'acing  the  highest  Glacial  marine  coastline,  attains 
in  northern  Sweden  no  less  than  280  metres.^  Lately,  indeed,  it 
has  been  said  that  in  Norrland  the  Glacial  marine  coastline  is  at 
a  lower  level  in  the  interior  than  near  the  present  coast.  But  if 
that  is  the  case,  we  may  recall  the  fact  that  the  highest  Glacial 
coastline  was  formed  at  different  times  in  different  places.  It  is 
therefore  quite  possible  that  the  apparently  abnormal  conditions  in 
Norrland  spring  from  nothing  else  than  the  formation  of  the  Glacial 
coastline,  first  at  the  coast  and  afterwards  at  the  interior,  for  the 
simple  reason  that  "  the  ice  did  not  melt  from  the  interior  of 
Norrland  until  the  elevation  had  been  in  progress  for  some  time." - 
The  conditions  in  Norrland  are  therefore  in  no  way  opposed  to 
the  rule  that  increased  depression  and  increased  ice-load  point  in 
the  same  direction. 

Scandinavia  under  its  load  of  land-ice  may  be  compared  to 
a  depressed  spring.  When  the  load  is  removed  the  land  tends  to 
resume  its  original  position.  This  explains  the  great  rapidity  with 
which  the  land  rose  at  the  close  of  the  Ice  Age,  a  rapidity  for  which 
in  my  above-quoted  paper  of  1895  I  gave  conclusive  evidence, 
although  I  then  did  not  fully  understand  what  caused  the  rapid  rise 
of  the  land.  But  although  this  demands  a  certain  elasticity  in  the 
crust  of  the  earth,  yet  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  this  elasticity  was 
so  great  as  to  permit  the  land,  pressed  down  as  it  was  during  a  large 
part  of  the  Ice  Age,  to  regain  the  state  of  equilibrium  in  which  it  was 
at  the  beginning  of  the  Ice  Age  ;  some  of  the  upward  tension  must 
in  the  meantime  have  been  neutralized.  The  highest  Glacial  marine 
coastline  therefore  marks  only  the  final  result  of  the  depression  at 
the  moment  when  the  ice  melted.  Now  the  position  of  this  line 
no  less  than  280  metres  above  sea-level  is  alone  enough  to  show 
that  the  depression  was  considerable.  But  for  the  reason  just 
mentioned  this  height  indicates  only  a  part  of  the  Glacial  depression. 
This  line  of  argument  has  already  led  us  to  the  conclusion  that  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Ice  Age  Scandinavia  lay  mucli  higher  than  now. 
But  that  this  elevation  was  in  itself  enough  to  aftbrd  a  simple  and 
natural  explanation  of  the  Glacial  Period  will  be  proved  in  the  sequel 
by  more  conclusive  evidence. 

From  what  has  been  said  it  is  clear  that  the  Glacial  and  Post- 
Glacial  changes  of  level  in  Scandinavia  (and  the  same  applies  to 
North  America)  are  due  to  a  special  cause,  and  therefore  cannot  be 
compared  with  volcanic  or  continent- building  oscillations.  All 
attempts  to  generalize  from  such  comparisons  are  foredoomed  to 

'  A.  G.  Hogbom,  "  Till  fr§,g,in  oin  deu  scnglaciala  hafsgriinseii  i  Xorrlaud"  :  Geol. 
Foren.  Stockholm  FiJrhaiull.,  1899,  x\i,  p.  o95. 

■  A.  G.  Hogbom,  "  Om  hogsta  mariua  gransen  i  norra  Sverige"  :  Geol.  Foren. 
Stockholm  ForhandJ.,  1896,  x'viii,  p.  188. 

208  Dr.  N.  0.  HoM—The  Glacial  Period  and 

No  better  success  has  attended  the  attempts  to  discover  the  cause 
of  the  Glacial  Period  in  directions  other  than  that  here  indicated. 
Especially  is  this  true  of  the  struggles  after  some  far-fetched 
astronomical  explanation  of  this  terrestrial  phenomenon.  The 
geologist  who  perambulates  the  universe  in  searcli  of  such 
explanations  may  be  likened  to  an  erudite  bookworm  who  turns 
his  study  upside  down  in  search  of  his  pencil,  which  all  the  time 
is  behind  his  ear. 

To  the  view  here  stated  as  to  the  cause  of  changes  of  level  in 
Glacial  and  Post-Glacial  times,  I  have  been  led  by  my  own  researches, 
and  my  ideas  already  tended  in  this  direction  before  I  realized  that 
T.  F.  Jamieson,  and  other  geologists  after  him,  had  expressed  views 
almost  identical  with  my  own.  Subsequently  I  have  perused 
Jamieson's  writings  on  this  subject  more  closely,  and,  with  sincere 
admiration  for  his  acumen,  have  found  that  so  early  as  1865,^ 
supported  by  comparatively  few  observations,  he  put  forward  the 
leading  idea  which  in  1882  -  he  developed  in  more  detail,  and  which, 
confirmed  as  it  now  is  by  more  numerous  observations,  can  without 
hesitation  be  accepted  as  the  only  correct  one. 

From  the  papers  by  Jamieson  I  think  it  right  to  make  the 
following  instructive  extracts  : — 

"  It  has  occurred  to  me  [Jamieson]  that  the  enormous  weight  of 
ice  thrown  upon  the  land  may  have  had  something  to  do  with  this 

depression    [the    great   glacial   depression] We   don't 

know  what  is  the  state  of  the  matter  on  which  the  solid  crust  of 
the  earth  reposes.  If  it  is  in  a  state  of  fusion,  a  depression  might  take 
place  from  a  cause  of  this  kind,  and  then  the  melting  of  the  ice 
would  account  for  the  rising  of  the  land,  which  seems  to  have 
followed  upon  the  decrease  of  the  glaciers."     (Q.J.G.S.,  loc.  cit.) 

"Assuming  the  specific  gravity  of  the  ice  to  have  been  875, 
compared  with  water  as  1,000,  or  in  other  words  to  have  been 
seven-eighths  of  the  weight  of  water,  then  the  weight  of  a  mass 
of  ice  1,000  feet  thick  would  be  378  pounds  to  the  square  inch,  or 
equal  to  fully  25  atmospheres,  and  would  amount  to  678,675,690 
tons  on  every  square  mile.  If  the  ice  was  3,000  feet  thick,  it 
would  at  this  rate  amount  to  over  2,000  million  tons  on  the  square 
mile."  (Geol.  Mag.,  1882,  p.  403  ;  Jamieson  here  quotes  some 
geologists  who  have  supposed  that  the  thickness  of  the  ice  has  been 
much  greater,  and  then  he  continues  as  follows  : — )  "  It  is  evident 
that  a  thickness  of  even  3,000  feet  of  ice  will  give  us  a  weight  hy 
no  means  despicable,  a  weight  which  would  require  a  marvellous 
rigidity  indeed  in  the  earth  beneath  it  to  sustain  such  a  load  with- 
out yielding  in  some  degree  "  (p.  404). 

"That  the  crust  of  the  earth  is  flexible  and  elastic  the  phenomena 
of  earthquakes  sufficiently  demonstrate.  The  surface  heaves  like 
the  billows  of  the  sea,  sometimes   causing   trees  to  bend  so  as  to 

1  T.  F.  Jamieson,  "  Ou  the  History  of  the  last  Geological  Changes  in  Scotland"  : 
Quart.  Joiuu.  Geol.  Soc,  1865,  xxi,  p.  178. 

-  "  On  the  Cause  of  the  Depression  and  Re-elevation  of  the  Land  during  the 
Glacial  Period"  :  Geol.  Mag.,  1882,  Dec.  II,  Vol.  IX,  pp.  400  and  457. 


Oscillations  of  Land  in  Scandinaoid.  209 

touch  the  groimd  with  their  tops,  or  tossing  up  flagstones  into  the 
air  so  as  to  make  them  come  down  bottom  upwards,"  etc.     (p.  404.) 

"  If  upheavals  and  depressions  of  the  land  have  not  been  caused 
by  changes  of  pressure,  it  may  be  asked,  what  is  it  they  have  been 
caused  by  ?  "     (p.  405.) 

"If  beneath  that  part  of  the  surface  which  was  affected  by  the 
heavy  pressure  of  the  ice,  there  happened  to  be  a  quantity  of  lava 
in  a  fluid  state,  the  result  might  be  to  cause  an  outburst  of  the  lava 
to  take  place  at  some  more  distant  point.  This  would  relieve  the 
tension  and  lead  to  a  permanent  depression  of  the  ice-covered  area. 
For  example,  in  North  America  the  great  fields  of  ice  that  lay  on 
certain  portions  of  that  continent  by  their  downward  pressure  may 
have  occasioned  some  of  those  extensive  eruptions  which  seem  to 
have  taken  place  in  the  region  of  California  after  the  commencement 
of  the  Glacial  period.  The  volcanic  phenomena  of  Iceland  in  like 
manner  may  have  been  affected  by  similar  causes.  That  there  has 
been  a  considerable  permanent  depression  of  some  of  the  most 
heavily  glaciated  regions  since  the  commencement  of  the  Glacial 
period,  I  think  there  is  much  reason  to  believe.  The  features  of  the 
fjord  districts  of  Norway  and  the  West  Highlands  of  Scotland,  and 
of  British  Columbia,  for  example,  seem  to  show  this  ;  for  these 
coasts  have  all  the  appearance  of  depressed  mountain  lands,  which 
have  been  cut  and  carved  by  streams  and  glaciers  far  beneath  the 
present  level  of  the  sea."     (p.  405.) 

"It  seems  likely  that  there  might  be  a  tendency  to  bulge  up  in 
the  region  which  lay  immediately  beyond  this  area  of  depression  ; 
just  as  we  sometimes  see  in  the  advance  of  a  railway  embankment, 
which  not  only  depresses  the  soil  beneath  it,  but  also  causes  the 
ground  to  swell  up  further  off."     (p.  461.) 

So  far  Jamieson.  His  ideas  have,  before  me,  been  shared  by 
Whittlesey,  N.  S.  Shaler,'  and  Warren  Upham,-  the  last-mentioned 
having  developed  them  further.  Upham  calls  our  special  attention 
to  the  indisputable  glacial  formations  that  date  from  the  Carboniferous 
or  Permian  periods,  as  that  in  South  Africa  at  30°  S.  lat.,-'  in  India 
at  only  20°  N.,'*  as  well  as  in  Australia,^  and  he  correlates  these 
phenomena  with  the  mountain-building  that  took  place  during  that 
time.  Of  the  glaciated  areas  here  mentioned  I  have  myself  visited 
that  in  Australia,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bacchus  Marsh,  just  west 
of  Melbourne  (37°-o8°  S.),  and  can  confirm  the  correctness  of  the 
descriptions  given.     Here   occurs   a   typical  boulder-clay,  of  blue 

'  "  Fluviatile  Swamps  of  New  Eugland  "  :  Amcr.  Jouru.  Sci.,  1887,  ser.  in, 
vol.  xxxiii.     See  p]).  220,  221. 

-  "  Probable  ('aiises  of  Glaciation,"  Appendix  A  to  G.  F.  "Wright's  "  The  Ice 
Age  in  North  America"  ;  New  York,  1891.  See  also  Amer.  Geol.,  1890,  pp.  327 
et  sqq. ;  and  Amer.  Journ.  Sci.,  1891,  vol.  xli,  p.  33. 

^  A.  Schenck,  "  Ueber  Glacialcrscheimmgen  in  Siidafrika  "  :  Verhandl.  des  VIII 
dciitschen  Geographentages  in  Berlin,  1889. 

*  R.  D.  Oldham,  "A  Manual  of  the  Geology  of  India,"  Calcutta,  1893.  See 
pp.  157  and  198. 

^  T.  W.  E.  David,  "Evidences  of  Glacial  Action  in  Australia  in  Permo- 
CarboniferouR  Time"  :  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  1896.  Hi,  p.  289. 

DECAKE    IV. VOL.  VIII. — NO.  V.  14 

210  Dr.  N.  0.  Hoist— The  Glacial  Period  and 

colour,  containing  glacially  striated  stones  of  many  kinds  of  foreign 
rocks.  This  boulder-clay  is  overlain  by  sandstone  with  Gangamopteris, 
belonging  to  the  Carboniferous  or  the  Permian  system.  What  cast 
suspicion  on  the  glacial  deposits  of  Australia  was  the  great  thickness 
ascribed  to  them,  namely,  as  much  as  5,000  feet.  But  this  estimate, 
which  sounds  so  fantastic,  is  really  founded  on  a  mistake  that  arose 
in  the  following  way  : — In  the  valley  where  this  thickness  was 
calculated  the  morainic  beds  are  obliquely  inclined  one  above  the 
other.  By  measuring  each  of  these  beds  and  adding  the  apparent 
thicknesses  together  a  total  was  obtained  which  naturally  was  not 
the  true  vertical  thickness.  That  this  in  reality  is  not  so  extra- 
ordinarily great  is  clear  from  the  fact  that  the  solid  Silurian  rock 
crops  out  both  at  the  bottom  and  on  the  side  of  the  valley  in  question. 
For  a  5,000  foot  thick  moraine  to  find  room  between  these  outcrops, 
it  must  lie  in  a  very  deep  hollow  of  most  unusual  and  inexplicable 

For  my  part  I  think  Upham  must  be  accounted  right  in  his 
contention  that  the  glacial  phenomena  of  South  Africa,  India,  and 
Australia  can  be  explained  only  on  the  supposition  that  these  districts 
formerly  lay  much  higher  than  now.  Especially  does  this  apply 
to  the  Indian  glacial  district,  situate  only  20°  from  the  equator. 
There  is  no  place  here  for  the  interglacialist  hypothesis,  and  if 
a  former  elevation  be  not  admitted  for  this  district  we  may  justly 
ask  what  else  can  have  produced  glacial  phenomena  so  near  the 
equator.  On  the  other  hand,  we  may  adduce  the  fact  that  Kilima 
Ndjaro  in  East  Africa,  said  to  be  about  6,000  metres  high,  exhibits 
glaciation  although  only  3°  from  the  equator. 

But  if  an  elevation  of  the  land  in  equatorial  regions  can  produce 
glaciers,  what  glacial  results  may  we  not  expect  from  an  elevation 
in  the  latitude  of  Scandinavia,  Greenland,  and  North  America? 
The  question  is  reduced  to  this  :  Can  we  show  that  during  Quaternary 
times  such  an  elevation  really  did  take  place  in  the  three  great 
glacial  districts  ?  It  is  as  a  rule  difficult  to  prove  former  elevation 
of  the  land  if  the  region  once  raised  now  lies  sunk  below  sea-level ; 
but  in  proportion  as  the  oceans  that  bound  North  America  and 
Scandinavia  have  been  more  closely  investigated  this  proof  has  been 
forthcoming,  and  a  considerable  elevation  of  Quaternary  age  is  now 
fully  established  both  for  North  America  and  Scandinavia. 

As  regards  North  America,  many  geologists,  of  whom  I  shall 
cite  only  J.  W.  Spencer,^  have  demonstrated  that  the  larger  rivers 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  continent,  from  the  Mississippi  up  to  the 
St.  Lawrence,  have  channels  clearly  excavated  beyond  the  coast  to 
a  depth  below  the  sea  of  "  3,000  feet  or  more  "  ;  and  this  naturally 
indicates  that  formerly  the  land  was  elevated  to  a  corresponding 
height.  Similar  observations  have  been  made  on  the  Pacific  coast 
of  North  America.  That  this  elevation  took  place  at  a  relatively 
recent  period  follows  from  the  fact  that  the  submarine  channels  are 
not  filled  up  as  they  would  otherwise  have  been. 

*  "The  High  Continental  Elevation  preceding  the  Pleistocene  Period":  Bull. 
Geol.  Soc.  Amer.,  1890,  i,  p.  65. 

Oscillations  of  Land  in  Scandinavia.  211 

Like  observations  have  been  made  on  the  coast  of  Norway,  where 
the  deep  fjords  continue  as  submarine  valleys  beyond  the  present 
coast  to  a  great  depth.  For  these  to  have  been  carved  out  by  the 
rivers  of  a  past  age,  the  land  must  of  course  have  lain  much  higher 
than  now.  The  so-called  '  Norwegian  Channel,'  if,  as  is  probable, 
it  represents  an  ancient  river-bed,  proves  the  same  thing. 

The  Scandinavian  Pre-Glacial  elevation,  however,  was  not  confined 
to  the  coast  of  Scandinavia,  but  evidently  affected  a  large  part  of  the 
bottom  of  the  present  North  Atlantic,  both  westwards  to  the  east ' 
coast  of  Greenland  and  southwards  to  the  south  part  of  England. 
So  far  as  Great  Britain  is  concerned  this  elevation  is  undeniable. 
The  mere  existence  in  this  country  of  a  Pre-Glacial  mammalian  fauna, 
obviously  exterminated  by  the  Ice  Age  -  and  partly  reminiscent  of 
more  southern  regions  (elephants  of  various  species,  mammoth, 
mastodon,  lion,  hyseua,  etc.),  is  enough  to  presuppose  a  land-con- 
nection between  the  continent  and  England  and  Ireland,  so  that  the 
animals  could  cross  to  these  islands.^  But  these  mammals  did  not 
merely  loander  across  the  English  Channel  and  the  southern  parts 
of  the  North  Sea  ;  they  also  inhabited  the  districts  now  sunk  beneath 
the  waters,  as  may  be  inferred  from  the  "almost  incredible" 
"quantity  of  teeth  and  bones  belonging  to  the  mammoth,  woolly 
rhinoceros,  horse,  reindeer,  and  spotted  hyaena,  and  other  animals, 
dredged  up  by  the  fishermen  in  the  German  Ocean  "  (op.  cit.,  p.  365). 
That  the  animals  lived  here  at  no  distant  date  follows  from  the  fact 
that  their  bones  are  found  on  the  very  surface  of  the  sea-floor,  as 
well  as  from  the  mixture  of  remains  of  Pre-Glacial  animals  with 
those  of  the  reindeer,  as  to  whose  contemporaneity  with  the  Ice  Age 
there  can  be  no  doubt.  Finds  of  this  boreal  species  on  the  floor 
of  the  North  Sea  show  further  that  the  elevation  still  existed  when 
the  Glacial  Period  was  setting  in. 

Furthermore,  submarine  peat-bogs  along  the  coast  of  England, 
as  well  as  the  discovery  of  the  fresh- water  bivalve,  Unio  pictorum, 
and  shore  shells  at  a  greater  depth  than  200  feet  in  the  English 
Channel  (op.  cit.,  p.  364),  bear  clear  witness  to  an  elevation  of  the 
land  in  Quaternary  times. 

But  the  depth  of  the  English  Channel  and  of  the  southern  part 
of  the  North  Sea  is  not  very  great — at  the  southern  end  of  the 
Dogger  Bank  not  more  than  13  - 16  metres — and  a  raising  of  the 
sea-bottom  fx-ora  30  to  50  metres  would  be  enough  to  bring  a  large 

'   '  Vristra '  (west)  iu  original ;  correction  by  the  author. 

-  H.  H.  Howorth,  "  Did  the  Mammoth  live  before,  during,  or  after  the  Deposition 
of  the  Drift?"  :  Geol.  Mag.,  1892,  Dec.  Ill,  Vol.  IX,  pp.  250  and  395. 

In  England  the  so-called  intcrglacial  occurrences  of  the  larger  mammals  seem  to 
rest  only  on  mistakes  or  on  the  estimation  of  secondary  occurrences  as  primary.  Of 
course  they  disappear  at  the  same  time  as  the  so-called  '  interglacial '  deposits  cease 
k)  be  interpreted  as  intcrglacial,  and  this  is  already  the  case  with  the  majority. 
Thus  the  '  middle  sand,'  formerly  the  most  important  of  the  interglacial  formations, 
is  now  very  generally  regarded  as  glacial.  And,  so  far  as  I  could  discover  from 
conversation  with  English  geologists,  the  idea  of  a  true  *  interglacial '  period  is  now 
almost  abandoned  by  them. 

^  W.  Boyd  Dawkins  :   "  Cave  Hunting,  etc.  "  ;  London,  1S71.     Si  t^  p.  oC2. 

212  Dr.  N.  0.  Eolst~The  Glacial  Period  and 

part  of  it  above  the  surface.  It  may  therefore  be  objected  that, 
even  though  the  land-connection  in  question  may  really  have  existed, 
still  it  is  in  itself  no  proof  of  any  considerable  elevation,  certainly 
not  of  one  great  enough  to  explain  the  severe  climate  of  the  Glacial 
Period.     And  this,  no  doubt,  is  perfectly  true. 

But  there  are  other  evidences  for  a  much  greater  elevation  in  the 
north-west  of  Europe.  That  the  agreement  between  the  floras  of 
Scandinavia,  Scotland,  the  Faeroes,  Iceland,  and  Greenland  necessarily 
presupposes  a  land-connection  in  Quaternary  times,  has  been  long 
understood.  Such  a  connection  involves  an  elevation  of  the  sea-floor 
between  Scotland  and  Greenland  of  about  3,000  feet  (891  metres).' 
But  did  such  an  elevation  really  take  place  during  the  Quaternary 
Period  ?  Conclusive  proof  of  it  was  given  by  A.  S.  Jensen,-  when 
he  demonstrated  the  logical  consequences  of  the  discoveries  made 
by  the  Ingolf  expedition  in  1896  during  the  investigation  of  the 
sea-floor  between  Jan  Mayen  and  Iceland.  Here  the  expedition 
found  at  a  great  depth,  reaching  as  much  as  1,309  Danish  fathoms,^ 
such  shalloio-wdiiev  bivalves  as  Astarte  BanJcsii,  A.  borealis,  A.  com- 
pressa,  Cardtum  ciliatum,  C.  groenlandicum,  Cyrtodaria  siliqua, 
Macoma  calcaria,  Saxicava  arctica,  and  Yoldia  arcttea.  These 
marine  molluscs,  which  can  live  only  at  small  depths,  according 
to  Jensen  in  not  more  than  100  fathoms  of  water,  occur  in  great 
numbers,  and  it  is  quite  clear  that  they  have  lived  where  their 
shells  now  are  met  with.  These  discoveries  therefore  prove  that 
the  sea-bottom  between  Scandinavia  and  Greenland  once  lay  more 
than  1,200  fathoms  (2,138  metres)  higher  than  now.  As  for  the 
date  of  the  elevation,  Jensen  justly  observes  that  the  occurrence 
of  Yoldia  arctica  is  enough  to  show  that  it  took  place  during  the 
Glacial  Period.  During  which  part  of  that  period  the  elevation 
existed  is  not  discussed  by  Jensen,  but  it  is  most  reasonable  to  refer 
it  to  the  beginning  of  the  period,  when  an  elevation  is  established 
both  for  England  and  Scandinavia.*  If  this  elevation  started  from 
the  Archaean  district  of  Scandinavia  and  of  Greenland,  as  there  is 
good  reason  for  supposing,  then  the  elevation  of  Scandinavia  must 
have  been  greater  than  that  demonstrated  by  Jensen  for  the  sea-floor 
between  Scandinavia  and  Greenland.  But  if  the  elevation  was  only 
of  the  same,  or  even  approximately  the  same  magnitude,  it  was  still 
quite  enough  to  afford  an  explanation  of  the  Glacial  Period  itself. 

But  this  elevation  of  the  sea-floor  between  Scandinavia  and 
Greenland  carried  with  it  another  important  consequence,  in  that 
it  changed  this  part  of  the  ocean  into  an  inland  sea,  comparable 
with  the  Mediterranean,  and  united  with  the  body  of  the  Atlantic 
only  by  the   deep   channel  between   the   Shetlands   and  Faeroes.^ 

^  See  the  map  to  "W.  H.  Hudleston's  paper  "  On  the  Eastern  Margin  of  the  North 
Atlantic  Basin"  :  Geol.  Mag.,  1899,  Dec.  lY,  Vol.  VI,  p.  97. 

^  "  Om  Levninger  af  Grundtvandsdyr  paa  store  Hardyb  mellem  Jan  Mayen  og 
Island"  :  Vidensk.  Meddel.  Naturhist." Foren.  Kobenhavn,  1900,  p.  229. 

3  8,087  English  feet ;  2,465  metres.— Translator. 

*  The  same  elevation  also  reached  Iceland.  See  Th.  Thoroddsen  in  Geol.  Foren. 
Stockholm  Fbrhandl.,  1900,  xxii,  p.  546. 

*  Cf .  Hudleston's  map  cited  above. 

Oscillations  of  Land  in  Scandinavia.  213 

From  this  iu  tiiru  it  followed  tliat  the  Gulf  Stream  was  completely 
shut  off  from  the  Arctic  Ocean  and  forced  to  turn  south  and  west 
of  the  British  Isles,  and  thus  to  concentrate  its  heat-giving  energy  on 
central  Europe.  This  explains  the  mild  climate  found  in  a  portion 
of  Europe  daring  a  stage  of  Pre-Glacial  time. 

As  shown  above,  it  may  be  considered  as  a  fact  confirmed  by 
known  phenomena,  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  Quaternary  Period 
portions  of  the  North  American  continent  lay  at  least  1,000  metres, 
and  Scandinavia  still  more,  perhaps  2,000  metres,  higher  than  now. 
As  for  the  intervening  Greenland,  it  seems  probable  that  it  could 
not  be  unaffected  by  these  changes  of  level,  but  that  it  took  part 
in  them.* 

We  meet  here  the  legitimate  question  :  What  is  it  that  produced 
such  a  great  elevation  in  these  particular  parts  of  our  earth  ?  The 
answer  is  that  North  America,  Greenland,  and  Scandinavia,  not 
merely  taken  together,  but  each  separately,  are  the  largest  areas 
of  Archaean  rocks  in  the  world.-  The  remarkable  coincidence  of 
the  great  glaciated  districts  with  the  Archaean  districts  has  long 
since  been  commented  on  as  peculiar.  No  explanation,  however, 
has  been  given  of  this  fact.     What  it  really  means  I  shall  here  show. 

During  the  Silurian  Period  Scandinavia  was  partly  covered  by 
the  sea,  as  clearly  proved  by  the  numerous  patches  of  Silurian  rock. 
Possibly  the  same  was  the  case  during  a  part  of  the  Devonian 
Period.  But  before  the  close  of  that  period  Scandinavia  rose  above 
the  water,  and  probably  went  on  rising  right  up  to  the  Quaternary 
Period.  At  all  events  the  Archaean  area  of  Scandinavia  never  again 
sank  beneath  the  sea,  as  clearly  demonstrated  by  the  absence  of 
younger  marine  formations  from  within  its  boundaries.  Examination 
of  a  geological  map  of  Europe  shows  that  the  shore  of  the  later 
Palgeozoic,  and  still  more  that  of  the  Mesozoic,  sea  moved  eastwards 
further  and  further  away  from  Scandinavia,  which  seems  to  imply 
that,  during  the  long  ages  that  elapsed  after  the  Silurian  (or  Devonian) 
Period,  Scandinavia  continually  rose,  and  involved  in  its  rise  a  part 
of  the  surrounding  area. 

The  course  of  events  on  the  North  American  continent  was 
precisely  the  same.  Here  the  shore  of  the  later  Palasozoic  and 
Mesozoic  sea  moved  southwards  ever  further  and  further  from  the 
rising  Archaean  area  of  the  north. 

On  what  can  this  harmony  of  events  have  depended  ? 

If  so  late  as  the  Quaternary  Period  the  crust  of  the  earth  was 
found  to  yield  to  the  pressure  of  the  land-ice,  still  more  must  it 
have  yielded  to  burdens  during  the  earlier  stages  of  the  earth's 
development.  That  this  was  actually  the  case  is  shown  in  Scandinavia 
itself  by  numerous  instances  from  Cambro-Silurian  times.  For 
some  years  it  has  been  well  known  that  faults,  often  accompanied 

'  During  my  jomney  to  Greenland  iu  1880  I  saw  from  the  sea  snutli  ol  Ivigtut 
supposed  beaches  in  a  situation  exposed  to  the  sea  at  a  jri'eat  height  on  the  mountain 
slopes.  Time,  however,  did  not  permit  me  to  examine  them.  Numerous  similar 
observations  are  mentioned  in  "•  Meddelclser  om  Griinland." 

2  See  Berg-haus'  "  Physikalischer  Atlas,"  Maps  7/8,  9,  and  13  ;  Gotha,  1892. 

214  Dr.  N.  0.  Hoist— The  Glacial  Period  and 

by  breccia-formation,  may  be  observed  ia  Scandinavia  at  many  points 
on  the  boundary-line  between  the  Archgean  and  Cambro-Siluriaa 
deposits,  as  on  Bornholm,  in  Scania,  on  Lake  Vetter,  in  Ostrogothia, 
Nerike,  Dalecarlia,  Gestrikland,  Jemtland,  on  the  Christiania  fjord, 
on  the  Kola  peninsula,  and  other  places.^  Even  the  quite  insignificant 
occurrence  of  Silurian  at  Humlenas  in  the  province  of  Kalmar  can 
show  a  similar  fault  with  accompanying  breccia-formation.  For 
my  part  I  do  not  think  that  any  explanation  of  these  phenomena 
will  ever  be  found  more  satisfactory  than  that  the  earth's  crust, 
which  during  the  Cambro-Silurian  periods  was  much  thinner  than 
now,  yielded  beneath  the  weight  of  the  Cambro-Silurian  sediments. 
If  such  were  the  conditions,  we  can  also  understand  the  immense 
thickness  which  the  Palasozoic  rocks  occasionally  attain,  and  which 
may  have  arisen  by  the  gradual  sinking  of  the  sea-floor  in  proportion 
as  the  formation  of  sediment  proceeded.^ 

But  if  sedimentation  tends  to  depress  the  earth's  crust,  and 
actually  has  depressed  it  in  certain  places,  then  to  such  a  sinking 
there  must  have  corresponded  elevation  in  another  place  ^ ;  and  it 
is  precisely  this  elevation  above  all  that  has  affected  the  Archaaan 
areas,  and  particularly  the  greater  ones  —  those  that  could,  so  to 
speak,  move  independently — because  these  areas  have  not  merely 
formed  the  thinnest  parts  of  the  crust,  but  have  lacked  the 
strengthening  influence  of  the  stratified  deposits. 

This,  then,  seems  to  have  been  the  way  in  which  elevation  of  the 
Scandinavian  and  North  American  Archsean  areas  was  brought 
about  and  carried  on,  until  at  the  beginning  of  the  Glacial  Period 
they  had  reached  such  a  height  that  each  formed  the  centre  for  an 

If  the  conception  put  forward  in  the  preceding  pages  is  the  right 
one,  it  follows  that  the  phenomena  which  accompany  the  appearance 
of  an  ice-sheet  involve  such  radical  and  manifold  changes  within 
the  glaciated  area  that  an  Ice  Age  cannot,  so  to  say,  come  and  go 
unmarked,  but  must  leave  the  most  obvious  traces  behind  it. 
Therefore  it  is  that  the  idea  here  propounded  is  utterly  opposed  to 
the  interglacialist  view,  and  therefore  it  has  been  attacked  by 
champions  of  the  latter.^  The  chief  objection  raised  by  them  to  the 
present  explanation  of  the  Ice  Age  is  the  following. 

Granted,  they  say,  that  this  might  be  quite  a  satisfactory 
explanation  of  the  Scandinavian,- Greenland,  and  North  American 
ice-sheets,  still  it  is  not  enough  to  explain  the  former  small  glaciated 
areas  in  the  Pyrenees,  the  Alps,  the  Caucasus,  and  so  forth.      To 

^  See  "  Generalregister"  to  vols,  vi-x  of  Geol.  Foren.  Stockholm  Forhaudl.,  p.  34. 

A  fault  in  Jemtland  is  described  by  A.  Hogbom  in  his  paper,  "  Om  forkastnings- 
Dreccior  vid  den  Jemtlandska  sUurformationens  ostra  grans"  :  Geol.  Foren.  Stock- 
holm Forhandl.,  1886,  viii,  p.  352. 

The  Palaeozoic  faults  on  the  Kola  peninsula  have  been  described  by  "W.  Ramsay, 
Fennia  xvi,  No.  1,  pp.  2  and  xv ;  No.  4,  pp.  7  and  11. 

^  The  same  views  were  expressed  by  James  Hall  in  the  "Palaeontology  of  New 
York,"  iii,  pp.  69  et  sqq. ;  Albany,  1859. 

3  Cf.  J.  Hall,  op.  cit.,  p.  95. 

"  J.  Geikie:   "The  Great  Ice  Age,"  3rd  ed.,  p.  792  ;  London,  1894. 

Oscillations  of  Land  in  Scandinavia.  215 

this,  however,  it  may  be  replied  that  these  smaller  peripheral  glacial 
areas  wex-e  perhaps  directly  due  to  the  general  sinking  of  temperature 
produced  by  the  North  European  ice-sheet  during  its  maximum 

That  such  a  fall  in  temperature  really  took  place  may  be  considered 
as  proved  by  the  fact  that  so  boreal  an  animal  as  the  reindeer, 
during  a  part  of  the  Glacial  Period,  had  a  wide  distribution  in 
southern  Europe.  And,  as  regards  the  cause  of  the  smaller  peripheral 
glaciated  districts,  it  may  once  more  be  recalled  that  if  a  mountain 
chain  be  sufficiently  raised,  no  matter  by  what  cause,  a  glaciated 
area  may  be  produced  when  and  where  you  please. 

But  there  is  another  objection,  which,  at  first  glance,  seems  more 
weighty.  Besides  the  oscillations  of  Glacial  age,  there  have  in 
Sweden  also  been  some  of  Post-Glacial  age,  partly  during  the  Ancylus 
period,  partly  during  that  of  Litorina.  Now,  if  the  pressure  of  the 
land-ice  and  the  removal  of  that  pressure  afibrd  a  valid  explanation 
of  the  former — and  it  can  hardly  be  denied  that  such  is  the  case — 
still  it  seems  quite  impossible  that  they  can  explain  the  latter. 
Surely  the  ice-sheet  cannot  produce  oscillations  of  level  some  ten 
thousands  of  years  after  its  disappearance.  So  no  doubt  it  seems  ; 
and  yet  this  is  exactly  what  the  ice  has  done. 

Nowadays  it  is  well  known  that  the  Glacial  and  Post-Glacial  areas 
of  depression  almost  entirely  coincide.  Not  only  do  the  zero  curves 
on  the  periphery  of  these  areas  follow  the  same  course,  but  the 
maxima  or  centres  themselves  are  on  the  whole  the  same.^  It  is 
only  the  amount  of  the  depression  that  was  different,  the  Glacial 
sinking  reaching  280  metres,  the  Ancylus  sinking  exceeding  200 
metres  (?),  and  that  of  the  Litorina  period  being  about  100  metres.^ 

The  conformity  now  demonstrated  between  the  Glacial  and 
Post-Glacial  changes  of  level  points  to  a  common  cause.  This  has 
long  since  been  perceived,  and  A.  G.  Hcigbom,  who  remarked  the 
fact,  expressed  it  as  follows  :  "  The  same  factors  have  governed  the 
oscillations  of  the  land  continuously  from  the  Ice  Age  to  the  present 
day."^  But  what  can  the  common  cause  or  common  factor  have 
been  ?  To  this  I  reply  :  Nothing  else  than  the  removal  of  the 
ice-pressure.  When  this  ceased  the  Scandinavian  area  of  depression 
was  set  in  a  swinging  motion,  like  a  pendulum  set  free.  This  area, 
depressed  somewhat  lower  than  the  highest  Glacial  coastline,  rises 
for  the  first  time  as  the  land-ice  disappears.  This  is  the  late  Glacial 
elevation.  It  sinks  afresh  in  the  Ancylus  period,  and  during  this 
depression  the  highest  Ancylus  beach  is  formed.^  But  again  the 
area  rises,  and  finally  sinks  for  the  third  time  to  the  level  marked 

^  Gerard  De  Geer  :  "  Om  Skandinaviens  geografiska  utveckling,"  2.  Kartor, 
pis.  4,  5,  and  6  ;  Stockliolm,  1896. 

^  The  arithmetical  progression  from  100  to  200  and  280  is  not  regular.  May  not 
this  indicate  that  the  last  figure  is  too  low,  and  that  the  Glacial  depression  was 
greater  than  is  shown  by  the  highest  Glacial  marine  coastline  ? 

'  "  Om  hogsta  marina  griinsen  i  uorra  Sverige"  :  Geol.  Foren.  Stockholm 
Forhandl.,  1896,  xviii.     See  p.  487. 

*  There  is  no  reference  here  to  the  undulatory  motion  of  the  land-oscillations,  but 
only  to  their  final  result. 

216  :E.  D.  Wellhum—Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Grit. 

by  the  highest  Litorina  beach.  The  elevation  consequent  on  that 
is  still  going  on.*  And  it  is  not  too  rash  to  predict  that  these 
oscillations  will  continue  until  the  ever- weakening  effect  of  the 
impulse  given  by  the  land-ice  is  neutralized  by  the  other  terrestrial 
factors  that  produce  land-oscillations.- 

From  the  foregoing  pages  it  appears  that  "  the  Post-Glacial  geology 
of  the  Baltic  Sea  and  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia"  stand  in  the  closest 
relation  to  their  Glacial  geology.  Therefore  I  have  been  unable  to 
make  the  former  clear  without  at  the  same  time  throwing  some 
li2:ht  on  the  latter. 

VI. — On    the    Fish    Fauna    of    the    Millstone    Grits   of 

Great   Britain. 

By  Edgar  D.  Wellburn,  L.R.C.P.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.I.P.H.,  etc. 


ON  June  10th,  1898,  whilst  on  an  excursion  with  the  Yorkshire 
Geological  and  Polytechnic  Society,  I  found  three  specimens  of 
fish  remains  in  the  Millstone  Grits  at  Summit  in  Lancashire. 
Subsequently,  on  several  occasions,  I  again  visited  the  district 
and  succeeded  in  collecting  a  large  number  of  fish  remains,  and  on 
these,  together  with  a  few  other  specimens  which  had  been  found 
in  these  rocks  at  rare  intervals,  I  have  based  the  following  paper. 
General  Eemarks. 
Brief  Description  of  the  Millstone  Grit  Bocks. 

The  Millstone  Grit  rocks  may  be  naturally  grouped  into  three 
divisions,  viz. :  (1)  the  Kough  Eock  at  the  top;  (2)  the  Kinder  or 
Pebble  Grits  at  the  base  ;  with  (3)  between  them  the  Middle  Grits, 
which  are  composed  of  thick  beds  of  shales  alternating  with  bands 
of  grit  rock.  The  Middle  Grits  may  again  be  subdivided  into  four 
groups,  viz.,  A,  B,  C,  and  D  beds,  A  being  the  uppermost. 

The  great  Pennine  Anticline,  between  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire, 
is  mostly  composed  of  these  rocks,  and  on  the  Lancashire  side, 
south-west  of  Walsden,  at  the  head  of  the  Calder  Valley,  there  are 
on  the  south  side  several  splendid  exposures  of  these  rocks ;  in 
one  quarry  near  Summit,  Lancashire,  there  is  a  very  good  section  of 
the  D  beds  of  the  Middle  Grits,  and  in  the  shales  near  the  base  there 
are  a  number  of  nodular  masses  composed  of  impure  limestone ; 
it  is  from  these  nodules  that  I  have  collected  the  majority  of  the  fish 

The  nodules  are  of  peculiar  conformation,  and  vary  in  size, 
many  being  24:  inches  in  length,  18  in  width,  and  9  or  10  inches 

*  Each  successive  swing  was  naturally  not  only  less  extensive  but  shorter  than  the 
preceding.  From  this  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  Litorina  depression  prevailed 
a  shorter  time  than  the  Ancylus  depression. 

^  Here,  of  course,  it  is  only  Scandinavia  that  is  alluded  to.  But  the  same  remarks 
are  largely  applicable  also  to  North  America,  although  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the 
North  American  ice-sheet,  being  much  larger  than  that  of  Scandinavia,  melted  later 
than  it.  In  that  case  the  Post-Glacial  epoch  must  have  been  shorter  in  North 
America  than  in  Europe.  Herein  may  lie  the  reason  why  many  North  American 
geologists,  in  their  estimates  of  Post-Gflacial  time,  have  arrived  in  harmony  at  such 
low  figures  as  7,000  to  10,000  years — a  far  shorter  time  than  that  in  which  the 
Post-Glacial  deposits  of  Scandinavia  were  formed. 

E.  D.  Wellbnrn—Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Grit.  217 

iu  depth.  At  the  base  of  the  nodules  there  is  a  layer  of  cone-in- 
oone,  two  to  three  inches  in  thickness,  at  the  top  three  to  four 
inches  of  hard  dense  limestone,  which  breaks  with  a  conchoidal 
fracture,  whilst  between  these  the  stone  is  more  impure,  there  being 
a  certain  admixture  of  arenaceous  matter,  and  here  the  rock  will 
split  into  lamiuas  of  from  a  third  to  half  an  inch  in  thickness.  The 
majority  of  the  fish  remains  were  found  on  these  slabs,  but  others,  in 
a  more  fragmentary  condition,  occur  in  the  upper  layers  of  the  nodules. 

That  the  nodules  were  foi'med  under  marine  conditions  is  proved 
by  the  fact  that  mixed  among  the  fish  remains  are  shells  of 
Goniatites,  Orthoceras,  Avicidopecten,  Posidonomya,  etc.  In  some  rare 
instances  plants  are  found,  but  only  in  a  very  fragmentary  and 
eroded  condition,  and  in  the  upper  portions  of  the  nodules 
I  have  in  rare  instances  found  corals  and  crinoids.  These  taken 
together  point  to  the  fact  that  the  fish-bearing  nodules  were  formed 
under  estuarine  conditions. 

I  have  found  similar  nodules  at  Wads  worth  Moor,  Yorkshire, 
where  the  late  Captain  Aitken  ^  collected  his  fish  remains,  and  feel 
certain  that  his  specimens  were  obtained  from  the  same  horizon  as 
the  one  at  Summit. 

Fish  remains  have  also  been  found  in  the  D  Shales  of  the  Middle 
Grits  at  the  following  localities  in  Yorkshire,  viz.,  Eccup,  near 
Leeds  ;  Boulder  Clough,  Sowerby,  and  Kilne  House  Wood, 
Luddenden,  both  near  Halifax ;  and  the  late  Mr.  James  Spencer, 
of  Halifax,  mentions-  Elonicliihys  Aitkeni,  Traq.,  as  occurring  in 
the  Rough  Rock  and  the  B  and  C  beds  of  the  Middle  Grits,  but 
unfortunately  he  gives  no  localities. 

The  collection  is  of  great  interest,  both  from  a  geological  and 
a  zoological  point  of  view — both  as  largely  increasing  our  knowledge 
of  a  fish  fauna  in  a  group  of  rocks  whose  yield  of  fossil  fish  has 
hitherto  been  extremely  limited,  and  zoologically  in  the  fact  that 
one  genus  and  several  species  are  new  to  science,  whilst  others  are 
placed  on  record  as  obtained  from  these  rocks  for  the  first  time. 

Concerning  the  appended  list  of  genera  and  species  the  following 
facts  stand  out  as  worthy  of  special  mention  (in  addition  to  those 
mentioned  above),  viz.  :  (1)  the  occurrence  of  the  genus  CUmatius, 
a  fish  that  has  hitherto  occurred  only  in  the  Lower  Old  Red 
Sandstones  of  Forfarshire;  (2)  the  appearance  in  the  Millstone 
Grits  of  the  genera  Orodiis,  Psepliodus,  Pristodus,  etc.,  for  the 
first  time;  and  (3)  the  occurrence  of  the  peculiarly  interesting 
Ichthyodorulites,  for  which  I  have  felt  compelled  to  institute  the 
new  genus  Euctenodopsis. 

Remarks    on    the    Fisu    Remains. 


Genus    CLADODUS,    A-ussiz,    1843. 

Cladodus  mirabilis,  Agassiz,  1843. 

The  late  Mr.  Aitken,-^  of  Bacup,  found  teeth  of  this  genus  iu  the 

'  Trans.  Mantliester  Gcol.  Soc,  vol.  xiii,  p.  36. 

»  Proc.  Yorks.  Geol.  and  Polyt.  Soc,  vol.  xiii,  pt.  4. 

3  Aitken,  op.  cit. 

218  E.  D.  Weill iirn— Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Grit. 

D  Shales  of  the  Middle  Grits  at  Wadsworth  Moor,  Yorkshire,  and 
there  is  also  a  tooth  in  the  Woodwardian  Museum,  Cambridge,^ 
which  shows  the  characters  of  the  above  species.  It  is  from  the 
same  locality  and  horizon. 


Geuiis  PEISTODUS,  Davis  {ex  Agassiz  MS.),  1883. 

Pristodus  falcatus,  Davis,  1883. 

I  have  found  one  tooth  of  this  species. 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 


Geuus    PSEPHODUS,    Agassiz,    1862. 

Psephodus,  sp.  nov. 

Among  the  fish  remains  from  Summit  there  is  a  series  of  three 
lower  (?)  dental  plates  of  Psephodus,  having  the  following  characters, 
viz. : — The  plates  increase  in  size  from  before  backwards,  and 
have  the  following  measurements  :  anterior  plate,  anterior  posterior 
measurement  0-0008 m.,  transverse  0-0015 m.;  median  plate,  anterior 
posterior  0-001  m.,  transverse  0-002  m. ;  posterior  plate,  anterior 
posterior  0-001  m.,  transverse  0-0025  m.  The  margins,  where 
the  teeth  are  in  juxtaposition,  are  nearly  straight,  the  anterior 
one  being  very  slightly  convex,  whilst  the  posterior  one  is  very 
slightly  concave ;  the  posterior  margin  is  greater  in  transverse 
measurement  than  the  anterior ;  the  outer  margin  is  straight,  the 
inner  one  gently  curved  throughout  its  length.  The  crown  is  gently 
arched  from  side  to  side,  and  the  anterior  external  angle  being 
somewhat  inrolled  gives  a  slight  obliquity  to  the  coronal  ridge. 
The  crown  is  covered  with  a  dense  layer  of  ganoine.  The  base 
is  thick  and  strong,  and  conforms  with  the  surface  of  the  crown. 

Kemarks. — Although  the  plates  are  so  small,  their  characters  are 
so  well  displayed  that  I  am  not  inclined  to  consider  them  as  plates 
of  a  young  fish,  but  rather,  from  the  fact  that  they  do  not  appear 
to  agree  with  the  specific  diagnosis  of  any  of  the  known  species  of 
Psephodus,  I  am  inclined  to  treat  them  as  dental  plates  of  a  new 
species,  for  which,  on  account  of  their  small  size,  1  propose  the 
specific  designation  minuta. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  at  Summit. 
Genus  PCECILODUS,  McCoy  {ex  Agassiz),  1855,  amend.  A.  S.  W.,  1889. 
Poecilodus  Jonesii,  McCoy,  1855. 

Anterior  half  of  a  dental  plate. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 


Genus  OEODUS,  Agassiz,  1838. 
Orodus  elongatus,  Davis,  1883. 
I  have  found  two  well-marked  teeth  of  this  species,  one  being 
almost  identical  with  0.  elongatus,  the  other  with  O.  angustus,  as 
figured  by  the  late  Mr.  J.  W.  Davis,  F.G.S.'' 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 
1  Wellburn,  op.  cit.         ^  Traus.  Roy.  Dublin  Soc,  vol.  i,  sect.  2,  pi.  li,  figs.  1,  4„ 

E.  D.  Wellbuni—Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Grit.  219 

Insertse  sedis. 

I  here  place  certain  small  Helodont  teeth,  one  of  which  shows 
the  characters  of  H.  triangularis,  Davis,  the  latter,  from  its 
unsymmetrical  form,  being  in  all  probability  a  medio-lateral,  and 
others,  which  are  smaller  and  more  symmetrical,  being  symphyseal 
teeth  of  Psephodus  or  some  other  Cochliodont  fish. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 

Family   ACANTHODID^. 

Geuus  ACANTHODES,   Agassiz,    1833. 

Acanthodes  Wardi,  Egerton,  1866. 

The  best  specimen  of  this  fish  I  found  at  Summit ;    it  shows  the 

fish  from  a  point  a  short  distance  in  front  of  the  pectoral  fin  spine, 

the  basal  portions  of  which  are  preserved,  to  a  point  some  little 

distance  behind  the  dorsal  fin  spine,  which  is  also  present.      The 

body  is  clothed  with  small  quadrate  scales,  which  I  am  unable  to 

distinguish  from  those  of  A.  Wardi,  Egert.,  of  the  Coal-measures. 

Besides  the  above,  fragments  of  the  fish  and  many  fin  spines  have 

been  found. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit ;  Boulder  Clougb, 
Sowerby  ;  and  Kilne  House  Wood,  Luddenden,  near  Halifax. 

Acanthodes,  sp.  nov. 

One  fragment  of  Acanthodes  shows  characters  which  appear  to 
entitle  it  to  specific  distinction,  viz.,  the  scales  are  very  minute  and 
are  ornamented  with  fine  diagonal  striae.  The  only  species  of 
Acanthodes  that  I  know  of  with  this  scale  sculpture  is  A.  concinnus, 
Whiteaves,^  but  in  this  species  the  fin  spines  are  ornamented  with 
"  about  four  longitudinal  grooves,"  whereas  the  present  species  shows 
no  evidence  of  these  grooves,  the  fin  spines  being  broad  and  elongated, 
having  a  single  groove  and  ridge  running  parallel  with  the  anterior 
border.  On  account  of  the  scale  sculpture  I  propose  the  specific 
designation  striatus  for  this  species. 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 
Genus  CLIMATIUS,   Agassiz,    1845. 
Climatius,  sp.  ? 

Among  the  fish  remains  there  is  the  crushed  body  of  a  small 
Acanthodian  fish  of  about  50  mm.  in  length.  The  body,  which 
appears  to  have  been  of  a  somev/hat  slender  form,  is  covered  with 
smooth  quadrate  scales,  and  there  are  several  fin  spines  present, 
some  being  detached  from  the  body  but  lying  in  close  proximity  to 
it ;  the  majority  of  the  spines  are  broad  and  robust,  the  others  being 
straight,  narrower,  and  more  elongated,  and  all  are  ornamented 
with  coarse  longitudinal  ridges,  and  in  general  characters  agree  very 
closely  with  those  of  the  Old  Ked  Sandstone  fish  Climatius  as 
figured  and  described  by  Sir  P.  Egerton  -  and  Mr.  J.  Powrie,  F.G.S.' 
I  have  also  carefully  examined  the  specimens  of  Climatius  in  the 

1  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Canada,  vol.  vi,  sect.  4. 

^  Mem.  Geol.  Survey,  Fig.  and  descrip.  organic  remains,  dec.  x. 

^  Trans.  Edin.  Geol."  Soc,  vol.  i. 

220  E.  D.  Wellhum—Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Qrlt. 

British  Museum  (Natural  History),  Cromwell  Eoad,  and  consider 
that  the  above  fish  should  be  placed  in  this  genus,  but  the  crushed 
condition  of  the  specimen  renders  the  determination  of  its  species  one 
of  some  difficulty,  and  it  appears  best  to  leave  this  question  for  later 
consideration.  Besides  the  above  I  have  found  several  detached 
spines  of  this  fish. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 


Genus  ACONDYLACANTHUS,  St.  John  &  Worthen,  1875. 

Acondylacanthus,  sp.  ? 

One  spine  shows  the  characters  of  this  genus,  but  it  has  suffered 
so  much  from  erosion  that  the  determination  of  its  species  is  im- 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 
Genus  EUCTENODOPSIS,  gen.  nov. 
Euctenodopsis,  sp.  nov. 

This  Ichtbyodorulite  is  most  interesting,  and  at  first  sight  might 
easily  be  mistaken  for  a  specimen  of  the  nearly  allied  genus  Euctenhis, 
Traquair.  However,  on  a  more  careful  examination  it  is  at  once 
apparent  that  it  does  not  agree  with  the  generic  diagnosis  of  that 
genus,  as  given  by  Dr.  Traquair,'  in  the  important  fact  that,  instead 
of  having  one  end  (the  proximal)  "  rounded  or  blunt,"  this  portion 
is  drawn  out  and  forms  a  more  or  less  spatulate  extension,  which 
appeal's  to  differ  somewhat  in  texture  from  that  of  the  other  portions 
of  the  spine.  I  say  spine,  as  I  consider  the  Ichthyolite  was  a  dermal 
defence  of  some  Selachian  fish,  and  that  the  spatulate  extension  was 
its  point  of  insertion.  Although  the  spine  is  narrower  and  more 
elongated  than  any  of  the  known  species  of  ^udenius,  still,  in  many 
of  its  characters  it  agrees  with  that  genus,  being  more  or  less 
elliptical  in  form,  laterally  compressed,  one  side  concave,  the  other 
convex,  one  extremity  produced  into  a  long  narrow  extension,  and 
the  convex  margin  is  divided  in  a  comb-like  manner  into  a  number 
of  closely  arranged  blunt-pointed  denticles. 

On  account  of  the  above-mentioned  peculiarity — the  spatulate 
extension  at  its  proximal  end — I  venture  to  place  the  spine  in 
a  new  genus,  for  which  I  propose  the  name  Euctenodopsis,  and, 
on  account  of  its  narrow  and  elongated  form,  with  the  specific 
designation  tenuis. 

Form,  and  loo. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 


Genus  STREPSODUS,  Young,   1866. 
Strepsodus  sulcidens,  Hancock  &  Atthey,  1870-1871. 
Mr.  Aitken  -  in  his  paper  refers  to  a  tooth  of  Strepsodus.    Mr.  John 
Ward,  F.G.S.,  of  Longton,  who  has  seen  the  specimen,  informs  me 
that  it  was  a  tooth  of  Strepsodus  sulcidens. 

Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Wadsworth  Moor. 

I  Geol.  Mag.,  Dec.  II,  Vol.  VIII  (1881),  pp.  36-334. 
-  Aitken,  op.  cit. 

JS.  D.  WeUburn—Flsh  Fauna  of  3lilktone  Grit.  221 

Genus  CffiLACANTHUS,  Agassiz,  1836,  1843. 
Ccelacanthus,  sp.  nov.  ? 
I  have  found  several  slabs  showing  the  remains  of  this  genus,  but 
am  as  yet  not  eatisfied  as  to  the  species,  although  I  am  inclined  to 
regard  it  as  new  on  account  of  the  proportion  and  ornamentation  of 
the  head  bones  and  the  sculpture  of  the  scales. 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 

Genus   EHADINICHTHYS,   Traquair,    1877. 
Rhadinichthys,  sp.  nov. 
Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 

Rhadinichthys,  sp.  nov.  ? 
Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 
Genus   ELONICHTHYS,  Giebel,   1848. 

Elonichthys   Aitkeni,  Traq.,    1886. 

Several  fragments  of  this  fish  have  been  found. 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits  at  Summit  and  Wadsworth 
Moor  '  (also  B  and  C  Shales,  Middle  Grits  and  the  Rough  Kook,^ 
localities  not  given-). 

Elonichthys,  sp.  nov. 
Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 

Elonichthys,  sp.  nov. 
Form,  and  loc. :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits,  Summit. 
Genus  ACROLEPIS,  Agassiz,  1833,  1844. 

Acrolepis  Hopkinsi,  McCoy,  1855. 

Several  fine  fragmentary  specimens  of  this  fish  have  been  found, 
notably  those  from  Wadsworth  Moor  which  are  in  the  Woodwardian 
Museum,  Cambridge.^ 

Form,  and  loc.  :  D  Shales,  Middle  Grits  at  Summit  and 
Wadsworth  Moor. 

Note. — I  intend  to  fully  describe  the  new  species  later.  Mr.  John 
Ward,  F.G.S.,  who  has  seen  the  specimens,  quite  agrees  with  me 
that  they  are  undoubtedly  new.  The  fish  remains,  with  two  or  three 
exceptions,  are  in  the  author's  cabinets. 

Before  concluding,  I  must  acknowledge,  with  warmest  thanks, 
the  great  obligation  I  am  under  to  Dr.  Henry  Woodward,  F.R.S., 
etc.,  and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward,  F.L.S.,  for  allowing  me  to 
examine  and  compare  my  fish  remains  with  those  in  the  Natural 
History  Museum,  Cromwell  Eoad.  I  am  also  indebted  to  Mr.  John 
Ward,  F.G.S.,  for  giving  me  his  opinion  on  the  new  Paleeoniscida?. 

'  Wellburn,  op.  cit. 
^  Spencer,  op.  cit. 
'  Welll)nrn.  op.  cit. 


E.  D.  Wellhurn — Fish  Fauna  of  Millstone  Grit. 

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H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level.  223 

VII. — Oscillations  in  the  Sea-level.      (Part  II.) 
By  H.  W.  Pearson. 

[Continued  from  the  April  Number,  p.  174.) 

IN  the  "Gallery  of  Nature,"  Milner,  p.  388,  it  is  stated  that  Brighton 
(then  a  mere  village)  in  the  time  of  Elizabeth  (1558-1603) 
"  stood  upon  a  site  where  the  sea  now  rolls,  and  where  the  chain 
pier  stands."  We  might  infer  from  this  statement  that  at  Brighton 
the  sea,  since  the  date  mentioned,  had  been  elevated  over  the  land. 
We  cannot  draw  this  conclusion,  however,  with  certainty,  for  the 
reasons  following  : — 

During  the  last  century  the  eastern  coast  of  England  has  been 
constantly  eaten  into  by  the  sea  ;  churches,  farms,  and  towers  have 
been  repeatedly  devoured  by  the  waves.  In  this  district,  however, 
we  know  that  these  results  have  not  been  caused  by  a  rise  in  surface- 
level  of  the  waters ;  we  know  that  erosion  by  waves  and  currents 
has  been  the  sole  cause  for  these  changes.  It  is  absurd,  therefore, 
to  assume  that  Brighton  during  the  last  few  centuries  has  alone 
suifered  submergence,  while  all  Britain  has  elsewhere  undergone 
continual  upheaval.  Erosion,  then,  is  the  more  probable  explanation 
of  this  item,  and  it  should  not  be  held  as  evidence  conflicting  with 
our  curve. 

A  conflicting  point  of  great  weight  was  found  in  Kear-Admiral 
Smyth's  statement,  that  the  city  of  Spina  in  the  time  of  Scylax  "was 
about  2^  miles  from  the  sea,  but  in  less  than  600  years  afterwards 
Strabo  describes  it  as  being  90  stadia,  or  more  than  eleven  miles 
inland"  (  "The  Mediterranean,"  p.  47).  This  remark  of  Smyth's 
as  to  the  600  years  disturbed  me.  Our  period  of  vibration  in  the 
sea-level  at  the  time  mentioned  being  perhaps  a  little  short  of 
600  years,  there  should  have  been  little  change  in  Spina's  distance 
from  the  sea  at  these  two  epochs.  On  investigation,  however, 
I  found  that  there  were  two  or  three  writers  of  this  name.  I  believe, 
therefore,  that  Smyth,  like  others  before  him,  has  confounded  Scylax 
of  Caryanda,  author  of  the  "  Periplus  "  of  the  Mediterranean,  who 
wrote  about  335  b.c.  (Miiller)  or  352  b.c.  (Niebuhr),  with  the  Scylax 
of  Caryanda  who  explored  the  Indus  for  Darius  perhaps  515  b.c. 
or  a  little  later.     (See  Encyc.  Brit.,  article  Scylax.) 

It  seems  much  more  probable  to  me  that  information  as  to  the 
shores  of  the  Adriatic  should  be  found  in  the  writings  of  the  later 
Scylax.  I  therefore,  with  some  reason,  assume  that  in  this  case 
I  am  more  liable  to  find  tioo  points  confirmatory  of  my  curve,  one  for 
the  low-water  period  of  the  epoch  of  Strabo,  the  other  for  the  high- 
water  period  of  the  later  Scylax,  rather  than  a  conflicting  point  as  it 
first  appeai'ed  on  my  diagram. 

Strabo  (Bk.  xvi,  chap.  4)  describes  the  harbour  of  Charmothas, 
Arabia,  as,  at  the  time  of  his  writing,  apparently  in  actual  existence. 
Under  the  same  chapter,  however,  in  a  footnote  from  Gossellin,  we 
learn  that  to-day,  from  the  accumulation  of  soil,  this  harbour  "ia 
more  than  a  day's  journey  into  the  interior  of  the  country."  This 
recession  should  not  be ;    no  retreat  of  the  sea,  if  our  curve  is  to 

224  H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-leveL 

be   depended   on,  can   have   occurred   since   Strabo's   epoch  ;    this 
observation  is  therefore  strongly  antagonistic  to  our  conclusions. 

On  investigation,  however,  we  learn  that  Strabo's  statement  was 
borrowed  from  Artemidorus,  who  in  his  turn  had  borrowed  his 
description  from  Agatharchides,  146  b.c.  or  thereabouts.  We  find, 
when  we  thas  trace  the  observation  to  its  true  date,  that  all 
antagonism  disappears.  Agatharchides  flourished  during  a  high- 
water  period,  consequently  the  observed  recession  could  have  been 
foretold  from  inspection  of  our  curve.  (For  discussion  of  true  date 
see  Hamilton  &  Falconer's  Translation,  vol.  iii,  p.  192.) 

On  theoretical  grounds,  the  high  sea-level  culminating  about 
250  B.C.  may,  it  seems  to  me,  need  moving  back  perhaps  50  years 
or  thereabouts.  This  idea  is  derived  from  the  following 
considerations  : — 

Our  curve  was  drawn  centrally  through  the  preponderating 
masses  of  dots.  Now  it  is  well  known  that  information  such  as 
used  in  this  work  becomes  more  and  more  scanty  as  we  go 
backwards  in  time.  "While  much  evidence  exists  between  the  era 
of  Augustus  and  the  fall  of  the  Western  Eoman  Empire,  476  a.d.,  it 
rapidly  decreases  as  we  pass  to  the  period  before  Ceesar ;  therefore 
we  must  anticipate  that  our  observed  points  will  be  relatively 
greater  in  number  for  the  same  high  sea-level  as  we  approach  from 
250  B.C.  to  the  time  of  Christ.  The  greater  accumulation  of  points  at 
the  later  dates  consequently  has  probably  brought  the  apex  of  our 
curve  somewhat  too  near  the  time  of  the  Christian  era.  How 
much  distortion  there  may  be  found  properly  due  to  this  cause 
further  research  may  determine. 

If  later  investigation  shall  allow  this  shifting  of  the  curve  at  the 
epoch  250  b.c.  as  suggested,  it  would  result  in  removing  one  more 
of  our  conflicting  points,  viz.,  that  Eeclus  tells  us  at  the  time  of  the 
Battle  of  Thermopylae  (480  b.c.)  the  sea  extended  much  farther  into 
the  land  than  now.  The  curve  as  now  drawn  would  show  the  sea- 
level  at  the  date  of  battle  but  slightly  above  the  present  level ;  this 
shifting  would  increase  considerably  its  altitude  at  that  time,  and 
would  better  satisfy  the  requirements  of  Eeclus'  remark. 

A  few  points  I  am  at  present  unable  to  explain  :  for  instance, 
Eear-Admiral  Smyth  calls  attention  to  certain  ruins  near  the  town 
of  Nettuno,  It&Xj,  "among  which  is  Astura,  so  long  the  residence 
of  Cicero  ....  now  submerged  in  the  sea."  During 
the  later  years  of  Cicero  (106-43  b.c.)  our  curve  calls  for  a  sea- 
level  differing  but  little  from  the  present  ;  a  sea-level,  in  fact, 
slightly  above  that  of  to-day.  No  building,  therefore,  then  above 
the  sea  should  be  now  submerged.  I  feel  confident  that  some 
mistake  will  eventually  be  found  in  this  statement.  It  may  be  that 
the  residence  of  Cicero  has  not  been  identified  with  certaintj^  or  it 
may  be  that  near  Nettuno,  as  in  the  Bay  of  Baie,  foundations  of 
buildings  were  erected  in  the  sea.  At  present  however,  this  item 
remains  a  conflicting  point,  antagonistic  to  our  curve.  I  have  no 
item  more  unyielding  than  this. 

The  above  analysis  illustrates  the  character  of  the  examination 
bestowed  on  the  testimonj^  found  conflicting  with  our  curve.     Lack 

//.  JV.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level.  225 

of  space  now  forbids  a  more  complete  discussion  of  this  matter. 
I  will  say,  however,  that  a  recent  canvass  of  over  500  manuscript 
pages  of  these  changes  demonstrates  that  the  conflicting  points, 
accumulated  dui*ing  many  years  of  continuous  search,  aggregate 
less  than  4  per  cent,  of  the  total  items  collected.  Over  96 
per  cent,  of  the  testimony  thus  indiscriminately  gathered  falls  into 
harmony  with  our  curve. 

It  seems  impossible  that  the  extraordinary  method  appearing  in 
this  matter  should  be  the  result  of  chance.  I  believe  firmly, 
therefore,  that  law  prevails  in  these  oscillations,  and  while  this 
preliminary  examination  has  as  yet  not  been  carried  far  enough  to 
establish  this  position,  it  renders  our  conclusions  most  extremely 
probable.  When  this  work  was  first  entered  upon,  some  years 
since,  I  had  little  knowledge  of  what  had  been  done  before  me 
in  this  field,  but  I  soon  found  much  had  been  done ;  I  am  far  from 
being  the  first  to  announce  "  Oscillations  in  the  Sea-level." 

Aristotle  (384r-322  b.o.)  had  suspected  them  ;  he  stated  "  there  is 
reason  for  thinking  that  these  changes  (replacement  of  land  by  sea, 
and  vice  versa)  take  place  according  to  a  certain  system  and  within 
a  certain  period  "  ("  Principles,"  9th  ed.,  p.  13). 

Ovid  (43  B.C.  to  17  a.d.)  makes  Pythagoras  say  in  regard  to  these 
oscillations — 

' '  The  face  of  places  and  theii-  forms  decay. 
And  that  is  solid  earth  which  once  was  sea  : 
Seas  in  their  turn  retreating  from  the  shore, 
Make  solid  land  what  Ocean  was  before  ; 

Antissa,  Pharos,  Tyre,  in  seas  were  pent, 
Once  isles,  but  now  increase  the  continent ; 
While  the  Leucadian  coast,  mainland  before, 
By  rushing-  seas  is  severed  from  the  shore. 
And  men  once  walked  where  ships  at  anchor  ride, 
Till  Neptune  overlooked  the  narrow  way. 
And  in  disdain  poured  in  the  conquering  sea. ' ' 

Metamorphoses,  Bk.  xv,  Addison's  translation. 

Ovid  has  introduced  here  events  that  occurred  both  before  and  after 
the  time  of  Pythagoras  (580  to  500  B.C.).  They  all  bear  testimony, 
however,  to  the  ever  recurring  nature  of  these  changes,  even  if  the 
dates  and  order  of  sequence  be  somewhat  confused.  (See  "  Popular 
History  of  Science,"  Routledge,  p.  17.) 

Sir  Charles  Lyell  ("Principles,"  9th  ed.,  p.  526)  had  reason  to 
suspect  that  the  upheaval  of  Scandinavia,  in  progress  at  the  time  of 
his  visit,  had  not  always  proceeded  at  the  same  rate,  and  that  the 
motion  had  not  been  invariabl}'  in  one  direction.  He  says  :  •'  Some 
phenomena  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Stockholm  appear  to  me  only 
explicable  on  the  supposition  of  the  alternate  rising  and  sinking  of 
the  ground  since  the  country  was  inhabited  by  man." 

Mr.  R,  C.  M.  Bi'own  has  many  times  denied  the  doctrine  of 
upheaval  of  coastline,  and  has  urged  change  in  absolute  level  of  the 
sea  from  astronomical  causes  in  its  stead. ^ 

^  See  Report  Brit.  Assoc.  Ad.  of  Science,  1890,  p.  824  ;  Quart.  Jouru.  Geol.  Soc, 
vol.  xlvi,  p.  122. 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.    VIII. — NO.  V.  15 

226  H.   W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea- level. 

Elisee  Keclus,  in  "■  The  Earth,"  discusses  at  length  the  subject  of 
upheaval  and  depression  of  shore-lines ;  he  shows  the  inability  of 
sedimentary  processes  to  account  for  the  shoaling  of  the  manj'^  ports 
of  the  Mediterranean  or  for  the  advance  of  the  coastlines  into  the 
sea ;  he  says,  in  these  matters,  "  we  are  witnessing  the  phenomena 
of  a  vertical  impulse  "  (p.  539)  ;  on  p.  542  he  shows  us  that  this 
"vertical  impulse"  has  affected  the  entire  area  of  the  Mediterranean. 
The  study  of  these  and  similar  upheavals  and  depressions  over  the 
earth's  surface  leads  him  to  say :  "  As  will  be  understood,  these 
regular  oscillations  must  take  place  in  obedience  to  some  general 
law  still  unknown,  although  none  the  less  certain"  (p.  566).  We 
should  note  here,  that  while  Eeclus  attributes  these  oscillations  to 
movements  of  the  earth,  it  is  impossible  to  distinguish  such  move- 
ments from  oscillations  in  the  sea ;  the  effect  is  precisely  the  same  in 
either  case. 

Eear- Admiral  Smyth  seems  to  have  noted  these  oscillations ;  he 
says  :  "  It  is  decided,  upon  what  appears  to  be  sound  geological 
evidence,  that  a  great  part  of  the  Italian  coast  has  been  raised  and 
lowered  several  times  within  the  historical  era,  while  the  sea  must 
have  ever  maintained  the  same  level  "  ("  The  Mediterranean,"  p.  26). 
Again,  on  p.  28  he  remarks  :  "  It  may  be  safely  concluded  that  the 
land  has  risen  and  fallen  twice  since  the  Christian  era,  and  that  each 
movement  of  elevation  and  subsidence  has  exceeded  twenty  feet." 

Mr.  P.  Thompson,  in  "The  History  and  Antiquities  of  Boston," 
has  shown  that  these  same  oscillations  have  occurred  in  the  Fens 
of  England.  On  p.  660  he  demonstrates  these  changes  to  have  been 
four  in  number  since  the  time  of  the  Eomans,  two  periods  of 
inundation  and  two  periods  of  desiccation,  but  these  periods  can 
also  be  determined  from  the  data  attached  to  this  argument.  Oscil- 
lations of  the  sea-level  have  also  been  shown  at  Rye  and  Winchelsea 
and  in  the  English  Channel,  the  latter  by  Peacock. 

We  note,  however,  that  the  above  quoted  authorities,  although 
they  may  have  suspected  these  oscillations,  or  may  have  actually 
observed  them,  have  in  no  case  attempted  to  control  these  phenomena 
by  law  or  to  determine  the  period  of  vibration.  Law  has  been 
invoked,  however,  by  Professor  Edouard  Suess  and  by  Trautschold, 
a  quotation  from  this  latter  having  been  previously  given,  notwith- 
standing the  "  resolve  to  abandon  the  doctrine  of  secular  oscillations 
of  continents "  (Suess),  and  the  adoption  of  periodic  fluctuations 
in  the  sea-level  in  its  stead.  I  am  unable  to  learn  that  either  of 
these  gentlemen  has  attempted  determination  of  the  period  of  these 
fluctuations ;  it  may  therefore  be  possible  that  this  is  the  first  attempt 
in  that  direction. 

I  show  no  curve  beyond  the  400  b.c.  At  this  period  the  evidence 
which  I  have  been  able  to  collect  becomes  uncertain,  scanty,  and 
the  dates  are  very  unreliable.  The  Deucalion  Deluge,  the  Ogygian 
Deluge,  and  the  Deluge  of  Samothrace  furnish  data  at  remote  and 
uncertain  periods.  The  books  of  Homer,  of  Herodotus,  of  Strabo, 
of  Ptolemy,  and  other  ancient  writers  supply  much  information  as 
to  the  position  of  the  sea-level  at  periods  from  600  to  200  b.c.  ;  but 

H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea- level.  227 

owing  to  the  habit  those  ancient  writers  had  of  describing  a  city, 
an  island,  a  peninsula,  or  a  coastline,  in  terms  borrowed  from  some 
still  earlier  and  more  ancient  writer,  it  is  at  times  difficult  to  decide 
as  to  the  particular  date  at  which  the  description  fitted  the  object. 
The  testimony  so  gathered  is  therefore  very  conflicting  in  its  nature. 
I  believe,  however,  that  we  find  the  amplitude  of  vertical  vibration 
in  the  waters  very  much  greater  at  that  time  than  now,  and  the 
period  of  change  reduced  to  approximately  500  years. 

It  is  evident  from  what  has  gone  before,  that  these  oscillations 
have  had  a  continuous  existence  for  the  last  2,400  years.  In  this 
paper  we  show  strong  evidence  that  these  phenomena  are  periodic 
in  their  nature,  and  that  the  periods  of  these  cj'cles  are  capable  of 
determination.  It  is  also  equally  evident,  if  any  weight  be  attached 
to  the  facts  herein  contained,  that  the  whole  Northern  Hemisphere, 
during  the  last  three  hundred  yeai's  or  more,  has  been  subject  to 
a  general  protrusion  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 

Let  us  now  consider,  then,  those  evidences  as  to  present  opposing 
movement  of  shore-lines,  to  which  attention  has  already  been  called  ; 
movements  which,  at  the  first  glance,  seem  to  deny  so  positively  the 
conclusions  arrived  at  in  the  above  discussion. 

To  open  the  argument,  I  believe  we  maintain  with  great  reason, 
that  if  there  has  been  a  bodily  transference  during  the  last  few- 
centuries,  of  a  considerable  mass  of  water  from  the  Northera 
Hemisphere  to  the  Southern,  there  must,  coexistent  with  this 
transfer,  have  been  considerable  decrease  in  flow  of  currents  running 
to  the  north  and  corresponding  increase  in  currents  flowing  to 
the  south. 

Now  then,  acting  on  this  assumption,  the  writer  has  shown  in  the 
American  Geologist  for  September,  1899,  perfect  explanation  of 
these  apparently  irregular  motions ;  it  is  there  shown  that  every 
observed  case  of  apparent  upheaval  on  one  coastline,  coincident 
with  subsidence  on  another,  can  be  foretold  by  law,  and  that  instead 
of  these  motions  being  opposed  to  our  conclusions,  they  are  directly 
confirmatory  thereof,  it  being  demonstrated  that  no  transference 
of  water  to  the  south  can  occur,  no  upheaval  of  northern  shore- 
lines can  take  place,  without  a  corresponding  subsidence  on 
the  coasts  of  the  Eastern  United  States,  and  also  on  the  borders  of 
such  other  lands  as  may  be  similarly  situated  with  regard  to  ocean 

I  will  not  repeat  all  the  arguments  used  in  the  paper  mentioned, 
but  will  state  that  our  case  hinges  on  the  law  of  deformation  of 
ocean  levels  by  ocean  currents,  as  announced  by  William  Ferrell 
in  Science,  vol.  vii.  He  says :  "  In  the  North  Atlantic  the 
tendency  to  flow  eastward  in  the  middle  and  higher  latitudes  causes 
a  slight  heaping  up  of  the  water  and  a  rise  of  surface-level  adjacent 
to  the  coast  of  Europe,  and  a  drawing  away  of  the  water  and 
a  depression  of  sea-level  along  the  north-east  coast  of  the  United 
States  "  (p.  76). 

I  have  shown  in  the  periodical  mentioned  that  the  waters 
around    the   British  Islands   and   on    the   Scandinavian  shores  are 

228  H.  W.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  8ea-leveL 

now  piled,  certainly  5  feet  (probably  much  more  on  the  coast  of 
Norway)  above  the  normal  sea-level,  and  that  the  waters  on  the 
eastern  borders  of  the  United  States  are  correspondingly  depressed. 
It  follows,  therefore,  that  if  the  Gulf  Stream — that  force  which 
now  restrains  these  waters  in  their  abnormal  position — should 
decrease  but  slightly  in  its  velocity  of  flow,  the  oceanic  surface 
would  at  once  return  in  part  towards  that  normal  level  from  which 
it  has  so  long  been  displaced ;  in  other  words,  Scandinavia  and  the 
British  Islands  would  enter  upon  an  epoch  of  upheaval,  the  Carolinas 
upon  an  epoch  of  subsidence.  As  we  have  seen,  the  recent 
protrusions  of  the  north  renders  certain  the  fact  that  a  great  mass  of 
water  has  recently  disappeared  from  this  hemisphere.  The  transfer 
of  this  water  to  the  south  makes  an  equal  certainty  that  coexistent 
with  this  removal  all  northward-flowing  currents  should  have 
decreased  in  their  velocity  of  flow.  It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  these 
opposing  motions  in  our  coastlines  can  be  reduced  to  law  and  fore- 
told in  advance  of  observation. 

We  have  reason  to  believe,  however,  that  apparent  upheavals  or 
subsidences  due  to  this  cause  will  not  at  any  time  exceed  2  or 
3  feet  in  vertical  movement,  and  they  consequently  are  of  little 
importance  as  compared  with  the  periodic  vibrations  of  15  or 
20  feet  over  an  entire  hemisphere,  as  developed  herein.  It  never- 
theless is  important  to  detect  and  eliminate  these  minor  deviations, 
when  we  attempt  the  general  investigation  of  coastal  phenomena. 
For  a  more  extended,  although  still  very  incomplete  discussion  of 
Ferrell's  law,  see  the  American  Geologist,  as  before  mentioned. 

To  those  who  may  wish  to  extend  these  investigations — and  there 
is  great  opportunity  for  such  extension — caution  should  be  given 
against  relying  on  evidence  as  to  changes  in  the  sea-level  gathered 
near  the  mouths  of  great  rivers  or  in  deltas  like  those  of  the 
Nile,  Po,  Ehone,  Ehine,  Mississippi,  etc.  These  delta  deposits, 
independent  of  their  surroundings,  are  all  sinking  bodily  and 
spreading  laterally,  probably  under  some  process  of  disgorgement 
of  their  water  contents.  Much  evidence  of  this  exists.  For  instance, 
E.  L.  Corthell  says  the  delta  lands  of  the  Mississippi  are  unstable 
both  in  vertical  and  lateral  direction.  A  base-line  700  feet  long, 
measured  accurately,  had  in  five  years  increased  to  712  feet.  He 
also  quotes  from  the  Eeport  of  the  Mississippi  Eiver  Commission : 
"  Discrepancies  in  beach  marks,  level  heights,  and  gauges  could 
only  be  satisfactorily  accounted  for  by  the  most  plausible  explanation 
of  the  subsidence  of  the  whole  delta"  {The  National  Geographic 
Magazine,  December,  1897). 

M.  Staring  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  gradual  depression  of  Holland 
"  is  caused  only  by  the  subsidence  of  the  alluvial  ground,  the  weight 
of  the  dikes,  and  the  incessant  passage  of  men  and  cattle  "  (Eeclus, 
"The  Earth,"  p.  547).  Eegions  like  the  northern  and  western 
shores  of  the  Adriatic,  the  deltas  of  the  Ehine  and  Mississippi,  should 
thus  be  avoided  ;  the  settlement  of  these  delta  deposits  may  obliterate 
the  vertical  movements  in  the  aqueous  envelope ;  observations  made 
along  rock-bound  coasts  only  are  trustworthy. 

H.  W.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level.  229 

From  the  argument  preceding  it  seems  necessary  to  conclude  that 
in  future  study  of  changes  in  the  sea-level,  discrimination  must  be 
made  between  each  of  the  following  causes  which  may  afifect  the 
oceanic  borders  : — 

1.  Seek  the  effects  produced  by  the  bodily  transference  of  water 
to  and  from  the  north.  These  effects  would  be  universal  over  one 

2.  Detect  and  eliminate  those  movements  of  upheaval  or  depression 
due  to  variation  in  flow  of  ocean  currents  under  the  operation  of 
Ferrell's  law.     These  effects  are  local  in  their  nature. 

3.  In  deltas  always  suspect  that  any  observed  depression  may  be 
due  to  a  local  settlement  of  the  ground  itself,  and  such  data  there 
gathered  may  offer  no  ai'gument  whatever  in  favour  of  a  rise  in 

4.  Eliminate  and  avoid  such  coastal  changes  as  may  be  due  to 
erosion  of  or  accretion  to  shore-lines.  In  changes  of  this,  century 
it  is  generally  possible  to  do  this.  In  changes  that  have  occurred 
in  the  distant  past  we  shall  find  much  difficulty  in  separating  results 
of  erosion  or  accretion  from  the  resvdts  of  real  changes  in  the 
sea-level ;  therefore,  in  past  ages  much  testimony  will  be  found 
accumulated  against  us  which  our  analysis  will  be  unable  to 
remove;  we  must  expect,  therefore,  many  of  these  apparently  con- 
flicting observations. 

All  the  evidence  discussed  hereto  has  been  gathered  on  the  oceanic 
coastlines ;  these  data,  as  we  have  seen,  testify  to  a  recent  protrusion 
of  the  entire  north,  and  that  this  apparent  vertical  uplift  increased 
in  amount  as  we  approach  the  Pole.  There  is,  however,  evidence  in 
existence,  obtained  from  our  great  lakes,  showing  the  same  law  of 
greater  elevation  to  the  north. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  in  the  18th  Ann.  Rep.  U.S.  Geol.  Survey,  has 
shown  that  this  excess  of  upheaval  at  the  north  has  been  of  recent 
occurrence  in  the  interior  of  our  continent.  A  careful  study  of  the 
changes  in  level,  during  the  present  century,  of  the  great  lakes 
enables  Gilbert  to  announce  this  law  with  certainty. 

With  his  inferential  conclusions,  however,  in  the  light  of  our  own 
investigation,  we  are  compelled  to  differ.  He  assumes  that  this 
motion  may  continue  indefinitely,  and  if  so,  he  shows  that  in  time 
the  Niagara  Falls  will  cease  their  flow,  and  a  new  outlet  to  the  great 
lakes  be  placed  in  operation  near  Chicago.  This  result  he  reaches 
in  a  logical  manner  from  the  data  examined,  but  we  see  that 
observations  reaching  back  only  one  hundred  years  allow  us  to  form 
no  certain  opinion  as  to  whether  this  motion  will  continue  indefinitely 
in  one  direction  or  otherwise.  Then,  again,  the  area  of  investigation 
was  of  too  limited  a  character.  We  have  seen  that  to  obtain  the  law 
governing  these  risings  and  sinkings,  it  is  not  only  necessary  to 
study  at  one  field  of  view  the  entire  Northern  Hemisphere,  but  to 
carry  our  investigation  back  in  time  as  far  as  history  or  tradition 
will  allow.  When  this  has  been  done  we  see  that  Gilbert's  observed 
changes  in  level  fall  into  line  as  part  and  parcel  of  one  complete 
system,  universal  over  the  entire  North. 

230  H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea- level. 

The  cause  of  this  vibration  in  the  oceanic  waters  it  is  perhaps 
too  early  to  discuss  ;  the  oscillations  should  be  first  established 
beyond  a  doubt.  The  most  plausible  explanation  of  the  last  change, 
however,  would  seem  to  rest  in  a  possible  continued  increase  in 
growth  of  the  South  Polar  glaciers  during  the  last  few  centuries, 
contemporaneous  with  that  general  decrease  in  nearly  all  Northern 
glaciers  which,  during  the  period  mentioned,  we  know  has  been 
in  progress.  If  we  could  invoke  this  cause,  the  recent  oscillation 
mentioned  would  then  be  a  physical  necessity. 

The  question  raised  in  this  paper,  and  the  results  that  have  been 
reached,  seem  to  warrant  certain  inferences  or  speculations,  some  of 
which  are  liable  to  be  of  considerable  importance.  For  instance, 
we  know  that  the  landing-place  of  Columbus  in  1492  has  not  yet 
been  positively  identified  ;  our  curve,  however,  calls  for  a  sea-level 
at  that  latitude  and  date  some  12  to  15  feet  higher  than  at  present. 
The  question  is,  would  the  change  in  topography  produced  by 
assuming  the  sea  at  its  old  position  aid  us  in  reaching  final  con- 
clusion in  this  matter. 

As  our  curve  for  time  past  indicates  a  series  of  regular  cycles 
with  a  period  of  about  640  years,  must  we  not  suppose  our  oceanic 
surface  will  again  rise  in  the  north,  reaching  its  maximum  shortly 
after  the  j^ear  2100.  If  we  prolong  this  curve,  as  suggested,  we 
must  conclude  that  disaster,  as  repeatedly  in  the  past,  will  soon 
again  overwhelm  our  northern  coastlines.  Are  such  cities  as  London, 
Liverpool,  and  New  York  ready  for  this  advancing  sea,  and  has 
such  a  region  as  Holland  any  too  much  time  for  preparation  ? 

If  our  curve  has  been  correctly  mapped  out,  we  must  suppose  that 
the  northerly  movement  of  the  waters  has  already  commenced,  or 
that  it  will  very  shortly  appear.  This  movement  should  be  first 
shown  in  cessation  of  the  so-called  upheaval  of  Scandinavia,  and 
that  region  should  soon  appear  to  be  undergoing  subsidence,  while, 
at  the  same  time,  the  coasts  of  New  Jersey  will  enter  an  epoch  of 
upheaval.  We  might,  with  great  propriety,  be  on  the  look  out  for 
these  changes. 

Lord  Kelvin  has  shown  us  how  one  inch  of  water  taken  from  the 
surface  of  the  sea,  and  piled  up  as  ice  at  the  Pole,  would  appreciably 
affect  the  rotation  of  the  earth ;  we  can  reasonablj'^  expect,  therefore, 
that  these  oscillations  to  and  fro  from  the  Poles  to  the  Equator 
of  15  or  20  feet,  as  our  arguments  and  facts  seem  to  require, 
should  have  considerable  efl"ect  in  altering  the  length  of  our  day. 
In  fact,  in  this  discussion  we  may,  and  probably  will,  find 
confirmation  of  Newcomb's  surmise,  that  the  hitherto  unexplainable 
irregularities  in  the  moon's  motions  may  be  due  to  slight  changes  in 
the  earth's  axial  rotation,  which  rotation  perhaps  •'  varies  from  time 
to  time  in  an  irregular  manner"  ("  Popular  Astronomy,"  p.  101). 

We  thus  see  that  there  are  reasons,  many  and  weighty,  inducing  us 
to  pursue  this  investigation  to  greater  extent.  Notwithstanding  the 
considerable  attention  given  to  the  subject  by  this  writer,  a  research 
involving  the  labour  of  many  years,  we  are  as  yet  merelj'  on  the 
threshold  of  the  inquiry.     Years  could  be  devoted  to  the  comparison 

Revieics — Prof.  V.  Amalitzl;)/ — The  Permian  of  Russia.     231 

of  ancient  and  modern  maps  and  charts.  A  lifetime  could  be 
expended  on  the  emerged  and  submerged  ruins  of  Ostia,  Carthage, 
Utica,  the  Piraeus,  Alexandria,  the  Bay  of  Baie,  Tyre.  Miletus,  and 
other  places  too  numerous  to  mention  on  the  ancient  elevated  or 
depressed  coastlines  of  the  Mediterranean.  This  task  is  far  beyond 
the  capacity  of  an  individual.  Law,  if  once  established  in  this 
matter,  is  of  universal  value  and  importance.  The  obscurity 
shrouding  these  emerged  and  submerged  cities  already  seems  less 
dark  than  before. 

I  earnestly  hope,  therefore,  that  some  scientific  body  will  under- 
take to  assist  in  extending  this  investigation,  thus  enabling  us  to 
shed  still  additional  light  on  these  perplexing  oscillations  of  the  sea 
which  we  have  been  considering. 

{To  be  concluded  in  our  next  Xtimher.) 

IR  E  "V  I  IE]  "W  S. 


LES  Depots  Permiens  de  la  Eussie  du  Nord,  Par  V. 
Amalitzky.  pp.  25,  with  5  plates.  Expose  fait  a  I'Assemblee 
generale  de  la  Soc.  Imp.  des  naturalistes  a  St.-Petersbourg,  le 
28  Decembre,  1899.      (Varsovie,  1900.) 

PROFESSOR  AMALITZKY  has  for  several  years  past  been 
engaged  in  working  out  the  structure  and  history  of  the  fresh- 
water deposits  of  Palaeozoic  age  in  the  northern  governments  of 
Russia,  and  in  the  present  paper  he  treats  of  some  general  questions 
in  connection  with  his  investigations,  and  further  gives  a  detailed 
account  of  some  explorations  in  Upper  Permian  strata  on  the  banks 
of  the  Little  Dwina,  which  resulted  in  the  discovery  of  numerous 
plant  and  animal  remains  of  considerable  interest  from  their  close 
relationship  to  the  flora  and  fauna  of  the  Gondwana  beds  in  India, 
the  Karoo  formation  of  South  Africa,  and  deposits  of  corresponding 
age  in  Brazil  and  Australia.  Some  of  the  reptilian  remains,  more- 
over, present  a  close  resemblance  to  the  genera  Elginia  and  Gordonia 
described  bj'  E.  T.  Newton  from  the  Elgin  sandstones. 

The  lowest  fresh-water  deposits  recognized  by  Amalitzky  in  the 
north  of  Russia  are  red  sandstones  situated  at  Mount  Andoma,  on 
the  east  side  of  Lake  Onega,  and,  more  to  the  east,  at  Ouet-Pinega 
on  the  Northern  Dwina.  They  contain  lamellibranch  shells  be- 
longing to  the  genera  Garhonicola,  Anthracosia,  Archanodonta,  etc., 
allied  to  the  Anthracosida3  of  the  Russian  Carboniferous.  The  beds 
are  of  Upper  Devonian  age,  and  may  be  ranked  with  the  Old  Red 
Sandstones  of  Scotland,  the  Kiltorkan  beds  of  Ireland,  and  the 
Catskill  formation  of  North  America.  The  only  fresh-water  for- 
mations of  Carboniferous  age  observed  by  the  author  are  the  sands 
of  the  Lower  Carboniferous  at  Mount  Patrova,  in  the  Vytcgra 
district,  which  have  been  shown  by  Inostrantsev  to  be  a  direct 
continuation  of  the  Devonian  sandstones  of  Andoma.  Higher  up 
in  the  geological  series,  exclusively  marine  deposits  persist  from 
the  Lower  Carboniferous  sandstones  with  Productus  gigantens  in  the 

232     Revieivs — Prof.  V.  Amalitzkij — The  Perniian  of  Russia. 

Vytegra  district,  and  more  eastward  at  Oust-Pinega,  from  the  Upper 
Carboniferous  sandstones  with  Spirifer  mosquensis,  quite  up  to  the 
Lower  Permian.  The  Upper  Permian  deposits,  on  the  other  hand, 
shown  on  the  banks  of  the  lower  part  of  the  Eiver  Suchona  and  near 
the  sources  of  the  Little  Dwina  of  the  North,  exhibit  fresh-water 
characters  very  distinctly.  They  consist  of  nearly  horizontal  beds 
of  marl  with  intercalated  lenticular  beds  of  sand  and  sandstone. 
For  a  long  period  these  strata  were  considered  to  be  destitute  of 
fossils ;  none  were  found  in  them  by  Murchison,  Keyserling,  or 
Blasius,  and  they  were  neglected  by  the  Eussian  geologists  by  I'eason 
of  this  reputed  barrenness. 

Professor  Amalitzky  has,  however,  demonstrated  by  his  dis- 
coveries during  the  last  four  years  that  they  contain  a  rich  flora 
and  fauna.  Amongst  the  plant  remains  the  most  important  are 
Glossopteris  indica,  Gl.  angustifolia,  (Vertebraria),  Gangamopteris 
major,  Teeniopteris,  Sphenopteris,  Callipteris  cf.  conferta,  besides 
Equisetum,  Noeggerathiopsis,  and  forms  like  Scliizoneurece.  The  fauna 
includes  a  number  of  fresh-water  lamellibranchs,  such  as  Palceomutela 
Inostranzewi,  P.  Keyserlingi,  P.  Verneuili,  Oligodon,  Palceanodonta, 
Carbonicola,  Anthracosia,  and  Anthracomya ;  the  Crustacean  genera 
JEsiheria  and  Cypris,  together  with  the  plates  and  impressions  of 
Ganoid  fishes.  Land  animals  are  represented  by  amphibians 
approaching  Melanerpeton  and  Pachygonia,  and  a  great  number  of 
bones  of  theromorphian  reptiles  belonging  to  the  Pareiasauria  and 
Dicynodontia,  amongst  which  Pareiasaurus  and  Dicynodoii  have  been 
definitely  determined,  and  also  forms  much  resembling  Elginia  and 

These  discoveries  have  confirmed  the  opinion  of  the  author  as 
to  the  great  resemblance  from  a  palaeontological  point  of  view 
between  the  Continental  fresh-water  deposits  of  the  Upper  Permian 
and  those  of  the  Lower  Karoo  in  Africa  and  of  the  Gondwana  in 
India;  and  he  is  led  to  conclude  that  the  compact  continent  which 
during  the  Permian  epoch  occupied  Central  and  Southern  Africa, 
India,  Australia,  Argentina,  and  part  of  Brazil  extended  as  far  as 
European  Eussia,  and  that  the  bond  which  united  these  countries 
was  on  one  side  the  Continental  deposits  of  Gondwana  in  India  and 
on  the  other  the  similar  deposits  of  Kouzniets  in  Siberia. 

The  explorations  carried  out  by  Professor  Amalitzky  during  the 
Summer  of  1899,  which  form  the  main  subject  of  the  present  paper, 
were  made  at  a  spot  on  the  steep  right  bank  of  the  Upper  Dwina  of 
the  North,  near  the  village  of  Kotlas.  For  a  distance  of  about  ten 
kilometres  the  river  bank  is  composed  of  Permian  rocks  overlain  by 
beds  of  clay,  with  pebbles  and  large  stones  of  crystalline  rocks,  of 
Post-Pliocene  age.  The  Permian  beds  have  a  slight  dip  towards 
the  N.N.E. ;  they  consist  of  a  series  of  marls  of  very  uniform 
characters ;  tlie  upper  beds  are  of  a  reddish-brown  tint,  with 
a  persistent  layer  of  white  siliceo  -  dolomitic  limestone,  in  some 
places  becoming  dolomitic,  in  others  a  siliceous  rock.  These  upper 
marls  rest  with  a  slight  discordance  on  lower  marls,  also  reddish- 
brown,  and  not  dissimilar  to  the  upper  beds ;  a  thickness  of  about 

Mecieirs — Prof.  V.  AinaHtzhi/ — TJte  Perniiaii  of  Rimnia,     233 

24  metres  is  exposed  of  the  lower  marls.  At  the  line  where  these 
marls  come  together  there  is  a  series  of  remarkable  lenticular  beds 
of  sand  resting  in  trenches  eroded  in  the  lower  marls  and  uncon- 
formably  overlaid  by  the  upper  beds.  Five  of  these  lenticular  sand 
beds  are  shown  in  section  in  the  steep  river  banks  in  the  course 
of  the  ten  kilometres  referred  to.  The  particular  bed  excavated, 
situated  at  Sokolki,  was  12  metres  thick  in  its  central  portion, 
with  a  breadth  of  about  80  metres.  The  bed  contained  numerous 
irregular,  hard  concretions  of  sand  cemented  with  carbonate  of  lime, 
and  in  some  of  these  the  reptilian  bones  were  enclosed.  As  the 
bank  at  this  place  was  vertical,  and  the  higher  portions  were  even 
ovex'hanging,  the  only  practicable  means  of  reaching  the  fossiliferous 
lenticular  deposit  was  by  digging  down  to  it  from  above,  which 
entailed  much  labour,  and  a  further  difficulty  was  caused  by  the  fact 
that  at  a  depth  of  1"5  m.  from  the  surface  the  soil,  at  the  end  of 
June,  was  frozen  hard,  and  the  small  fissures  and  cavities  were  lined 
with  ice. 

JMany  impressions  of  large  fronds  of  Glossopteris  were  met  with 
in  some  of  the  sandy  beds,  but  they  broke  up  on  exposure  to  the 
air.  The  position  of  the  fossiliferous  concretions  was  discovered  only 
after  several  fruitless  trials.  Some  of  the  concretions  contained  only 
single  detached  bones,  whilst  in  others  all  the  bones  of  a  complete 
skeleton  were  embedded  together.  Three  skeletons  were  found  side 
by  side,  evidently  of  predatory  animals  allied  to  Rhopalodon ;  under 
these  were  three,  more  or  less  imperfect,  skeletons  of  Pai'eiasauria. 
The  sand  surrounding  the  concretions  was  carefully  removed  and 
the  surface  of  each  layer  exposed  so  that  the  positions  of  the 
skeletons  could  be  distinguished.  They  appeared  to  be  all  extended 
in  the  same  direction  as  if  they  had  been  carried  down  and  deposited 
in  the  bed  of  a  stream  heavily  charged  with  sediment.  The  skeletons 
in  the  central  portions  of  the  lenticular  deposit  were  heaped  together 
as  if  they  had  been  buried  up  with  silt  before  the  flesh  had 
decomposed,  whilst  those  nearer  the  margins  seem  to  have  been 
exposed  long  enough  for  decay  to  have  set  in,  so  that  the  bones 
became  detached. 

No  fewer  than  thirty-nine  groups  of  concretions  were  discovered ; 
about  twenty  of  these  contained  complete  or  imperfect  skeletons, 
whilst  in  the  others  the  bones  were  detached  and  commingled 
together.  These  concretions  have  not  as  yet  been  properly 
examined,  and  their  contents  are  but  partially  known.  Of  the 
remains  of  Amphibians,  there  are  skulls  and  other  bones  of  forms 
allied  to  Melanerpeton  and  Metopias. 

Both  in  numbers  and  importance  the  reptilian  remains  form  the 
chief  part  of  the  collection.  They  nearly  all  belong  to  the 
Theromorpha,  and  the  three  suborders,  Anomodontia,  Pareiasauria, 
and  Deuterosauria,  are  represented.  The  Pareiasauria  are  the  most 
abundant ;  amongst  them  are  some  small  forms  with  skulls  not  more 
than  30  centimetres  in  length,  whilst  others  are  4-5  metres  long 
with  skulls  1  m.  in  length  and  0-G6  m.  in  width.  Some  have  their 
beads  and  part  of  their  backs  covered  with  shield-shaped  plates,  like 

234      Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

the  Pai'eiasauria  from  the  Karoo  beds  ;  others  possess  horn-like 
projections  on  their  heads  like  the  Elginia  from  the  Triassic  deposits- 
of  Scotland.  All  are  characterized  by  the  good  preservation  of  their 
notched,  spatula-shaped  teeth.  The  Deuterosauria,  though  some- 
times 3  metres  in  length,  do  not  attain  the  proportions  of  the 
Pareiasauria.  Their  dental  apparatus  is  very  powerful  and  of 
a  distinctly  rapacious  type.  They  belong  to  JRhopalodon,  Fischer. 
The  Anomodontia  are  represented  by  small  forms  of  Dicynodon 
about  the  size  of  a  bear,  with  two  powerful  tusks  on  the  sides  of  the 
head.  Some  of  the  skulls  and  skeletons  discovered  probably  belong 
to  altogether  new  species  of  reptiles. 

The  only  invertebrates  mentioned  from  this  lenticular  deposit  are 
lamellibranch  shells  belonging  to  the  Anthracosidee,  whilst  the  plant 
remains,  though  numerous,  are  limited  to  forms  of  Glossopteris. 

The  plates  accompanying  the  paper  show  the  position  of  the 
lenticular  sandy  beds  in  the  cliffs  of  Permian  marls,  and  the  manner 
in  which  the  concretions  with  the  bones  embedded  in  them  occurred 
in  the  sands.  G.  J.  H. 

I^:H:F'OI^Ts    ^^istxd    zpiaociBiEiDiiNia-s. 

Geological  Society  of  London. 

I.  — March    6th,    1901. —  J.    J.    H.    Teall,  Esq.,   M.A.,  V.P.R.S., 
President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  ''Eecent  Geological  Changes  in  Northern  and  Central  Asia." 
By  Professor  George  Frederick  Wright,  F.G.S.A. 

The  present  paper  is  the  outcome  of  a  journey  made  by  the  author 
in  company  with  Mr.  Frederick  B.  Wright  in  1900-1901. 

In  North  America  an  area  of  about  4.000,000  square  miles  was 
brought  under  the  direct  influence  of  Glacial  ice  during  the  Glacial 
Epoch.  The  result  of  six  weeks  spent  in  Japan  was  to  show  that 
there  are  no  signs  of  general  glaciation  in  Nippon  or  Yesso.  Neither 
is  there  any  sign  of  glaciation  along  the  border  of  the  Mongolian 
Plateau,  where  the  general  elevation  is  5,000  feet,  but  the  whole 
region  is  covered  with  loess.  This  has  usually  accumulated  like 
immense  snow-drifts  on  the  south-eastern  or  lee-side  of  the 
mountains,  and  in  it  houses  and  villages  are  excavated.  In  the 
mountainous  region,  strata  of  gravel  and  pebbles  are  so  frequent 
in  the  loess,  that  it  is  necessary  to  invoke  both  wind  and  water  in 
order  to  explain  fully  the  origin  of  the  deposit.  At  the  present  time 
the  loess  in  the  interior  is  being  washed  away  by  streams  much 
faster  than  it  is  being  deposited  by  the  wind.  The  journey  across 
Manchuria  from  Port  Arthur  along  the  Lao-Ho  and  Sungari  rivers 
was  through  valleys  choked  with  alluvium,  and  there  was  no  evidence 
that  the  drainage  of  the  Amur  had  ever  been  reversed  by  ice,  like 
that  of  the  St.  Lawrence ;  nor  was  there  any  other  evidence  of 
glaciation.  The  lower  course  of  the  Amur  indicates  subsidence. 
Again,  there  are  no  signs  of  sclaciation  on  the  Vitim  Plateau. 

JReporf.-i  and  Proceedings — Geolcxjieal  Soeief//  of  London.       235 

Lake  Baikal  appears  to  be  of  recent  origin;  it  is  4,500  feet  deep, 
and  has  not  been  filled  by  the  great  quantities  of  sediment  brought 
down  by  the  Selenga  and  other  rivers.  Although  glaciers  could 
frequently  be  seen  on  the  mountains  which  border  the  Central 
Asiatic  Plateau  to  the  north-west,  there  was  no  evidence  that  the 
glaciers  had  ever  deployed  on  the  plain.  The  loess-region  of 
Turkestan,  and  indeed  the  whole  area  from  the  Sea  of  Aral  to  the 
Black  Sea,  appears  to  have  been  recently  elevated,  in  some  places  as 
much  as  3,000  feet.  Desiccation  took  place  at  the  same  time,  so  that 
the  larger  lakes  are  only  brackish  or  still  fresh.  Direct  evidence  of 
this  in  the  form  of  deposits  is  given.  The  author  thinks  it  likely 
that  the  absence  of  glaciation  in  Northern  Asia  may  have  been  due 
to  the  rainlessuess  of  the  region,  and  that  while  America  was 
elevated,  Asia  was  depressed  during  the  Glacial  Epoch. 

2.  "The  Hollow  Spherulites  of  the  Yellowstone  and  Great 
Britain."     By  John  Parkinson,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

A  recent  journey  to  the  National  Park  of  the  United  States, 
resulting  in  a  study  of  the  obsidians  and  rhyolites  in  the  field  and  at 
home,  suggested  a  direct  comparison  between  the  hollow  spherulites 
characteristic  of  these  rocks  and  those  of  the  rhyolites  of  Shropshire, 
Jersey,  and  elsewhere. 

The  first  part  of  the  paper  is  concerned  with  the  spherulites  of 
the  Yellowstone  region.  A  brief  description  is  given  (i)  of  the 
small  bluish-grey  solid  spherulites  common  in  the  obsidian  of 
Obsidian  Cliff,  and  (ii)  of  a  hollow  variety  in  which  radial  structure 
is  barely  discernible.  In  the  latter,  the  spherulitic  part  is  repre- 
sented bj'  a  whitish,  rather  crumbly  material  consisting  of  felspar, 
tridymite,  and  quartz. 

The  hollow  spherulites  proper  are  divided  into  two  groups — 
(i)  those  containing  cavities  without  definite  form,  and  (ii)  those  in 
which  the  cavities  are  related  to  the  shape  and  structure  of  the 
spherulite.  The  latter  include  the  well-known  lithoph3'see.  The 
manner  in  which  these  occur,  and  the  relation  of  the  cavities  to 
the  enclosing  spherulite,  are  described.  Attention  is  drawn  (a)  to  the 
porous  character  of  the  latter,  and  (6)  to  the  network  of  felspathic 
fibres,  studded  with  crystals  of  tridymite,  which  usually  distinguish 
the  spherulite  near  a  cavity. 

Hypotheses  framed  to  account  for  these  varying  structures  would 
take  one  of  two  directions  : — (i)  Hollow  spherulites  are  the  result 
of  some  property  of  the  original  magma,  or  (ii)  are  due  to  the 
decomposition  of  an  originally  solid  spherulite  by  heated  waters. 
Taking  the  second  alternative  first,  a  description  is  given  of  the 
effect  of  solfataric  action  on  the  rhyolites  of  the  Yellowstone  Canon. 
The  conclusion  reached  is  "  that  the  action  of  hot  waters  charged 
with  silica  may  be  to  remove  portions  of  the  rock,  or  to  permeate  it 
without  destroying  its  characteristic  structure  ;  that  we  obtain, 
however,  no  evidence  to  show  that  the  spherulites  are  most  easily 
attacked,  but  rather  the  reverse."  Explanation,  therefore,  is  most 
naturally  sought  in  some  property  of  the  original  magma,  and  that 
propounded  by  Professor  Iddings  appears  the  nearest  in  accord  with 

236      Reports  and  Proceedings — Geological  Society  of  London. 

facts.  Exception  is  taken  to  certain  physical  processes  postulated 
by  Professor  Iddings  in  a  recent  memoir,  but  with  his  earlier  work 
the  present  writer  is  substantially  in  agreement. 

In  the  second  part  of  the  paper  direct  comparison  is  drawn  between 
the  structures  exhibited  by  the  hollow  spherulites  from  Obsidian 
Cliff  and  those  of  examples  from  Shropshire,  Jersey,  and  other 
localities.  Attention  is  called  to  the  presence  in  the  latter  of 
quartzose  amygdaloids,  crescentic  in  shape,  and  having  a  relation  to 
the  edge  of  the  nodule.  Sometimes  a  series  of  such  are  found 
parallel  one  to  the  other,  not  infrequently  (at  Wrockwardine) 
becoming  more  or  less  completely  circular.  Projecting  into  such  an 
amygdaloid,  or  occupying  an  end,  we  find  in  many  instances  a 
network  of  felspathic  fibres  comparable  with  the  fibrous  structure 
which  characterizes  the  American  examples. 

A  description  is  given  of  a  series  of  rocks  from  Boulay  Bay,  once 
very  vesicular,  and  containing  the  remains  of  crystals — probably 
felspars — analogous  to  the  crystals  found  encrusting  the  cavities  of 
lithophysEe  from  Obsidian  Cliff.  Traces  of  a  mineral  which  resembles 
the  tridymite  from  the  latter  locality  are  described  from  Wrock- 

Taking  into  consideration  the  resemblances  between  the  hollow 
spherulites  of  the  Yellowstone  region  and  those  of  Great  Britain, 
the  conclusion  is  drawn  that  the  hypothesis  of  corrosion  is  as 
inapplicable  to  the  latter  as  to  the  former.  On  the  contrary,  the 
author  believes  that  the  cavities  of  the  spherulites  are  the  result  of 
the  hydrous  state  of  the  magma. 

II.— March  20, 1901.— J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Esq.,  M.A.,  V.P.R.S.,  President, 

in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  H.  B.  Woodward  called  attention  to  a  polished  slab  of 
Landscape  Marble,  or  Cotham  Stone,  from  the  Rhfetic  Beds  near 
Bristol,  which  had  kindly  been  lent  for  exhibition  by  Mr.  Frederick 
James,  Curator  of  the  Maidstone  Museum.  The  specimen  showed 
that  after  the  arborescent  markings  had  been  produced  in  the  soft 
mud,  some  irregular  and  partial  solidification  took  place  in  the 
upper  layers  of  the  deposit ;  and  then  during  contraction  a  kind  of 
-subsidence  occurred  of  the  upper  and  harder  portions  into  the 
lower  and  softer  materials.  This  subsidence  was  accompanied  by 
a  breaking  up  of  the  harder  portions,  suggesting  a  comparison  (in 
miniature)  with  '  broken  beds  '  and  even  crush-conglomerates.  The 
specimen  was  of  considerable  interest  as  illustrating  the  mechanical 
changes  produced  during  solidification. 

The  following  communications  were  read  : — 

1.  "  On  a  Remarkable  Volcanic  Vent  of  Tertiary  Age  in  the  Island 
of  Arran,  enclosing  Mesozoic  Fossiliferous  Rocks." 
(Communicated  by  permission  of  the  Director -General  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey.) 
Part  I. — "  On  the  Geological  Structure."    By  Benjamin  Neeve  Peach, 
Esq.,  F.R.S.,  L.  &  E.,  F.G.S.,  &  William  Gunu,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

The  rocks  which  form  the  subject  of  this  paper  cover  an  area  of 
a,bout  7  or  8  square  miles,  and  culminate  in  Ard  Bheinn  A'Chruach 

Reporta  and  Proceedings — Geological  Societij  of  London.       237 

and  Beiun  Bhreac.  They  are  in  contact  with  formations  ranging 
from  the  Lower  Old  Ked  Sandstone  to  the  Trias,  and  are  later  in 
date  even  than  the  important  faults  of  the  area.  They  are  made  up 
partly  of  fragmental  volcanic  materials,  and  partly  of  various 
intrusive  masses,  confined  within  an  almost  unbroken  ring  of 
intrusive  rocks.  In  addition  to  igneous  fragments,  the  clastic 
volcanic  rocks  contain  fragments  derived  from  the  surrounding 
formations  ;  and  also  masses  of  shale,  marl,  limestone,  and  sandstone 
belonging  to  formations  not  now  found  in  sitii  in  the  island.  One  of 
these  is  several  acres  in  extent,  contains  fossils,  and  is  in  part  of 
Ehjetic  age ;  a  second  is  a  fragment  of  Lias  ;  and  a  third  is  of 
limestone  and  chert  resembling  the  Antrim  Cretaceous  rocks,  and 
yielding  fossils.  The  absence  of  Oolitic  and  older  Cretaceous  seems 
to  indicate  a  resemblance  between  a  former  succession  in  Arran  and 
that  now  seen  in  Antrim.  If  these  fragments  fell  into  the  vent  from 
above,  the  igneous  rocks  must  be  of  Post-Cretaceous  age,  and  they 
give  an  impressive  picture  of  the  amount  of  denudation  which  has 
occurred  since  the  period  of  vulcanicity. 

Part  II.—"  PaljBontological  Notes."     By  E.  T.  Newton,  Esq.,  F.R.S., 

F.L.S.,  F.G.S. 

The  masses  of  Rba^tic  strata  yield  Avicula  contorta,  Pecten 
valoniensis,  Schizodiis  (Axiniis)  cloaciniis,  etc. ;  those  of  Lower  Lias, 
Gryphcea  arcuata.  Ammonites  angulatus,  and  new  species  of  Niiculana 
and  Tancredia,  which  are  figured  and  described.  Thin  slices  of  the 
Cretaceous  limestones  prove  tn  be  very  like  those  of  the  Antrim 
Chalk,  and  the  rocks  yield  determinable  Foraminifera,  Inocerami, 
Sponges,  and  Echinoderms. 

2.  "  On  the  character  of  the  Upper  Coal  -  measures  of  North 
Staffordshire,  Denbighshire,  South  Staffordshire,  and  Nottingham- 
shire ;  and  their  Relation  to  the  Productive  Series."  By  Walcot 
Gibson,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

(Conimuuicated  by  permission  of  the  Director  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey.) 

The  Upper  Coal-measures  of  North  Staffordshire  are  capable  of 
a  fourfold  subdivision,  the  groups  representing  a  definite  sequence 
of  red  and  grey  strata  : — 

4.  The  Keek  Series.     Eed  aud  purple  sandstones  and  marl  with  occasional  seams  of 

coal,  and  bands  of  entomostracun  limestone. 
3.  The  Newcastle-under-Lyme  Series.     Grey  sandstones  aud  shales,  with  four  tliiu 

seams  of  coal,  and  at  the  base  an  entoraostracan  limestone. 
2.  The  Etruria  Marl  Series.     Mottled  red-and-purple  marls  and  clays,  with  thin 

green  gi-its  ;  a  thin  coal  occurs  L50  yards  above  the  base. 
1 .  Black  Band  Series.     Grey  sandstones,  marls,  and  clays  ;  numerous  thin  seams  of 

coal  and  Blackband  ironstone  ;    one   of    many  thin   bands  of   limestone  is 

constant,  36  to  40  feet  above  the  base. 

Spirorbis-  and  entomostracan  limestones  attain  a  maximum  in  the 
Upper  Goal  -  measures,  but  are  not  unknown  in  the  productive 
measures  below.  Indeed,  the  two  sets  of  measures  are  closely  allied 
lithologically,  palaaontologically,  and  stratigraphically  in  this  region. 
The  chief  movements  are  pre-Triassic  and  post-Carboniferous. 

No  attempt  has  been  made  to  recognize  the  Black  Band  Series  in 

■238  Obituary— J.  Jlopicood  Blake,  F.G.S. 

the  Denbigbsliire,  South  Staffordshire,  and  Nottinghamshire  coal- 
fields, as  they  are  indistinguishable  from  the  productive  measures  in 
the  absence  of  Blackband  ironstones.  In  each  of  these  areas  there 
are  divisions  in  the  Upper  Coal-measures  which  correspond  with  the 
three  highest  divisions  in  North  Staffordshire,  and  in  all  cases, 
except  near  the  margin  of  the  basin,  where  overlap  occurs,  they  are 
underlain  by  ordinary  Coal-measui"es  with  coal-seams.  It  is  there- 
fore concluded  that  these  higher  Coal-measures  were  deposited  in  one 
basin  which  included  all  the  four  areas  dealt  with,  and  that  whatever 
movements  occurred  were  of  a  local,  and  not  of  a  regional  character. 
Judging  by  published  descriptions,  the  higher  series  of  measures 
appear  to  be  present  in  other  Midland  and  North-Western  coalfields, 
and  in  most  of  them  the  Keele  Series  corresponds  to  the  Salopian 
Permian  of  Professor  Hull. 



Assoc.  M.  Inst.  C.  E.,  F.Gt.S.,  of  the  Geological  Survey  of 
England  and  Wales. 

Born  July  22,   1843.  Died  March  5,  1901. 

Mr.  J.  H.  Blake  was  a  son  of  Mr.  George  John  Blake,  of  the 
firm  of  Messrs.  Allen  &  Blake,  Wine  Merchants,  and  was  born 
in  Great  Tower  Street  in  the  city  of  London.  After  completing  his 
education  at  King's  College,  London,  he  was  apprenticed  to  Mr.  R.  P. 
Brereton,  M.  Inst.  C.  E.,  under  whose  directions  he  was  engaged  for 
several  years  with  Mr.  S.  H.  Yockney  in  railway  work  in  Cornwall 
and  South  Wales.  Having  been  attracted  to  the  science  of  geology 
while  at  King's  College,  he  became  further  interested  in  the  subject 
during  his  engineering  experiences,  and  was  thereby  tempted  to 
join  the  Geological  Survey  in  April,  1868,  at  a  time  when  the  staff 
under  Murchison  was  considerably  augmented.  During  the  first 
few  years  of  his  official  career  he  was  engaged  in  the  re-survey  of 
portions  of  Somerset,  along  the  Mendip  and  Polden  Hills,  at  Shepton 
Mallet,  Street,  Chewton  Mendip,  and  Axbridge,  and  subsequently 
at  Watchet  and  Minehead.  He  was  also  occupied  for  a  time  in  the 
first  detailed  Drift  Survey  of  the  area  north-west  of  London.  Later 
on  he  was  transferred  to  Suffolk,  to  survey  the  country  around 
Stowmarket,  and  that  bordering  the  sea  north  and  south  of  Lowestoft, 
whence  he  proceeded  to  Yarmouth  and  continued  his  investigations 
inland  and  along  the  coast  as  far  north  as  Palling  in  Norfolk.  Much 
time  was  then  devoted  to  a  careful  study  of  the  Forest  Bed  Series, 
and  his  published  section  of  the  cliffs  at  Kessingland,  Pakefield, 
and  Corton  (1884)  bears  evidence  of  the  painstaking  character  of 
his  work.  East  Dereham  then  became  his  home,  and  much  field- 
work  was  done  in  that  part  of  Norfolk  until  1884,  when  the  primary 
one-inch  Geological  Survey  of  England  was  completed.  Mr.  Blake 
then  removed  to  Reading,  and  was  for  many  years  occupied  in 
the  re-survey  on  the  six-inch  scale  of  that  neighbourhood,  giving 

OUtnanj—J.  Hopivood  Blake,  F.G.S.  239 

especial  atteutiou  to  the  Drifts,  which  before  had  only  been 
partially  mapped.  A  few  years  ago  he  proceeded  to  Oxford,  from 
which  important  and  interesting  centre  he  laboured  with  much  quiet 
enthusiasm,  until  on  March  5  he  suddenly  and  quite  unexpectedly 
succumbed  to  angina  pectoris  at  the  age  of  57. 

The  record  of  his  geological  work  is  chiefly  embodied  in  the 
geological  inaps  of  the  districts  he  surveyed,  and  in  sundry  Survey 
memoirs.  He  contributed  notes  to  the  Geology  of  East  Somerset 
(1876),  to  the  Geology  of  Stowmarket  (1881),  the  Geology  of 
Norwich  (1881),  and  the  Geology  of  London  (1889) ;  and  he 
personally  wrote  "  The  Geology  of  the  Country  around  East 
Dereham  "  (1888)  and  "  The  Geology  of  the  Country  near  Yarmouth 
and  Lowestoft  "  (1890).  He  had  also  prepared,  in  conjunction  with 
Mr.  Whitaker,  a  Memoir  on  the  Water  Supply  of  Berkshire,  which 
is  in  the  press,  and  had  made  some  progress  with  a  Memoir  on  the 
Geology  of  Reading. 

Mr.  Blake's  extra-official  contributions  to  geological  literature 
were  by  no  means  large  considering  his  long  experience.  In  1872 
he  contributed  (with  H.  B.  Woodward)  •'  Notes  on  the  Eelations 
of  the  Rhastic  Beds  to  the  Lower  Lias  and  Keuper  Formations  in 
Somersetshire"  (Geological  Magazine,  Vol.  IX,  pp.  196-202). 
In  1877  he  published  in  the  same  Magazine  (Deo.  II,  Vol.  IV, 
pp.  298-800)  an  article  "  On  the  Age  of  the  Mammalian  Rootlet-bed 
at  Kessingland  "  ;  and  in  1881  he  contributed  to  the  Proceedings  of 
the  Norwich  Geological  Society  (vol.  i,  pp.  126-128)  a  paper  on 
a  "  Well-boring  at  East  Dereham  Waterworks."  To  these  may 
be  added  his  addresses  to  the  Norwich  Geological  Society  (of  which 
he  was  elected  President  in  1880-81),  dealing  with  the  Age  and 
Relation  of  the  so-called  '  Forest-Bed,'  and  with  the  Conservancy 
of  Rivers,  Prevention  of  Floods,  Drainage,  and  Water  Supply  ;  and 
also  his  Presidential  Address  to  the  Reading  Literary  and  Philosophical 
Society  in  1885,  when  he  discoursed  on  the  Coalfields  of  the  United 
Kingdom  with  special  reference  to  the  Royal  Commission  on  Coal. 
From  1885  until  near  the  close  of  his  life  he  conducted  a  number 
•of  excursions  of  the  Geologists'  Association,  on  three  occasions  to 
Reading,  and  on  other  occasions  to  Henley-on-Thames  and  Nettlebed, 
Taplow  and  Bowsey  Hill,  Lowestoft  and  Kessingland,  Goring,  and 
Silchester,  reports  of  which  were  contributed  to  the  Proceedings 
of  the  Association. 

Mr.  Blake's  early  training  as  an  engineer  had  made  him  an 
excellent  draughtsman,  so  that  his  maps  and  the  sections  he  con- 
structed were  models  of  neatness  and  precision.  This  training  in 
the  exact  methods  of  topographic  surveys  to  some  extent  hampered 
his  field-work,  as  his  constant  aim  to  secure  positive  evidence  for 
geological  boundaries  led  often  to  prolonged  and  inexpedient 
investigation.  Thus  he  would  return  again  and  again  to  obscure 
tracts  in  the  hopes  of  gaining  exact  information,  a  process  theoretically 
laudable,  but  practically  detrimental  to  the  progress  of  work.  This 
timidity  in  forming  conclusions,  perhaps  to  a  certain  extent  con- 
stitutional, had  proved  such  a  serious  bar  to  official  advancement, 

240  Miscellaneous. 

that  it  caused  him  grave  anxiety.  Imbued,  however,  with  a  true 
love  of  science  he  laboured  on  with  infinite  patience  to  the  end, 
and  it  is  distressing  to  thiuk  that  he  did  not  live  to  partake  of 
the  benefits  which  quite  recently  accrue  to  the  Survey  through 
a  reorganization  of  the  staff.  Personally  his  colleagues  and  many 
others  will  long  lament  the  loss  of  a  genial  and  tender-hearted 
friend.  H.  B.  W. 


International  Geological  Congress,  Paris,  1900. — The  pupils, 
friends,  and  admirers  of  Professor  Albert  Gaudry,  who  in  1852 
started  his  scientific  career  with  his  "  These  de  Geologic :  Sur 
I'origine  et  la  formation  des  Silex  de  la  Oraie,"  intend  to  present 
him  with  a  commemorative  medal.  Whilst  heartily  associating 
ourselves  with  this  proposal,  we  venture  to  suggest  that  something 
more  might  be  done.  In  one  of  his  books  Professor  Gaudry 
terminates  the  description  of  his  new  palEeontological  gallery  with 
the  following  words  : — "  J'aimerais  que,  pour  terminer  notre  galerie, 
on  pla^at  une  statue  representant  une  figure  humaine,  figure 
douce  et  bonne,  figure  d'artiste  et  de  poete,  admirant  dans  le  passe 
la  grande  ceuvre  de  la  Creation  et  reflechissant  a  ce  qui  pourrait 
rendre  le  monde  encore  meilleur."  ^  Apart  from  his  eminent 
scientific  attainments.  Professor  Gaudry  has  revealed  himself  as  an 
artist  and  a  poet  as  well,  especially  in  his  "  Essai  de  Paleontologie 
philosophique  "  ;  and  whoever  has  approached  him  can  testify  that 
the  'douce'  and  'bonne'  expression  of  his  face  truly  reflects  his 
character.  We  therefore  think  that  his  own  bust  would  be  the  most 
suitable  couronnement  d'edifice  of  the  paleeontological  gallery,  which 
in  the  main  is  his  own  work. 

Professor  Albert  Gaudry,  President  of  the  International 
Geological  Congress  for  1900,  announces  that  the  Committee 
appointed  by  the  International  Congress  of  Geologists  to  award 
the  International  Spendiaroff  Prize  of  456  roubles  (£48)  has  pro- 
posed as  subject  for  1903,  "  Critical  Review  of  the  Methods  of 
Rock-classification."  Two  copies  at  least  of  any  work  competing 
for  the  prize  should  be  sent  before  August,  1902,  to  Dr.  Charles 
Barrois,  Secretary  of  the  Congress,  62,  Boulevard  Saint-Michel,  Paris. 

Erratum. — Brachylepas  (Pyrgoma)  cretacea,  H.  Woodw.  :  Geol. 
Mag.,  April,  1901,  pp.  145-152,  PL  VIIL— Dr.  Arthur  Rowe, 
F.G.S.,  calls  attention  to  an  error  in  Dr.  Woodward's  paper  as  to 
the  locality  of  his  new  specimen  of  this  Cirripede,  which,  like  the 
original  specimen  described  in  1868,  was  also  obtained  from  the 
zone  of  Belemniiella  mucronata  in  the  Norioich  Chalk,  and  all 
references  to  Margate  and  Thanet  should  be  deleted  and  the  word 
Norioich  substituted. — Edit.  Geol.  Mag. 

1  A.  Gaudry:  "  Les  ancetres  de  nos  animaiix  daus  les  temps  geologiques,"  p.  296  ; 
Paris,  1888.  ' 



NEW    SERIES.      DECADE    IV.      VOL.    VIII. 

No.   VI.— JUNE,    1901. 

OK/XG-I^^-A^Xj     .A.X?,TICXiES. 

1. — On  the  Evidence  of  the  Transference  of  Secondary  Sexual 
Characters  of  Mabimals  from  Males  to  Females. 

By  C.  I.  Forsyth  Major,  M.D.,  F.Z.S. 

WHEN  Darwin  stated  in  the  first  edition  of  the  "Descent  of 
Man,"  "as  probable  that  horns  of  all  kinds,  even  when  they 
are  equally  developed  in  the  two  sexes,  were  primarily  acquired  by 
the  male  in  order  to  conquer  other  males,  and  have  been  transferred 
more  or  less  completely  to  the  female," '  the  "  various  facts  "  from 
which  he  drew  this  inference  did  not  include  any  palseontological 
evidence.  At  the  present  day  we  are  familiar  with  the  notion  that, 
as  regards  the  deer  family,  the  oldest  members  known,  from  the 
Oligocene,  were  absolutely  devoid  of  antlers,  and  that  the  subsequent 
phylogenetic  evolution  of  the  latter  has  a  close  parallel  in  their 
ontogenetic  development. 

Except  in  the  case  of  the  reindeer,  fossil  Cervidas  cannot  be  expected 
to  throw  any  direct  light  on  our  special  subject  of  inquiry,  since 
up  to  the  present  day  the  females  of  the  great  majority  of  Cervidas 
are,  as  a  rule,  devoid  of  antlers.  The  generally  received  view  is  that 
amongst  recent  Cervidce  the  females  of  the  reindeer  always  have 
antlers,  and  the  females  of  other  deer  never  have. 

According  to  a  statement  by  Eversmann,  quoted  by  A.  Brandt," 
the  female  wild  reindeer  in  the  Orenburg  district  are  devoid  of 
antlers.  With  regard  to  the  Cervidee  generally,  there  is  abundant 
testimony,  to  be  found  amongst  older  writers  especially,  of  antlers 
occurring  in  females  of  Capreolus  and  Cervus  elajjluis.^  Riitimeyer 
states  that  traces  of  pedicles  are  never  absent  in  the  doe ;  ^  and 
Nitsche  confirms  that  this   is  in  fact  the  rule  in  old  individuals.* 

1  Charles  Darwin :  "  The  Descent  of  Man  and  Selection  iu  relation  to  Sex," 
1871,  vol.  ii,  p.  248. 

-  Eversmann:  "  Naturgesch.  v.  Orenburg,"  ii,  p.  251.  Cf.  A.  Brandt  in 
"  Festschrift  f.  Rudolf  Leuckart,"  1892,  p.  412. 

3  See  the  numerous  bibliography,  together  with  original  observations,  in  A.  W. 
Otto,  "  Lelirb.  d.  pathol.  Anatomic  d.  Menschen  und  der  Thiere,"  1830,  i,  p.  167 
and  note  18. 

*  L.  Riitimeyer:  "  Beitriige  zu  einer  natilrl.  Geschichte  der  Hirsche,"  i: 
Abh.  schweiz.  palaeont.  Ges.,  1881,  viii,  p.  42. 

5  H.  Nitsche :  "  Studien  iiber  Hirsche,  1898,  i,  pp.  23,  49,  50. 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — NO.  YI.  10 

242       Dr.  C.  I.  Forsyth  Major — Characters  of  Mammals. 

The  phenomenon,  however,  is  by  no  means  restricted  to  senility. 
Otto  himself  dissected  an  antlered  doe  pregnant  with  two  foetuses,^ 
and  Nitsche  shows  that  the  presence  of  antlers  in  the  female  Capreolus 
is  independent  of  senile  sterility.^ 

Instances  of  the  occurrence  of  antlers  in  the  female  Virginia  and 
Columbia  deer  are  adduced  by  Caton.^ 

If  we  survey  the  cases  recorded  in  the  literature,  no  doubt  remains 
that  the  capacity  of  developing  antlers  is  latent  in  the  female 
Cervidse,  and  only  an  impulse  is  required. 

In  a  case  recorded  by  W.  Blasius,  of  a  doe,  the  abnormal  antler  on 
the  right  side  could  be  traced  to  a  mechanical  lesion  produced  by 
the  presence  of  a  piece  of  glass,  and  Blasius  is  probably  right  in 
supposing  that  the  exostosis  occasioned  by  the  lesion  assumed  the 
shape  of  an  antler,  owing  to  its  occurring  in  the  region  where  the 
antlers  are  developed  in  the  male.* 

The  remarkable  case  communicated  to  the  Linnean  Society  by 
James  Hoy  on  December  16th,  1791,  is  a  curious  parallel  to  the  male 
plumage  exhibited  in  female  game-birds  as  a  consequence  of  a  lesion 
of  the  ovaries.  "  A  hind,  the  female  of  Cerviis  elaphus,  was  shot  by 
the  Duke  of  Gordon,  which  had  one  horn  perfectly  similar  to  that  of 
a  stag  three  years  old.  It  had  never  had  a  horn  on  the  other  side  of 
its  head,  for  there  the  corresponding  place  was  covered  over  by  the 
skin,  and  quite  smooth.  It  did  not  seem  to  have  ever  produced 
a  fawn,  and  upon  dissection  the  ovarium  on  the  same  side  with  the 
horn  was  found  to  be  schin-ous."  ^ 

Next  in  order  comes  the  constant  presence  of  rudimentary  pedicles 
in  old  does,  viz.  at  a  time  when  the  sexual  functions  have  ceased. 

Moreover,  it  appears,  especially  from  Nitsche's  observations 
alluded  to  above,  that  the  females  of  Capreolus,  at  any  rate,  are 
beginning  to  develop  antlers  before  senile  sterility  sets  in ;  so  that 
this  new  character  of  the  doe  has  every  chance  of  being  transferred 
to  her  offspring,  independent  of  the  sex,  and  to  become  general  in 
the  does  also,  as  it  has  become  already  almost  general  in  female 

Giraffidce. — For  reasons  formerly  given,®  I  agree  with  Lydekker, 
by  including  in  the  family  Giraffidse  the  iSivatherium  group 
of  Euminants  from  the  Sivaliks  [Sivatherium — Brahmatherium — 
Hydaspitherium —  Vishnutherium) . 

The  two  recent  species  of  Giraffa  develop  horns  in  both  sexes. 

Gaudry  made  known  a  hornless  form,  Helladotherium  Duvernoyi, 
from  the  Upper  Miocene  of  Pikermi ;  the  skull  described  by  him 

^  A.  "W.  Otto :  ' '  Seltene  Beobaclitungeii  zur  Anatomie,  Physiologie,  und  Pathologie 
gehorig,"  1816,  i,  p,  71  (xxx). 

-  Op.  cit.,  p.  50,  where  is  quoted  also  a  former  paper  by  the  same  author  in 
Tharander  f orstliches  Jahrbuch,  1883,  xsii,  p.  118. 

3  J.  D.  Caton:   "  The  Antelope  and  Deer  of  America,"  1881,  2nded.,  pp.  232,  233. 

*  Jahresber.  d.  Vereins  f.  Naturw.  zu  Braunschweig,  ix,  Sitzungsber.,  pp.  11-13 

5  Trans.  Linn.  Soc,  vol.  ii,  p.  356. 

^  Forsyth  Major,  "  On  the  Fossil  Remains  of  Species  of  the  Family  Giraffidas  "  : 
Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1891,  p.  315. 

Dr.  C.  I.  Forsijfh  Major — Characters  of  Mammals.       243 

is  the  only  one  known  of  this  genus,  although  various  large-sized 
Giraffoid  hornless  skulls  have  in  turn  been  called  JTelladotheriiini , 
and  even  united  with  the  Pikermian  species.  For  the  present  it 
cannot  be  decided  whether  the  ITelladotheniim  was  hornless  in  both 
sexes  or  in  the  female  only.  The  Giraffoid  genus  from  the 
contemporai'y  deposit  of  Samos — which  occurs  also  at  Maragha  in 
Persia — has  been  founded  by  me  on  a  form  provided  with  supraorbital 
horns  and  on  a  hornless  form,  which  otherwise  agrees  perfectly 
with  the  former;  I  therefore  have  considered  them  to  be  male  and 
female  forms  respectively  of  one  species,  Samotherium  Boissieri,  Maj. 
A  smaller,  closely  allied  form,  Palceotragus  Bouenti,  Gaudr.  (Pikermi, 
Samos,  Maragha),  originally  believed  to  be  an  antelope,  is  also 
represented  by  a  form  provided  with,  and  one  devoid  of,  horns. 

"  In  the  skull  of  an  aged  specimen  of  Samotherium,  just  above 
the  orbits,  where  the  large  horns  are  placed  in  the  horned  specimens, 
there  occur  very  small  processes  separated  by  a  suture  from  the 
underlying  part  of  the  frontal."  ^  The  explanation  I  then  submitted 
was,  that  in  aged  individuals  of  the  female  Samotherium  male 
characters  occasionally  make  their  appearance.  Another  specimen,- 
of  which  but  a  portion  of  the  frontal  is  preserved,  exhibits  above 
the  right  orbit  only  a  similar  epiphysis  as  the  one  just  mentioned ; 
its  height  is  no  more  than  9  mm.,  with  a  longitudinal  extension 
of  about  32  mm.  To  judge  from  the  size  of  the  fragment  and  the 
texture  of  the  bone,  it  belonged  to  an  adult,  although  not  an  aged 
individual.  It  cannot  therefore  be  considered  to  be  a  young 
specimen  of  the  horned  form  ;  in  the  latter  the  horn  attains  a  size 
of  upwards  of  210  mm.^  Several  other  adult  hornless  skulls  of 
Samotherium,  one  of  which  is  in  the  British  Museum,  show  no 
trace  of  an  incipient  horn. 

From  the  foregoing  we  may  conclude  that  in  this  Tertiary  member 
of  the  Giraffid^e  the  females  are  beginning  to  develop  horns,  which 
primarily  were  male  sexual  characters  of  the  Samotherium,  whether 
used  as  weapons  or  purely  ornamental. 

Bovincs. — With  regard  to  all  their  salient  characters  the  Bovina) 
are  the  most  terminal  group  of  Ruminants.  No  instance  of  the 
occurrence  of  hornless  females  in  recent  wild  bovine  animals  is  known. 

When  working  in  the  Palseontological  Museum  at  Florence  I  came 
upon  the  hornless  skull  of  a  Ruminant  from  the  Pliocene  of  the 
Val  d'Arno,  which  had  been  discovered  a  few  yeai's  previously  and 
variously  interpreted ;  the  statement  published  somewhere  that  in 
the  Val  d'Arno  fauna  occurred  a  Ruminant  closely  allied  to  the 
camel,  refers  to  the  skull  in  question.  On  close  examination  I  found 
that  the  fossil  presented  all  the  cranial  and  dental  characters  of 
Falconer's  Bos  etrnscus  from  the  same  deposits,  with  the  essential 
difierence  that  no  traces  of  horn-cores  were  present.  My  conclusion 
was  that  the  skull  was  that  of  a  female  '  Bos  etruscus.^     I  published 

1  Forsyth  Major,  op.  cit.,  p.  319. 

^  Nos.  712,  712«  of  my  first  collection  from  Samos,  which  is  the  property  of 
Mr.  William  Barbey  in  Geneva. 

2  No.  17  of  the  Swiss  Collection. 

244       Dr.  C.  I.  Forsyth  Major — Characters  of  Mammals. 

the  fact  at  tlie  time/  and  also  ventured  to  transmit  the  information 
to  Charles  Darwin,  who  embodied  it  in  the  second  edition  of  his 
"Descent  of  Man." 2 

Unaware  of  my  previous  statement,  Eiitimeyer  announced  in 
1878  as  a  novel  fact  the  discovery  of  a  hornless  fossil  member  of 
the  Bovinae.'  The  skull  in  question,  B.M.  No.  48,037,  from  the 
older  Pliocene  of  the  Sivalik  Hills,  he  described  and  figured  as 
Leptobos  Falconeri,  Eiit.  From  the  absence  of  horn-cores,  from  the 
great  extension  of  the  parietal  zone,  and  from  its  general  slender 
and  elegant  build,  the  skull  is  considered  to  be  that  of  a  female. 
But  at  the  same  time  it  is  conjectured  that  part  of  the  horned 
skulls  attributed  to  the  same  species  might  equally  be  of  the  female 
sex ;  this  on  account  of  their  weaker  horns.* 

The  skull  from  the  Val  d'Arno  is  described  and  figured  in  the 
same  memoir,  together  with  the  cast  of  a  second  equally  hornless 
skull  from  the  same  locality,  the  original  of  which  is  preserved 
in  the  private  collection  of  the  Marchese  Strozzi.  Eiitimeyer's 
conclusion  is  very  different  from  mine ;  the  hornless  skulls  from 
the  Val  d'Arno  are  named  Leptobos  Strozzii,  and  thus  placed  in 
a  different  genus  and  group  from  Falconer's  Bos  etruscus,  which 
becomes  the  Bibos  etruscus.^  As  Eiitimeyer  was  indisputably  the 
highest  authority  in  this  particular  branch  of  palaeontology,  my 
previous  most  positive  statement  must  have  been  considered  in  the 
light  of  a  rather  rash  proceeding. 

Years  afterwards  my  excavations  at  Olivola  (Upper  Pliocene) 
brought  to  light  several  hornless  bovine  skulls,  and  made  it  in- 
cumbent on  me  to  reinvestigate  the  whole  matter,  the  more  so 
as  some  additional  horned  skulls  from  the  Val  d'Arno  had  in  the 
meantime  enriched  the  Florence  Museum.  The  result  arrived  at^ 
was  a  confirmation  of  my  former  view,  that  the  hornless  and  horned 
bovine  skulls  from  the  Upper  Pliocene  of  Italy  are  one  and  the 
same  species.  This  species  is  nearly  related  to  the  Sivalik  Leptobos, 
as  Eiitimeyer  had  already  shown  with  respect  to  the  hornless  form 
of  the  Val  d'Arno.  The  obvious  conclusion  was  to  collocate  the 
bovines  from  the  Italian  Pliocene  in  the  genus  Leptobos :  Leptobos 
elatus  (Croiz,).'' 

Stehlin,  another  pupil  of  Eiitimeyer,  has  quite  recently  studied 
the  Florentine  collections ;  with  regard  to  the  above  question,  he 
declares  that  after  repeated  examination  of  the  materials  he  agrees 
with  my  view  that  Eiitimeyer's  'Leptobos  Strozzii'  is  nothing  else 
than  the  female  form  of  his  '  Bibos  etruscus.'  ® 

I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  enter  into  the  particulars  of  the 
case,  which  are  published.     For  the  present  purpose  it  is  sufficient 

1  Palajontographiea,  1873,  ii,  2  (xxii),  p.  123.  2  1874,  p,  505. 

3  L.  Riitimeyer,  "Die  Einder  der  Tertiaer-Epoclie,"  etc.:  Abh.  sch-weiz. 
palaeont.  Ges.,  1878,  p.  162. 

*  Op.  cit.,  p.  164.  5  Op.  cit.,  pp.  167-17-5. 

*  Forsyth  Major,  "L'Ossario  di  Olivola  in  Yal  di  Magra  "  :  Proc.  Verb.  Soc. 
Tosc.  Sc.  Nat.,  March  3,  1890,  pp.  71-75. 

'  Forsyth  Major,  op.  cit.,  p.  75. 

*  Abh.  schweiz.  palaeont.  Ges.,  1900,  xxvii,  p.  466,  note. 

Dr.  C.  I.  Fors//th  Major — Characters  of  Mammals.       245 

to  point  out  that  in  the  earliest  known — Pliocene — representatives 
of  bovine  animals,  part,  at  any  rate,  of  the  females  were  devoid  of 
horns,  whereas,  as  stated  before,  the  females  of  all  the  wild  recent 
species,  without  exception,  have  acquired  them.  The  occurrence  of 
hornless  forms  in  domestic  races  has  been  explained  by  Riitimeyer 
as  a  reversion.^ 

Suidce. — The  male  weapons  of  Suidaj  are  the  tusks.  Stehlin  has 
recently  shown  that  the  male  Potamochoerus  provincialis  (Gerv.)  from 
the  Lower  Pliocene  of  Montpellier  was  already  provided  with  equally 
strong  developed  canines  as  the  recent  species.  In  the  female  fossil 
form  they  are  about  equally  developed  as  in  Sus  scrofa."^  Some 
years  ago  I  figured  on  two  plates  male  and  female  skulls  of 
recent  species  of  Potamochoerus,^  from  which  it  can  be  seen  that  in 
the  Malagasy  and  East  African  Potamochceri  the  canines  of  the 
females  are  almost  equal  in  size  and  shape  to  those  of  the  males. 
The  same  occurs  in  the  case  of  the  Bornean  Sus  barhatns,^  and,  to 
judge  from  a  skull  described  and  figui'ed  by  Rolleston,^  may  occur 
also  in  the  female  of  Sus  andamanensis. 

In  the  West  African  Potamochoerus,  according  to  Stehlin's 
observation,  the  canines  of  the  female  are  weaker  than  in  the  eastern 

Stehlin  has  strongly  insisted  upon  the  importance  of  this  instance 
of  transmission  of  male  sexual  characters  to  the  female,  in  Potamo- 
choerus. "Dieselbe  ist  in  doppelter  Hinsicht  von  allergrostem 
Interesse.  Einmal  darum  weil  durch  sie  im  allerletzten  Abschnitt 
der  Erdgeschichte  nochmals  ein  evidenter  Fortschritt  gegeniiber  dem 
Pliocaen  erzielt  wird,  sodann  aber  auch  in  rein  morphologischer 
Hinsicht,  insofern  als  mit  ihrem  Eintreten  ein  viJllig  neuer,  bis 
dahin  unbetretener  Weg  in  der  Umformung  und  Weiterbildung  der 
ganzen  Species  betreten  wird."  ^  ("  It  is  of  the  greatest  interest, 
firstly,  because  by  means  of  this  transmission  there  is  again  an 
evident  progress  in  the  last  chapter  of  the  earth's  history,  as  compared 
with  the  Pliocene  ;  secondly,  from  a  purely  morphological  point  of 
view,  because  by  it  a  hitherto  completely  new  and  untrodden  road 
in  the  transformation  and  progression  of  the  whole  species  is  now 

In  our  own  species  the  modern  aspirations  of  women  are,  to  all 
appearances,  the  incipient  signs  of  the  same  natural  law.  Physical 
and  mental  characters  of  man,  originally  acquired  in  the  struggles  of 
the  males,  are  apparently  being  slowly  transferred  to  women.  They 
only  require  time  for  their  full  evolution. 

^  Op.  cit.,  ]}.  173. 

-  H.  G.  Stehliu,  "  Uber  die  Geschiclite  d.  Suiden-Gebisses "  :  Abh.  sch-weiz. 
palaeont.  Ges.,  1899,  xxvi,  pp.  256,  257. 

^  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Loudon,  1897,  pis.  xxv,  xxvi. 

■*  Stehlin  :  op.  cit.,  xxvii,  p.  466. 

^  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  1876,  p.  286,  pi.  xli,  fig.  3. 

*  I.e.,  xxvi,  pp.  255,  256. 

''  Abh.  schweiz.  palaeont.  Ges.,  1900,  xxvii,  p.  466. 

246        F.  R.  Cowper  Heed — Salter's  TJndeserihed  Species. 

11.  —  WOODWARDIAN      MuSEUM      NOTES  :        SaLTER's      UnDESCRIBED 

Species.     IV. 

By  F.  R.  Cowper  Eeed,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 


GASTEEOPODA    (continued). 

HoRiosTOMA  DiscoRS  (Sowerby),  var.  Mari^  (Salter  MS.).    (PI.  XI, 

Figs.  5  and  6.) 
1873.     JEiiomphalus  Marice,   Salter:    Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  156 

[a  859,  «860). 
1891.     Euomphalus  Marice,  "Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  103. 

There  are  four  specimens  of  this  form  in  the  Woodwardian 
Museum,  labelled  a  859  and  a  860  by  Salter,  and  all  come  from  the 
Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudley.  Salter  (loc.  cit.  supra)  says  of  it ; 
"Eelated  to  E.  discors,  but  with  most  regular  ridges  of  growth, 
A  beautiful  shell,  dedicated  to  a  most  worthy  lady — the  patient 
preparer  of  this  collection  [Mrs.  Fletcher]."  All  four  specimens 
belong  to  the  Fletcher  Collection. 

Diagnosis. — Shell  nearly  discoidal ;  spire  short,  usually  low  and 
depressed ;  whorls  rounded,  five  or  six  in  number,  ornamented  on 
their  apical  surface  by  four  or  five  weak  and  inconspicuous 
longitudinal  keels,  which  are  crossed  nearly  at  right  angles  by 
prominent  transverse,  equidistant,  and  regular  sharp  lamellse,  not 
very  closely  set  together,  and  only  very  slightly  undulated  where 
they  cross  the  weak  keels.  As  they  pass  round  to  the  umbilical 
surface  of  the  whorls  they  bend  back  gently,  but  again  curve 
forward  to  the  line  of  contact  of  the  whorls.  The  umbilical  surface 
of  the  whorls  is  devoid  of  longitudinal  keels,  except  in  young 
individuals.  Umbilicus  deep,  wide,  open,  exposing  all  the  whorls. 
Aperture  not  preserved. 



Breadth  of  one  specimen  («  859)     60'0 

Approximate  height  of  the  same      20-0 

Average  distance  of  varices  on  upper  surface        1'5 

Breadth  of  specimen  {a  860)  showing  the  under  surface  of 

shell       64-0 

Depth  of  umbilicus  of  same 12-0 

Ebmarks.  —  The  distinguishing  feature  of  this  form  is  the 
regularity  and  prominence  of  the  transverse  lamellae  and  their 
slight  undulation  in  crossing  the  keels.  Otherwise  it  closely 
resembles  H.  discors  and  its  varieties,  including  H.  rugosum, 
Sowerby.^  It  does  not  seem  possible  to  retain  it  as  an  independent 
species,  as  it  nearly  approximates  many  specimens  of  this  very 
variable  species  H.  discors,  and  transitional  forms  with  intermediate 
characters  are  not  uncommon. 

HoRiosTOMA  DISCORS  (Sowcrby). 
1873.    Euomphalus  pacificatus,  Salter:  Cat.  Camb.  Sil.  Foss. 'Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  156 

[a  861). 
1891.     Euomphalus  pacificatus,  Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  103. 

1  Lindstrom :  Silur.  Gastrop.  Pterop.  Kongl.  Sv.  Vet.  Akad.  Hand!.,  Bd.  19,  No.  6 
(1884),  pp.  157-159,  pi.  xvi,  figs.  20-26  ;  pi.  xvii,  figs.  1-10. 

F.  R.  Coicpcr  Reed — Salter'' s  Undescribed  Species.        247 

There  is  only  one  specimen  of  this  form  in  the  Museum  thu8 
labelled  by  Salter  (a  861),  and  it  comes  from  the  Wenlock  Limestone 
of  Dudley. 

Diagnosis. — Shell  discoid  ;  spire  short ;  whorls  six  ?  (only  three 
are  preserved),  angulated  slightly  by  longitudinal  keel  near  margin 
of  flattened  apical  surface ;  sides  of  whorls  ornamented  by  two  weaker, 
equidistant,  longitudinal  keels.  No  keels  on  umbilical  surface. 
Surface  of  whoiTs  crossed  by  small,  closely-set,  transverse  growth- 
lamellge,  slightly  undulated  and  irregular,  and  curving  backwards 
from  the  mouth  outside  the  inner  longitudinal  keel  of  apical  surface. 
Umbilicus  not  seen.     Aperture  apparently  oblique.     Breadth  36  mm. 

Remakks. — There  is  no  feature  by  which  this  form  can  be  separated 
from  the  variable  H.  discors,  and  the  species  therefore  must  be 
dropped.  The  indentation  on  the  outer  whorl  of  the  specimen  is 
manifestly  due  to  an  injury  to  the  shell,  and  cannot  be  considered 
as  a  character  of  any  specific  importance.  It  is  not  even  desirable 
to  separate  this  form  as  a  definite  variety  of  H.  discors,  a  conclusion 
I  have  reached  after  examining  a  large  series  of  the  latter  species. 

Pleurotomaria  Fletoheri,  Salter.     (PL  XI,  Fig.  4.) 
1873.     Pleurotomaria  Fletcheri,   Salter  :     Cat.    Camb.    Sil.    Foss.  "Woodw.  Mus., 

p.  154  (a  851). 
1891.     Pleurotomaria  Fletcheri,  "Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  "Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  112. 

There  is  only  the  one  original  specimen  (a  851)  in  the  Wood- 
wardian  Museum  from  the  Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudley  and 
belonging  to  the  Fletcher  Collection.  It  is  not  quite  perfect  and 
is  slightly  compressed  laterally,  but  the  shell  is  preserved  on  the  five 
whorls.  The  figure  of  a  Pleurotomaria  given  by  Salter  (op.  cit.  supra, 
p.  154)  in  the  margin  closely  resembles  this  species. 

Diagnosis. — Shell  broadly  conical;  apical  angle  50°-60°;  whorls  six 
in  number  (only  five  are  preserved),  convex,  with  slit-band  grooving 
middle  of  body-whorl,  but  situated  below  middle  line  of  other  whorls 
though  above  suture-line.  Two  weak  longitudinal  keels,  of  which 
the  lower  is  the  stronger,  are  present  on  apical  surface  of  body-whorl 
above  slit-band  at  equal  distances  between  it  and  suture-line.  On 
the  upper  whorls  the  keel  nearer  the  slit-band  is  more  prominent 
and  slightly  angulates  the  apical  surface  of  the  whorl,  but  the  other 
keel  nearer  the  suture-line  is  almost  obsolete.  Slit-band  concave 
and  sunken  as  a  groove  between  sharp,  prominent,  narrow  borders ; 
crescents  fine,  closely  packed,  sharply  curved.  Ornamentation  of 
apical  surface  consists  of  obliquely  transverse,  slightly  sigmoidal 
striae,  and  wrinkles  bending  back  sharply  near  the  slit-band  to  meet 
it  as  an  acute  angle.  The  ornamentation  below  the  slit-band  is 
similar,  the  strise  being  sharply  curved  back  to  meet  it.  Aperture 
not  preserved.     Height  of  specimen  ca.  45  mm. 

Remarks. — The  broadly  conical  shape  of  the  shell  and  the  position 
of  the  slit-band  on  the  whorls,  as  well  as  its  groove-like  nature, 
are  features  found  also  in  PL  bifortnis  (Lindstrom),^  but  the  orna- 
mentation of  the  surface  is  quite  distinct,  and  only  one  keel  is  figured 
in  that  species  above  the  slit-band. 

^  Lindstrom:  op.  cit.,  p.  98,  pi.  vii,  figs.  39-42. 

248        F.  R.  Coivpar  Reed — Salter's  Undescribed  Species. 

Pleurotomaria  ctclonema  (Salter).     (PL  XI,  Figs.  1-3.) 

1873.     M'urehisonia  eyelonema,    Salter :    Cat.    Camb.    Sil.    Foss.   "Woodw.    Mus., 

p.  155  {a  848,  a  849,  a  850). 
1891.     MurcJiisonia  eyelonema,  Woods:  Cat.  Type  Foss.  Woodw.  Mus.,  p.  107. 

There  are  in  all  fourteen  specimens  labelled  MurcTiisonia  eyelonema 
by  Salter,  varying  in  size  from  10  mm.  to  36  mm,  in  length. 
Several  are  in  an  excellent  state  of  preservation,  and  all  come  from  the 
Wenlock  Limestone  of  Dudley  and  belong  to  the  Fletcher  Collection. 

DiAaNOSis.  —  Shell  conical,  turbinate ;  whorls  five,  ventricose. 
Apical  angle  50°-60°,  being  smaller  in  the  older  and  larger 
individuals.  Body- whorl  large,  equal  to  half  the  length  of  shell  or 
even  more.  Slit-band  a  little  above  middle  line  of  body- whorl,  but 
in  other  whorls  half-way  between  the  suture-lines.  Apical  surface 
with  distinct  swollen  band  immediately  below  upper  suture-line  of 
each  whorl,  and  with  one  rounded,  prominent,  longitudinal  keel 
between  this  band  and  the  slit-band.  Six  or  seven  longitudinal 
keels  below  slit-band  on  body-whorl,  of  which  the  uppermost  three 
or  four  are  prominent  rounded  ridges,  usually  nearly  equal  in  size, 
and  nearly  equidistant.  The  other  three  or  four  longitudinal  keels 
on  the  body-whorl  are  on  the  umbilical  surface,  and  grow 
successively  much  narrower,  fainter,  and  less  prominent.  On  the 
upper  whorls  the  uppermost  three  longitudinal  keels  are  alone 
developed  in  the  adult,  the  number  varying  from  one  to  three 
according  to  age.  Slit  -  band  prominent,  of  moderate  width, 
bordered  on  each  side  by  narrow  ridge.  Surface  concave,  but 
marked  along  centre  by  longitudinal  keel,  varying  in  degree  of 
development,  but  making  profile  of  slit-band  very  characteristic. 
Crescents  not  very  numerous,  gently  arched  backwards,  but  strongly 
marked,  and  in  some  of  the  smaller  individuals  sub-lamellar.  Apical 
surface  of  whorls  crossed  obliquely  by  fine  sigmoidal  thread-like 
raised  lines,  at  regular  distances  apart  in  young  individuals  but  more 
closely  and  less  regularly  packed  in  adults.  Below  slit -band  the 
whorls  are  ornamented  by  similar  transverse  lines,  but  crossing  the 
keels  nearly  at  right  angles  instead  of  obliquely.  On  both  sides  of 
the  slit-band  the  lines  are  sharply  bent  back. 

Mouth  large,  subcircular  or  oval,  slightly  oblique  to  axis  of  shell. 








36-0     . 

..     21-0     ., 

,.     17-0 

25-0     . 

..     15-0     ., 

..     13-5 

50°      . 

.,      55°      ., 

..      60° 


Breadth  (across  body-whorl) 
Apical  angle        

Kemarks, — This  species  bears  much  resemblance  to  Pleurotomaria 
laqueata  (Lindstrom),^  from  the  corresponding  beds  of  Gotland,  in 
its  general  shape,  in  the  distribution  and  number  of  the  keels,  and 
in  the  position  of  the  slit-band,  but  differs  in  the  minute  characters 
of  the  latter,  which  is  an  important  point. 

It  has  the  general  aspect  of  PL  Lloydi,  Sow,,  but  differs  in  having 
only  one  keel  above  the  slit  -  band   and   fewer  and   larger   keels 

^  Lindstrom  :  op,  cit.,  p.  102,  pi.  ix,  figs.  4-6. 










'^>j)^^^    4- 

GMWo  libk. 

We  sb  J>F  e'wraa.n.imp . 

Gasberopoda.Weiilock  Limes  tone,  DiO-dley, 

J.  p.  Johmon — Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Glynde.  249 

below,  and  in  the  lower  position  of  the  slit-band  and  its  minute 
characters.  The  slit-band,  in  fact,  resembles  more  closely  that  of 
PL  bicincta  (Hall)  ^  than  that  of  any  other  species  in  the  presence 
of  the  keel  along  the  middle  of  the  band  and  its  sharp  borders. 


Fig.  1. — Plcurotomaria  cijclonema,  Salter,  sp.     Nat.  size. 

Fig.  2. — Ditto,  showing  mouth.     Nat.  size. 

Fig.  3. — Ditto,  slit-baud,      x  5. 

Fig.  4. — Pleurotomaria  Fletcheri,  Salter.     Nat.  size. 

Fig.  5. — Horiostoma  discorx,  var.  Maria,  Salter,  sp.     Nat.  size.  ' 

Fig.  6. — Ditto,  umbilical  surface.     Nat.  size. 

III. — Some  Sections  in  the  Cretaceous  Eocks  around  Glynde, 

AND  their  Fossil  Contents. 

By  J.  P.  Johnson. 

IN  the  memoir  recently  published  by  the  Geological  Survey  ^  on 
the  Selbornian  strata  of  England,  no  mention  is  made  of  an 
interesting  section  in  the  Gault  near  Glynde,  which  was  certainly 
in  existence  up  to  1898,  when  I  last  visited  the  district.  The  object 
of  the  present  note  is  to  put  this  section  on  record,  together  with 
some  observations  on  two  chalk  quarries,  from  which  I  have  at 
various  times  collected  fossils. 

The  pit  in  the  Gault  is  situated  on  private  land  about  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  from  the  railway  station,  with  which  it  is  connected  by 
a  railroad.  As  far  as  I  can  remember,  it  showed  some  15  feet  of 
slate-blue  clay,  containing  an  abundance  of  pyrites,  and  consequently 
a  quantity  of  selenite,  though  in  small  crystals.  The  only  organic 
remains  that  wei'e  at  all  plentiful  were  the  ammonites,  Schlcenbachia 
varicosus,  Hoplites  denarius,  and  AncijJoceras  spiniijerum.  The 
finding  of  a  big  tooth  of  Pvolospliijrcena  ferox  is  noteworthy. 

The  large  quarry  in  the  Chalk  at  the  railway  station  exhibits 
a  fine  section  of  the  well-known  limestone,  which  here  contains 
a  very  small  proportion  of  clayey  matter  and  occasional  nodules  of 
marcasite.  It  is  of  Cenoraanian  age,  as  shown  by  the  occurrence  of 
Schloenbachia  varians.  The  commonest  fossils  are  the  Selachian 
remains,  amongst  which  I  may  especially  mention  a  nice  series  of 
the  teeth  of  Scaphanorhynchus  siibidatus  and  forty-seven  associated 
teeth  of  Ptychodus  decurrens.  It  was  from  here  that  I  obtained  the 
fine  mandibular  ramus  of  Pachyrhizodus  Gardneri  which  is  in  the 
British  Museum. 

Just  outside  the  village,  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  road  to 
Lewes,  and  joined  to  the  above-mentioned  quarry  by  a  railroad, 
is  another  large  excavation  in  the  Chalk.  This  is  at  a  higher  level, 
and  is  in  the  face  of  the  escarpment.  The  Chalk  differs  from  that 
already  described  in  being  free  from  argillaceous  matter;  it  also 
yields  nodules  of  marcasite  and,  in  the  topmost  beds,  a  few  flints. 
It  is  mostly  of  Turonian  age,  as  shown  by  the  abundance  of 
Rhynchonella    Cuvieri,  Inoceramus   mytiloides,  I.   Cuvieri,   and    Lima 

*  Lindstrom:  op.  cit.,  p.  106,  pi.  viii,  figs.  21  and  23. 

*  "  The  Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Britain,"  vol.  i  (1900) ;  by  A.  J.  Jukes-Browue. 


J.  P.  Johnson — Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Glynde. 

spinosa,  but  a  little  is  probably  Senonian,  for  the  hard  sub-crystalline 
band  known  as  the  Chalk  Rock,  which  in  this  country  strati- 
graphically  separates  the  two  periods,  is  certainly  present,  though 
I  have  not  been  able  to  determine  its  exact  position,  as  the  section 
has  always  been  obscured  during  my  visits  by  the  talus  resulting 
from  blasting  operations.  I  have  a  series  of  thirty-nine  associated 
teeth  of  Ptychodus  mammilaris  from  here  in  Chalk  Eock  matrix. 


Faehyrhizodus  Gard/neri,  Mason 





Cimolichf kys  Zevesiensis,  heidy     ... 


Frotosphyrcena  ferox,  Leidy 



{Scaphanorhynchus'^)  suhulatus,  Ag.    .. 


Lamna  appendiculata,  Ag 



'  Oxyrhina  angustidens,  Heuss  '     


Oxyrhina  Mantelli,  Ag 



Corax  falcatus,  Ag.         



Notidaniis  microdon,  Kg 


Ftychodus  mammilaris,  Ag 


Ptychodus  decurrens,  Ag 



Nautilus  {sublcevigatuSjWOvh. '^) 


Ancyloceras  spinigertim,  J .  Shj 


Scaphites  Hugardianus,  J.  Sby 


Acanfhoceras  navicularis,  Mant 


Soplites  denarius,  J .  Shj 


Schloenbachia  varians,  J.  Shy 


iSchlcenbachia  varicosus,  J.  Shy 


Desmoceras  £eudanti,BTong.         ...     . 



Aporrhais  Farldnsoni,  M-ixnt 


Plenrotoniaria  perspectiva,  Mant 



Nucula  pectinata, '5 .  Shy 


Fholadomya  decussata,  Mant 


{Lima?)  spinosa,  J.  Sby 


Flagiostoma  globosa,  J.  Sby 


Inoceramus  Cuvieri,  J.  Sby 


Inoceramus  mytiloides,  Mant 



Terebratula  biplicata,  J.  Sby 



Mhynchonella  Ctwieri,  D'Orb 



Enoploclytia  Sussexiensis        



Feltastes  clathratus,  Ag 


Skirting  the  Chalk  escarpment  westwards,  one  at  length  arrives  at 
the  classical  Lewes  quarries.     They  do  not  need  to  be  dealt  with 

G.  C.  Crick — On  Ammonites  Ramsayanus.  251 

here,  as  they  have  ah-eady  been  described,  but  I  think  it  desirable  to 
mention  three  quartz  pebbles  which  I  obtained  from  one  of  the 
workmen.  They  were  all  in  pieces  of  chalk,  and  one  is  encrusted 
with  a  species  of  Bryozoa.  From  the  finder's  description  I  gathered 
that  they  had  either  come  from  the  highest  of  the  Turonian  beds  or 
from  the  oldest  of  the  Senouian. 

Annexed  is  a  list  of  the  organic  remains  which  I  have  collected 
from  the  above- described  sections.  The  nomenclature  of  the 
Selachians  is  that  employed  by  Dr.  A.  S.  Woodward  in  his  "  Notes 
on  the  Shark's  Teeth  from  British  Cretaceous  Formations."  ^  With 
regard  to  the  teeth  termed  '  Oxyrhina  angiistidens/  they  are  of  two 
kinds — those  in  which  the  back  portion  is  smooth  and  those  in 
which  it  is  striated.  I  venture  to  think  that  these  should  be  referred 
respectively  to  Scaphanorhynchis  subidatiis  and  S.  rhaphiodon.  Like 
the  Selachians,  Prolosphyrcena  ferox  is  represented  by  teeth  only, 
while  Cimolicliihys  Levesiensis  is  indicated  by  a  single  example  of  its 
peculiarly  barbed  pterygoid  teeth. 

IV. — Note    on    a    Chalk    Ammonite,    probably    referable     to 

Ammonites   Ramsayaiyus,   Sharpe. 

By  G.  C.  Crick,  F.G.S.,  of  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History). 

IN  1856  Sharpe  -  founded  the  species  Ammonites  Ramsayanus  upon 
a  single  deformed  specimen  (in  the  collection  of  J.  Wiest,  Esq.) 
that  was  obtained  from  the  "Chalk  with  silicious  grains,  at  Chard- 
stock,  Somersetshire." 

His  description  is  as  follows  : — 

"  A  testa  discoidea,  costata,  tuberculata  ;  anfractibus  paucis,  sub- 
compressis  :  costis  continuis,  bi-tuberculatis,  ad  dorsum  bifurcatibus  : 
dorso  lato,  rotundato,  costato,  utrinque  tuberculato  :  umbilico  parvo  : 
apertura  oblonga. 

"  Shell  discoidal,  with  few,  slightly  flattened  whorls,  and  a  broad 
rounded  back  :  the  whorls  are  ornamented  on  the  sides  by  twenty 
ribs,  each  of  which  rise  from  a  small  tubercle  at  the  edge  of  the 
umbilicus,  and  has  another  larger  tubercle  near  the  back ;  at  the 
latter  tubercle  each  rib  divides  into  two  smaller  ribs,  which  continue 
across  the  back,  and  unite  again  at  the  corresponding  tubercle  on  the 
other  side  of  the  back  :  umbilicus  small,  allowing  nearly  half  of 
the  inner  whorls  to  be  seen  :  aperture  oblong  :  the  septa  have  not 
been  seen." 

Eespecting  the  type-specimen  Sharpe  wrote  : — "  The  only  specimen 
which  has  been  seen  of  this  species  is  deformed,  owing,  without 
doubt,  to  an  accident  met  with  when  very  young.  In  consequence 
of  this  malformation,  the  two  sides  have  very  little  resemblance  to 
each  other ;  and  the  specific  character  given  above  may  prove  in- 
correct when  more  perfect  specimens  are  met  with." 

Mr.  Jukes-Browne  has  recently  called  my  attention  to  an  Ammonite^ 

*  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  xiii  (1894). 

2  D.  Sharpe:  Foss.  Moll.  Chalk  (Mon.  Pal.  Soc),  pt.  ill,  1856,  p.  51,  pi.  xxiii, 
ff.  4a-c. 

^  For  the  loan  of  this  fossil  my  best  thanks  are  due  to  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Winwood, 
M.A.,  F.G.S. 

252  G.  C.  Crick — On  Ainmonites  Ramsayanus. 

belonging  to  the  Bath  Museum  that  I  think  is  referable  to  Sharpe's 
*  species.'  The  specimen  is  labelled  "  Chalk  marl :  Evershot."  The 
dimensions  of  the  type-specimen  as  given  by  Sharpe  are  : — Diameter, 
1\  inch  [or  about  38  mm.]  ;  height  of  the  last  whorl,  f  inch  [or 
about  16  mm.]  ;  width  of  the  aperture,  ^  inch  [or  about  12-75  mm.]. 
On  account  of  the  malformation  of  the  specimen  the  width  of  the 
umbilicus  is  not  quite  the  same  on  the  two  sides,  but  according  to 
Sharpe's  figures,  which  from  their  other  measurements  appear  to  be 
drawn  of  the  natural  size,  the  width  of  the  umbilicus  on  the  side 
represented  in  his  fig.  4a  is  11  mm.  These  dimensions  expressed 
in  terms  of  the  diameter,  when  this  is  taken  as  100,  are  : — Diameter, 
100 ;  height  of  last  whorl,  4:1 -66  ;  width  of  the  aperture  (or  thickness 
of  the  last  whorl),  33-33  ;  width  of  umbilicus,  30. 

The  dimensions  of  the  present  specimen,  of  which  rather  more 
than  half  the  outer  whorl  belonged  to  the  body-chamber,  are  : — 
Diameter,  35-5  mm.  (100)  ;  height  of  the  outer  whorl,  14  mm. 
(39 -43) ;  thickness  of  the  outer  whorl  (or  width  of  the  aperture), 
13-5  mm.  (38-0);  width  of  umbilicus,  11mm.  (32-27).  The 
specimen  is  well  preserved  and  very  nearly  sj^mmetrical,  each  side 
closely  resembling  the  lateral  view  depicted  by  Sharpe  in  his  fig.  4a, 
and  the  transverse  section  of  the  whorl  agreeing  very  closely  with 
his  fig.  4c. 

Compared  with  Sharpe's  type-specimen,  however,  the  present 
example  exhibits  some  differences.  It  has  a  slightly  wider  umbilicus ; 
the  ribs  on  the  lateral  area  are  more  distinct  and  regular  even  up  to 
the  anterior  end  of  the  specimen,  but  less  numerous,  being  only 
sixteen  in  number  on  the  outer  whorl,  and,  in  passing  from  the 
umbilicus  towards  the  periphery,  are  more  forwardly  inclined,  whilst 
the  lateral  tubercle  is  nearer  the  middle  of  the  lateral  area.  The 
greatest  diiference,  however,  is  in  the  character  of  the  periphery. 
The  whole  of  the  periphery  of  Sharpe's  type-specimen  is  broadly 
rounded  from  side  to  side.  This  is  not  quite  the  case  in  the  present 
specimen.  The  periphery  of  the  earliest  portion  of  the  outer  whorl 
is  on  the  whole  broadly  rounded  but  not  regularly  convex ;  one  side 
is  convex,  but  the  other  is  somewhat  flattened  and  in  part  depressed, 
so  that  the  periphery  of  this  portion  of  the  outer  whorl  bears  a  feeble 
groove  which  is  not  quite  in  the  median  line.  At  a  subsequent 
stage,  i.e.  at  a  short  distance  from  the  commencement  of  the  outer 
whorl,  two  broad  shallow  grooves,  about  3-5  mm.  apart,  appear 
(one  a  little  earlier  than  the  other)  one  on  each  side  of  the  median 
line,  and  almost  close  to  the  margin,  of  the  periphery ;  these 
gradually  deepen  as  the  whorl  increases  in  size,  and  at  the  anterior 
end  of  the  specimen  are  about  5  mm.  apart. 

The  ribs  on  the  two  sides  are  not  opposite  but  alternate;  each 
bears  a  rather  small  compressed  transversely-elongated  tubercle  at 
the  umbilical  margin,  and  a  similar  but  more  prominent  tubercle 
at  about  the  middle,  or  rather  outside  the  middle,  of  the  lateral  area. 
On  about  the  first  half  of  the  outer  whorl  each  rib  bifurcates, 
though  not  very  distinctly,  at  the  lateral  tubercle,  and  the  broad 
feeble  branches  cross  the  periphery,  sometimes  a  little  irregularly, 

H.  W.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea -level.  253 

aud  join  the  branches  from  the  opposite  side,  each  branch  being 
slightly  thickened  into  an  obtuse  tubercle  at  the  margin  of  the 
periphery.  On  the  rest  of  the  outer  whorl  each  rib,  instead  of 
actually  bifurcating,  bends  slightly  backward  at  the  lateral  tubercle 
and  passes  straight  to  the  peripheral  margin,  where  it  is  slightly 
thickened  into  a  blunt  obtuse  tubercle ;  whilst  in  the  space  between 
each  pair  of  lateral  tubercles,  but  somewhat  nearer  the  periphery 
than  the  tubercles  themselves,  an  obscure  rib  arises  and  also  passes 
to  the  peripheral  margin,  where  it  is  also  similarly  thickened  ;  the 
tubercles  on  the  intermediate  ribs  are  frequently  stronger  than  those 
at  the  extremities  of  the  principal  ribs.  In  a  few  instances  the  ribs 
are  raised  into  a  very  obtuse  tubercle  on  the  median  line  of  the 
periphery.  On  the  peripheral  area  of  the  earliest  portion  of  the 
outer  whorl,  i.e.  the  portion  bearing  the  single  feeble  groove,  the  ribs 
on  one  side  of  the  median  line  are  slightly  inclined  backwards,  whilst 
on  the  other  side  they  are  nearly  direct.  Although  portions  of  the 
septa  can  be  seen,  a  complete  suture-line  cannot  be  made  out,  but 
from  the  parts  that  are  visible  the  septa  appear  to  be  fairly 

On  the  whole  I  think  there  cannot  be  much  doubt  about  the 
present  example  being  referable  to  Sharpens  Ammonites  Ramsayanits. 
Notwithstanding  the  apparent  symmetrj'  of  the  specimen,  its  peri- 
phery presents  certain  appearances  which  suggest  that  the  fossil  is 

One  side  of  Sharpe's  specimen,  viz.  that  represented  in  his  fig.  4&, 
looks  something  like  a  deformed  Ammonites  Salteri, '  which  Sharpe 
also  described  from  the  "  Chalk  with  silicious  grains,  at  Chardstock, 
Somersetshire,"  but  the  opposite  side  appears  to  be  quite  dififerent. 

Sharpe's  type-specimen  certainly  was  deformed,  and  I  think  the 
Bath  specimen  is  also,  but  being  unable  to  refer  them  to  any  other 
species  which  has  hitherto  been  described  from  the  Chalk,  it  seems 
desirable  to  retain,  at  least  provisionally,  Sharpe's  name  Ammonites 

V. — Oscillations  in  the  Sea-level.      (Part  III.) 

By  H.  W.  Pearson. 

[Oontinited  from  the  May  Number,  p.  231.) 

Data    nsed  in  shoioing  a  Period  of  High  Sea  -  level   in    the  North, 
culminating  about  the  years  1475  to  1500. 

NORWICH,  England,  is  represented  as  situated  on  the  banks  of 
an  arm  of  the  sea  even  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries 
(Lyell's  "Principles,"  11th  ed.,  vol.  i,  p.  521;  S.  Woodward  2). 
Early  in  the  fourteenth  century  Pagham  Harbour  was  formed  by 
a  sudden  inroad  of  the  sea  (Encyc.  Brit.,  vol.  xxii,  p.  723). 

1  D.  Sharpe:  Foss.  Moll.  Chalk  (Mou.  Pal.  Soc),  pt.  iii,  1856,  p.  50,  pi.  xxiii, 
ff.  3«,  b,  c,  and  Cic,  h. 

-  "History  and  Anti([iutics  of  Norwich  Castle,"  1836.  Plates  showing-  the 
'  Yarmouth  Hutch  Map,'  a.d.  1000,  aud  at  various  other  periods,  earlier  and  later  : 
drawn  from  local  records  and  ifoological  observaticms. 

254  H.  W.  Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level. 

Town  of  Eye  "  situated  upon  a  rocky  eminence  which  two  or 
three  centuries  ago  was  washed  on  all  sides  by  the  influx  of  the 
tides,  but  now,  in  consequence  of  the  gradual  recession  of  the 
sea,  lies  two  miles  inland"  (Encyc.  Brit.,  vol.  xxi,  p.  117).  In 
Charles  II's  time  (1660-1685)  a  64-gun  frigate  could  ride  in  the 
harbour  of  Eye ;  now  a  ship  of  half  that  size  could  not  obtain  an 
entrance  (Clark's  "  Guide  and  History  of  Eye,"  p.  63).  Between 
1292  and  1340  upwards  of  5,500  acres  were  submerged  by  the  sea 
in  Sussex  (Encyc.  Brit.,  vol.  xxii,  p.  723).  "It  is  said  that  old 
Winchelsea  contained  50  inns  and  taverns  and  700  householders : 
here  400  sail  of  the  tallest  ships,  it  is  said,  anchored  in  the  Camber 
near  Eye,  where  sheep  and  cattle  now  feed."  Three  hundred 
houses  destroyed  by  rising  of  the  sea  in  the  year  1250,  and  the 
destruction  made  total  by  the  great  inundation  of  1287  (Clark's 
"  Guide  and  History  of  Eye,"  pp.  64,  65). 

Great  portions  of  the  English  Fens  were  drowned  in  the  years 
1248, 1250, 1257, 1286,  1292,  1322, 1357,  1358  ;  Marshland  drowned 
in  1287,  1289,  1292,  1294,  1295,  1297,  1334,  1339,  1378,  1422, 
1520,  and  1569  ("The  Fenland  Past  and  Present,"  p.  146).  "In 
the  year  1362  the  unfortunate  Marshlanders  show  that  the  Lynn 
Eiver,  which  formerly  was  only  12  perches  broad,  was  then 
a  full  mile  in  breadth  ;  but  in  the  years  1378,  1565,  and  1608 
we  find  notices  showing  that  the  river  was  growing  wider " 
(p.  212).  Eaveneserodd  destroyed  by  the  sea,  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries.  "  1377  and  1393  appear  to  have  been 
critical  years  in  the  waste  of  this  coast"  ("Lincolnshire  and 
the  Danes,"  pp.  239,  240).  Hugh  of  Levens,  in  a  petition  to  the 
Archbishop  of  York  shortly  after  1339,  says,  "  Whereas  our  manors 
and  lands  of  Saltagh,  Tharlesthorp,  Frysmerske,  Wythfleet,Dymelton, 
and  Eaveneserodd  were  so  destroyed  every  day  and  night  by  increasing 
inundations  of  the  waters,"  etc.  (p.  46).  Towns  of  Holton,  Northrup, 
and  Newton  destroyed  at  the  same  time  (p.  49).  "  When  Henry  IV 
landed  at  Eavenspurn,  June,  1399,  the  towns  of  Eavenser  and 
Eaveneserodd  had  long  been  engulfed  by  the  waters  "  (p.  57).  "  In 
that  time  (1249  to  1269)  the  sea  inundated  and  passed  over  its 
coasts  almost  throughout  the  whole  eastern  part  of  England,  and 
the  Humber,  exceeding  its  limits,  covered  the  land  even  to  our 
fishing  and  wood  of  Cotyngham "  (p.  67,  quoting  "Chronicles  of 
Meaux"  ;  Boyle,  "  The  Lost  Towns  of  the  Humber  "). 

"  In  the  thirteenth  century  the  river  [Fleet  Eiver  in  London] 
was  of  such  breadth  and  depth  that  ten  or  twelve  ships  at  once  with 
merchandise  were  wont  to  come  to  the  bridge  of  Fleet  and  some  of 
them  to  Holborn  bridge  "  (Whealey,  "  London  Past  and  Present," 
p.  52).  After  the  great  fire  (1666)  "the  citizens  had  it  deepened 
between  Holborn  and  the  Thames  so  that  barges  might  ascend  with 
the  tide  as  far  as  Holborn  as  before"  (p.  53).  See  copy  of  drawing 
on  stairway  of  St.  Martin's  Free  Library,  London,  by  Anty'  van  den 
Wyngaerde  (original  in  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford).  Date  of  picture, 
15*43.  This  shows  Moats  of  Tower  on  a  level  with  the  Thames  and 
full  of  water.     Shows  also  Fleet  Eiver  with  bridges  at  Fleet  and 

H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level.  255 

Holborn  streets.  There  is  no  possible  method  of  explaining  the 
peculiarities  of  this  drawing,  except  by  the  assumption  that  the 
Thames  at  that  time  stood  12  to  15  feet  higher  than  at  present. 

In  the  History  of  the  City  of  Chester,  by  Joseph  Hemmingway, 
we  read,  "  The  New  Water  Tower  was  erected  in  the  year  1322  " 
(p.  133).  "At  the  outside  of  this  Tower  are  fixed  great  iron  rings, 
being  of  use  heretofore  for  mooring  the  ships"  (p.  356).  "It  is 
certain  that  long  before  the  period  at  which  this  was  written  [about 
1706]  vessels  had  ceased  to  approach  this  tower"  (p.  356).  Quoting 
Fuller  from  his  "Worthies  of  the  City"  (pub.  1662),  "and  now 
being  about  to  take  our  leave  of  this  ancient  and  honorable  city, 
the  worst  that  I  wish  it  is  that  the  distance  between  the  Dee  and  the 
New  Tower  may  be  made  up — that  the  rings  on  the  New  Tower 
(now  only  for  sight)  may  be  restored  to  the  service  for  which  they 
were  first  intended,"  etc. 

Castle  Huntley  (in  the  Carse  of  Gowrie,  Scotland)  was  erected  in 
1452  (Encyc.  Brit.,  vol.  xviii,  p.  667).  "  This  castle  once  had  rings 
fixed  to  it  for  mooring  the  boats  formerly  sailing  on  the  surrounding 
waters"  (Chambers,  "Ancient  Sea  Margins,"  p.  20).  This  castle 
is  now  some  miles  from  the  sea,  and  tlae  ordnance  map  of  that 
region  shows  that  it  would  be  necessary  to  elevate  the  sea-level 
20  to  24  feet  to  again  allow  these  rings  to  be  put  to  their 
original  use.  "  Yet  we  have  internal  evidence  from  the  marginal 
observations  in  one  of  the  set  of  books  (Eecords  of  Tide  Gauges, 
Leith,  Scotland)  that  in  the  year  1810  mean  tides  rose  to  a  point 
2  ft.  10  ins.  higher  than  they  do  at  present "  (Mr.  Thomas  Smyth, 
Geol.  Mag.,  1866,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  427).  Mr.  Smyth,  in  conclusion, 
stated  that  "  The  upheaval  which  is  at  present  taking  place  on  the 
shores  of  the  Firth  of  Forth  and  in  Berwickshire  has  its  counter- 
part in  Caithness,  which  is  rising  at  nearly  the  same  rate  "  (p.  427). 
The  low-water  level  in  Glasgow  Harbour  has  fallen  8  feet  since 
1758  :  alleged  cause,  improvements  in  bed  of  Clyde  ;  real  cause, 
the  so-called  upheaval  as  shown  above  by  Smyth  (Geological 
Record,  1876,  p.  10).  "The  encroachments  of  the  land  upon  the 
sea  are  strikingly  exhibited  in  the  sandbanks  and  deltas  of  the 
principal  bays  and  estuaries  of  the  island  [Arran],  and  there  can  be 
little  doubt  that  a  few  centuries  ago  the  ships  of  the  islanders  found 
a  secure  harbourage  within  the  creeks  and  bays,  where  the  heath 
and  brushwood  now  luxuriate "  (McArthur,  "  The  Antiquities  of 
Arran,"  p.  105). 

The  Gulf  Stream  Islands  were  discovered  in  1871.  "  In  the  spot 
where  these  now  are,  the  Dutch  in  1594  found  and  measured 
a  sandbank  in  soundings  of  18  fathoms,  showing  an  upheaval  here 
of  100  feet  in  300  years  "  (Journ.  Roy.  Geog.  Soc,  1873,  p.  253). 
We  note  as  to  this  that  we  have  no  evidence  that  the  Dutch  found 
the  shoalest  water,  therefore  this  estimated  upheaval  is  probably  con- 
siderably too  large.  Diomed  Island  (on  Siberian  coast),  described 
by  Chalavrof  in  1760,  no  longer  exists ;  it  now  forms  a  part  of 
the  main  (p.  256).  "From  1730  to  1839  the  upheaval  of 
Loefifgrund  amounted  to  2  ft.  11  ins.  only  "  (Reclus  ;  Harpers,  "  The 

256  H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level. 

Earth,"  p.  531).  "Borre,  a  village  (in  Denmark)  now  lost  amidst 
the  Fens,  stood  on  the  beach  in  1510"  ("The  Earth  and  its 
Inhabitants,"  Europe,  vol.  v,  p.  54).  "These  mountains  [of 
Spitzbergen]  increase  in  bulk  every  year,  so  as  to  be  plainly 
discoverable.  Leonin  was  surprised  to  find  on  the  hill,  about 
a  league  from  the  seaside,  a  small  mast  of  a  ship  with  one  of  its 
pulleys  still  fastened  to  it"  (written  in  1646;  see  Journ.  Eoy. 
Geog.  Soc,  1873,  p.  252).  "The  waters  over  which  the  French 
expedition  measured  an  arc  of  the  Meridian  (Tornea,  Sweden, 
1736-1737)  are  now  replaced  by  meadows  "  (Phillips,  "  Manual 
of  Geology,"  ^.  326).  The  general  and  recent  so-called  upheaval 
of  Scandinavia,  having  been  demonstrated  so  thoroughly  through 
modern  textbooks,  I  will  make  no  further  reference  thereto. 

Caligula  erected  a.d.  51  a  huge  tower  a  mile  from  the  coast  near 
Boulogne,  France ;  in  1544  this  tower  was  only  200  yards  from  the 
coast  ("Antiquities  of  Hastings,"  p.  13).  Aigues  Mortes,  a  seaport 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  is  now  five  miles  inland  (Smyth,  "  The 
Mediterranean,"  p.  13).  "Some  of  the  present  vineyards  of  Agde 
were  covered  by  the  sea  only  a  century  ago  "  (written  about  1850 ; 
ibid.,  p.  13).  "The  Tower  of  Pignaux  (Lyell,  Tignaux)  erected 
on  the  shore  in  1737  ;  now  a  French  mile  from  it "  (Milner,  "  Gallery 
of  Nature,"  p.  398).  "  The  old  port  of  Talmont,  where  Henry  IV 
embarked  his  artillery  (1411),  has  become  dry  land"  ("The  Earth 
and  its  Inhabitants,"  Europe,  vol.  ii,  p.  210).  The  tower  built  by 
Michael  Angelo  in  1567  on  the  very  edge  of  the  coast  (at  mouth  of 
Tiber)  is  now  2,250  yards  inland  (Lanciani,  "Ancient  Eome," 
p.  235).  On  the  west  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Taranto  a  tower  erected 
by  the  Angevine  kings  (fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries)  on  the 
coast  is  now  above  a  mile  distant  from  shore  (Smyth,  "  The  Medi- 
terranean," p.  36).  Poingdestre,  writing  in  1685,  says,  "A  portion 
of  the  Jersey  Isles  became  submerged  in  1356."  "The  Ecrehous 
and  Dirouilles,  on  the  north-east  of  Jersey,  are  known  to  have 
been  much  more  extensive  than  at  present ;  they  also  sunk  probably 
in  1356"  (E.  A.  Peacock  in  Eep.  Brit.  Assoc,  1865,  p.  70). 

The  city  of  Foah  at  the  commencement  of  the  fifteenth  century 
was  on  the  Canopic,  mouth  of  the  Nile,  now  more  than  a  mile  inland 
(Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  iv,  p.  346). 

J.  E.  Davis  says  that  embankments  built  near  Tremadoc,  Wales, 
since  the  sixteenth  century  now  rendered  useless  by  the  recession  of 
the  sea  (ibid.,  vol.  ii,  p.  74).  Captain  Marcus  Jones,  of  Portmadoc, 
Wales,  informed  me  April  12th,  1898,  that  his  father,  he  thinks 
about  the  close  of  last  century  or  the  first  of  this,  went  with  a  boat 
to  a  place  under  Tynyberllan,  a  short  distance  to  the  south-east  of 
Wern,  Tremadoc,  to  fetch  a  load  of  American  timber.  To  allow  this 
to  be  done  the  sea  must  necessarily  have  stood  several  feet  higher 
than  at  present,  Wern  being  now  at  least  three  miles  from  the  sea. 
Mr.  F.  L.  Edwards,  Harlech,  Wales,  in  April,  1898,  informed  me 
that  he  saw,  twenty  years  before,  an  old  lady  who,  when  she  was 
a  little  girl,  visited  an  aunt  in  a  cottage  (Cafinrhyn)  about  2|  miles 
north   of  Harlech.     During  the   night   the   tide   came  up  and  she 

H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  8ea-lcvcl.  257 

jumped  out  of  bed  into  water  up  to  her  knees.  Now  the  tide 
does  not  come  within  three  miles  of  this  place.  At  Castle  Hotel, 
Harlech,  a  picture  of  Harlech  Castle  (printed  by  Alex.  Bogg, 
16,  Paternoster  Eow)  is  exhibited,  showing  the  sea  reaching  to 
the  base  of  the  castle.  Sea  is  now  one  mile  distant.  It  would  be 
interesting  to  learn  the  date  of  this  picture. 

The  Zuyder  Zee  was  opened  at  the  expense  of  the  land  in  the 
first  years  of  the  thirteenth  century,  "and  never  ceased  to  enlarge 
itself  during  200  years  "  (Reclus,  "  The  Ocean,"  p.  154).  In  1230 
occurred  the  terrible  inundation  of  Friesland,  costing  the  lives  of 
100,000  people ;  ia  1231  the  lakes  of  Haarlem  overflowed,  and 
gradually  increasing  united  with  each  other  toward  1650.  In 
1277  the  Gulf  of  Dollart  began  to  be  hollowed  out.  It  was  only 
in  1537  that  the  invasion  of  the  sea,  which  had  devoured  the  town 
of  Torum  and  fifty  villages,  could  be  arrested ;  in  1287  the  Zuyder 
Zee  drowned  60,000  persons  ;  in  1421  seventy-two  villages  were 
submerged  at  once  ("  The  Ocean,"  p.  154).  The  island  of  Wieringer, 
part  of  the  mainland  in  1205,  was  detached  by  floods  in  1219,  1220, 
1221,  1246,  1251.  The  Biesbosch,  Holland,  formed  in  1421,  twenty- 
two  villages  drowned.  Inundations  of  the  Gulf  of  Dollart,  1277, 
1278,  1280,  and  1287.  The  western  coast  of  Schleswig  swallowed 
up  in  1240.  Fourteen  villages  in  Isle  of  Cadsand,  Zealand,  sub- 
merged in  1337.  Kortgene  Island  engulfed  in  1530  ("The  Gallery 
of  Nature,"  p.  389). 

The  record  above  given  of  the  devastation  wrought  by  the  sea  iu 
Holland  between  the  years  1200  and  1500  is  but  partial ;  it  might 
be  extended  tenfold,  but  it  is  sufficient  to  show  exactly  what 
occurred  on  these  shores  during  the  period  named.  The  history  is 
plain  to  read ;  about  the  year  1200  the  rising  sea-level  began  to 
overtop  the  barriers  erected  by  the  people  of  the  lowlands  for  the 
protection  of  their  homes.  Those  barriers  which  yesterday  were 
found  ample  will  to-morrow  be  found  deficient  in  height.  The 
progressive  rising  of  the  sea  exceeding  the  ability  of  man  to  elevate 
the  embankments.  The  result  is  that  during  the  250  years  or  more 
which  elapsed  before  these  waters  reached  their  highest  level,  the 
history  of  Holland  forms  one  long  chapter  of  horrors.  We  can  see 
also  that  during  the  pex'iod  when  Holland  was  sinking  beneath 
the  waves  the  English  coast  was  undergoing  the  same  ordeal,  as 
illustrated  in  the  history  of  Rye,  Norwich,  Winchelsea,  Ravenser, 
and  the  Fens,  only,  more  fortunate  than  Holland,  she  had  little 
low-lying  lands  along  her  borders  liable  to  submergence ;  her 
losses,  therefore,  during  the  epoch  of  the  advancing  sea  were  less 

The  haven  in  which  the  Chinese  Admiral  anchored  his  fleet 
(in  Formosa,  1661)  "is  now  a  dry,  arid  plain,  over  which  there 
is  a  road  and  several  canals  cut  to  communicate  with  the  old  port 
of  Tai-wau-fu  "  (Journ.  Roy.  Geog.  Soc,  vol.  xliii,  p.  99).  "The 
Dutch  fort  of  1624,  originally  built  on  au  islet  at  some  distance  from 
the  shore,  now  forms  part  of  Formosa,  and  under  its  ruins  the  water 
is  so  shallow  that  passengers  laud   with  much  difficulty  where  was 

DECADE    IV. — VOL.  VIII. — NO.  VI.  17 

258  H.  W.Pearson — Oscillations  of  Sea-level. 

formerly  deep  water"  {Science,  vol.  v,  p.  262).  Newchang  (China), 
once  a  seaport,  abandoned  for  Taitze,  on  account  of  recession  of  the 
sea.  Taitze  in  its  turn  abandoned  during  the  present  century,  and 
Yingtze  established  owing  to  the  shoaling  of  the  water  (Journ. 
Koy.  Geog.  Soc,  vol.  xliii,  p.  258). 

Indian  Survey  shows  "  it  is  almost  certain  that  the  mean,  sea-level 
at  Madras  is  a  foot  lower  than  it  was  sixty  years  ago"  (Science, 
vol.  iv,  p.  212).  Gaur,  or  Gour,  India,  subject  to  inundation  in 
1590;  not  so  now  (Encyc.  Brit.,  vol.  x,  p.  113).  "Very  curious 
evidence  of  the  gradual  elevation  of  the  land,  or  rather  of  the 
constant  retrocession  of  the  sea,  is  afforded  by  the  traditions  of 
the  community  of  Verawow  "  (India).  "  It  is  several  generations 
since  any  sea-borne  ships  have  been  near  this  ancient  port  "  (Journ. 
Eoy.  Geog.  Soc,  1870,  pp.  194-5).  Adam's  Bridge,  connecting 
Ceylon  and  India,  breached  by  high  water  in  year  1480  (Encyc. 
Brit.,  vol.  XX,  p.  266). 

Investigation  near  the  site  of  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Serapis 
(Bay  of  Baie)  informs  us  that  about  1503  and  1511  the  level  of 
the  Mediterranean  Sea  at  that  point  stood  20  to  22  feet  higher 
than  at  present  (A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  "  Physical  Geography,"  p.  46). 
"The  period  of  deep  submergence  was  certainly  antecedent  to 
the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century"  (Temple  of  Jupiter  Serapis), 
(Lyell's  "  Principles,"  11th  ed.,  p.  173). 

Henry  Hudson  in  1610  wintered  in  an  arm  of  Hudson  Bay,  now 
impassable  except  for  small  boats.  In  1674  sloop  sailed  through, 
between  island  and  the  main  west  shore  of  James  Bay.  In  1886  it 
was  difficult  to  get  through  this  passage  with  canoes  (Journ.  Science, 
ser.  IV,  vol.  i,  p.  224). 

This  part  of  the  island  [Isle  of  Pines,  off  south-west  coast  of 
Cuba]  seems  to  have  been  upheaved  in  relatively  recent  times, 
for  even  within  the  historical  period  (i.e.  since  1492)  various 
islets  on  the  coast  have  been  merged  in  continuous  land  ("  The 
Earth  and  its  Inhabitants,"  North  America,  vol.  i,  p.  364). 
"  Interesting  examples  of  recent  elevation  are  believed  to  occur 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Washington,  D.C.  In  colonial  times 
Bladensburg  and  Dumfries  could  be  reached  by  sea-going  ships, 
but  now  they  are  decidedly  above  tide-level.  The  change  is 
generally  supposed  to  be  due  to  silting  up  of  the  creek,  but  this 
appears  not  to  be  the  case,  for  there  is  little  alluvium  resting  upon 
the  bed-rock  of  the  channels "  (W.  B.  Scott,  "  Introduction  to 
Geology,"  p.  67). 

In  the  second  volume  of  the  Maryland  Geological  Survey, 
Mr.  Edward  B.  Mathews  discusses  at  length  the  difference  existing 
between  the  ancient  maps  of  Chesapeake  Bay  and  the  modern 
maps.  He  examines  Captain  John  Smith's  map  of  1608,  Herriman's 
map  of  1670,  etc.  As  to  these  differences  Blathews  remarks  as 
follows :  — "  He  [Smith]  clearly  mistook  the  deeply  indented 
peninsulas  of  Dorchester  and  Talbot  Counties  for  islands  "  (p.  354). 
'*  The  rest  of  the  shore-line  indicates  either  a  loose  generalization  of 
marshy  lowlands,  or  that  some  of  the  smaller  points  and  islands  are 

H.  W.Pearson — Oscillatiom  of  Sea-level.  259 

o^  recent  development"  (p.  355).  "It  may  be  suggested  that  part 
of  tlie  present  land  was  then  marshland"  (p.  356).  "A  stuily 
of  the  shore  of  Somerset  County  (Herriman'